Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Côte d'Ivoire

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Côte d'Ivoire

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2015, Côte d’Ivoire made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government passed a revised Labor Code, which raised the minimum working age from 14 to 16, and passed a law establishing compulsory education through age 16. More than 100 law enforcement officials and social workers received training on investigation and interrogation techniques, which resulted in a subsequent police operation that rescued 48 victims of child trafficking. The National Monitoring Committee on Actions to Combat Trafficking, Exploitation, and Child Labor and the Interministerial Committee on the Fight Against Trafficking, Exploitation, and Child Labor published a joint report on the implementation of the pilot phase of Côte d’Ivoire’s child labor monitoring system, SOSTECI. During the reporting period, the Government launched the National Action Plan for the Fight Against the Worst Forms of Child Labor and finalized the National Action Plan and Strategy Against Human Trafficking. In addition, nine new programs were approved to combat child labor, including its worst forms, and improve access to education. However, children in Côte d’Ivoire are engaged in the worst forms of child labor in the harvesting of cocoa and coffee, sometimes as a result of child trafficking. Gaps remain in enforcement efforts and the labor inspectorate is not authorized to assess penalties.

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Children in Côte d’Ivoire are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in the harvesting of cocoa and coffee, sometimes as a result of child trafficking.(1-8) According to a report by Tulane University published in 2015 that assessed data collected during the 2013–2014 harvest season, the cocoa sector employed an estimated 1,203,473 child laborers ages 5 to 17, of which 95.9 percent were engaged in hazardous work in cocoa production.(9) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Côte d’Ivoire.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

31.5 (1,682,754)

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

63.5

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

21.5

Primary completion rate (%):

56.9

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(10)
Source for all other data: Enquête Démographique et de Santé en Côte d'Ivoire (EDSCI-III) Survey, 2011–2012.(11)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of cocoa, including burning*† and clearing* fields, cutting down trees*† to expand cocoa plantations, spraying pesticides,*† harvesting, drying,* and fermenting* cocoa beans, using sharp tools to break pods, and transporting heavy loads of cocoa pods and water* (3-9, 12-17)

Production of cereals,* pineapple,* bananas,* and coffee, including applying chemical fertilizers,*† spraying pesticides,*† cutting down trees*† and burning*† and clearing* fields (3-5, 18, 19)

Production of palm oil,* honey,*† and rubber* (5, 19)

Fishing,* including deep sea diving;*† repairing and hauling nets;* cleaning,* salting,* drying,* descaling,* and selling* fish (19, 20)

Livestock raising* and slaughtering,*† activities unknown (19, 20)

Production of charcoal*† (3, 19)

Industry

Mining, including crushing and transporting stones,*† blasting rocks,*† working underground,* mining for diamonds,* and extracting gold* with chemicals*† (18, 19, 21-27)

Manufacturing, including*† repairing,* lubricating,* or cleaning* machinery while in operation*† (19)

Repairing* and manufacturing* firearms (19)

Brewing alcoholic beverages*† (19)

Services

Domestic work† (13, 18, 19, 28, 29)

Working in transportation,* carrying goods,*† and car washing* (3, 18, 19, 23)

Street vending and commerce, including begging* (3, 4, 13, 18, 19, 30)

Garbage scavenging*† (19, 31)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor in mining, carpentry,* construction,* domestic work, street vending,* restaurants,* and agriculture, including in the production of cocoa, coffee, pineapple,* cotton,* and rubber,* each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 3, 5, 8, 15, 20, 23, 29, 32-35)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 23, 29)

Selling pornography* (19)

Forced begging by Koranic teachers* (24, 36)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Children are trafficked to, from, and within Côte d’Ivoire. Girls are trafficked internally for work in commercial sexual exploitation or domestic work, whereas boys are internally trafficked to work in agriculture.(2, 3, 5, 19) Children from neighboring West African countries are also trafficked into Côte d’Ivoire for agricultural labor, especially in cocoa production, and for work in mining, construction, domestic work, street vending, and commercial sexual exploitation.(2, 3, 6, 8, 13, 17, 28) A study carried out by the ILO and the Government of Côte d’Ivoire in 2013 estimated that 55 percent of children working in agriculture in rural areas are subject to forced labor.(3)

The Government has taken measures to increase school attendance by providing school kits to primary school students, lifting restrictions on wearing school uniforms, introducing school canteens, and enrolling children without birth certificates. The rates of birth registration, however, remain low in Côte d’Ivoire and may pose a barrier to education for some children because birth certificates may be required for graduation certificates.(16, 20, 37-41) Despite the laws on free education and the Government’s efforts to make education free at the primary level, some students are required to pay for textbooks or school fees, which may be prohibitive to some families.(4, 20, 42-46) The lack of teachers and schools, particularly in rural areas, also limits access to education. Research also suggests that some students are physically and sexually abused at school, which may deter some students from attending school.(13, 20, 26, 43, 47-55)

Côte d’Ivoire has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 23.2 of the Labor Code (56)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 2 of the Revised Hazardous Work List (57)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Articles 3–12 of the Revised Hazardous Work List; Articles 6 and 19 of the Prohibition of Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labor Law (57, 58)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 3 of the Constitution; Articles 7, 11–14, 20–23, and 26 of the Prohibition of Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labor Law; Article 3 of the Labor Code (56, 58, 59)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 11, 12, 20–22, and 26 of the Prohibition of Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labor Law; Article 370 of the Penal Code (58, 60)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 8, 9, 15, and 24–29 of the Prohibition of Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labor Law (58)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 4, 30, and 31 of the Prohibition of Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labor Law (58)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Articles 2, 82, and 116 of the Armed Forces Code (61)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Article 2.1 of the Law on Education (46, 62)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 2 of the Law on Education (63)

* No conscription (27)

On July 20, 2015, the Government adopted a revised labor code, which raised the minimum age for work from 14 to 16 and requires employers to register all workers under age 18.(56) During the reporting period, the Government also passed an amendment to the Law on Education, which establishes compulsory education up to age 16, and which went into effect for the 2015–2016 academic year.(13, 46, 62, 64, 65) The Law on Education also penalizes parents who do not send their children to school with a fine of $86 to $860 or 2 to 6 months in prison.(13, 62)

The Ministry of Solidarity and the National Committee for the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons (CNLTdP), with the assistance of UNODC, has drafted a law that provides specific penalties for human trafficking violations against both adults and children, calls for tougher justice against perpetrators, and provides for the establishment of formalized procedures for identifying and referring victims.(13, 27, 38, 66) A draft law providing greater protection to domestic workers is also under consideration. This law would grant more latitude to inspectors in investigating possible labor violations in private homes.(67)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Employment, Social Affairs, and Professional Training (MESAPT)

Enforce labor laws.(23) Implement the child labor monitoring system, Système d’Observation et de Suivi du Travail des Enfants en Côte d’Ivoire (SOSTECI), which enables communities to collect and analyze statistical data on the worst forms of child labor.(1, 23, 68-70) In the case of the Direction of the Fight Against Child Labor, develop, monitor, and enforce laws related to child labor.(28) In 2015, extended SOSTECI into 18 prefectures in cocoa-growing areas, with the support of the ILO and UNICEF, at a cost of approximately $400,000.(65)

Ministry of Interior and Security

In the case of the Anti-Trafficking Unit, enforce criminal laws against the worst forms of child labor.(13, 38, 71)

Ministry of Justice

Investigate and prosecute crimes related to child labor, including its worst forms.(13)

National Monitoring Committee on Actions to Combat Trafficking, Exploitation, and Child Labor (CNS) Monitoring Brigades

Conduct trafficking investigations. Composed of security forces tasked with dismantling trafficking networks and rescuing exploited children or victims of child trafficking.(28, 72)

Ministry of Solidarity, the Family, Women, and Children (MSFWC)

Lead the Government’s efforts to combat human trafficking, including providing repatriation services to victims, including children. Maintain a hotline for child labor issues, and respond to complaints.(13, 37, 44) Chair both the National Committee for the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons (CNLTdP) and a coordination committee at the ministerial level, which fights against all forms of human trafficking.(67, 73, 74) In 2015, led the development of the National Action Plan and Strategy Against Human Trafficking (2016–2020) with the Ministry of Planning and Development.(38) In January 2016, the ministry was divided into two ministries; the Ministry of Solidarity, Social Cohesion and Victims Compensation, which maintains the human trafficking portfolio, and the Ministry for the Promotion of Women, the Family, and the Protection of Children.(13, 27)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Côte d’Ivoire took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$244,631 (27, 73)

$273,385 (27)

Number of Labor Inspectors

251 (75)

259 (13)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (76)

No (56)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown (75)

Yes (37)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown (75)

Yes (27)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (75)

Yes (13)

Number of Labor Inspections

861 (75)

596 (13)

Number Conducted at Worksite

861 (75)

596 (13)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

0 (75)

0 (13)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

0 (73, 75)

0 (13)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

N/A (75)

N/A (13)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

N/A (75)

N/A (13)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (75)

Yes (27)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (1, 73, 77)

Unknown (13, 27)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (76)

Yes (56)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown (75)

Yes (13)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (75)

Yes (13, 65)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (75)

Yes (75)

 

According to the ILO’s recommendation of 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in developing economies, Côte d’Ivoire should employ roughly 541 inspectors in order to adequately enforce labor laws throughout the country, almost double the current number of inspectors.(78-80) Although labor inspectors conduct routine and unannounced inspections, targeted child labor inspections are only conducted in response to complaints and most inspections primarily focus on formal sector establishments.(13, 27, 81) Enforcement of child labor protections is not adequate for all children, including those who are self-employed or who work in the informal sector. However, MESAPT is currently piloting a project to implement labor inspections in the informal sector.(13, 81) Significantly fewer inspections were conducted in 2015 compared with the previous year because of budget constraints.(13, 27, 75) Impunity remains an issue, because research found that some labor inspectors ignore violations and courts are unlikely to impose penalties for labor violations discovered during the inspections.(20, 43, 74, 75)

Each of the 10 MESAPT departmental directorates receives between $4,000 and $10,000 per year to fund activities.(13) MESAPT acknowledged that this amount is inadequate to fund all necessary functions, particularly if they are to implement inspections in the informal sector.(13) In addition, the lack of sufficient staffing, offices, and vehicles and fuel continues to hinder labor inspections and the inspectorate’s ability to investigate all reported violations.(18, 20, 23, 43, 75, 81, 82) In 2015, the MSFWC hotline received 18,655 calls related to children in distress, a significant increase over the 14,117 calls received in 2014.(65) However, it is not known how many cases of child labor were identified as a result of these calls.

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Côte d’Ivoire took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown (75)

Yes (13, 65)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown (75)

N/A (13)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (75)

Yes (83)

Number of Investigations

25 (27, 45, 67, 75)

27 (38, 65)

Number of Violations Found

97 (45, 65, 67, 75)

59 (13, 27)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

33 (45, 67, 75)

Unknown (65)

Number of Convictions

18 (45, 67, 75)

Unknown (13)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (1, 23, 67, 75, 84)

Yes (13, 38)

 

In 2015, the National Police’s Anti-Trafficking Unit (ATU) received a budget of $6,636, the same as it received in 2014.(27) The ATU continued to employ 11 Abidjan-based investigators to enforce laws related to child labor, including its worst forms. The ATU has acknowledged that this is inadequate, and relies on regional law enforcement agencies to enforce criminal child labor laws throughout the country.(13, 38) An insufficient number of official border crossings and monitoring of activity along the Mali and Burkina Faso borders make it difficult to detect cases of human trafficking. The Ministry of Interior and Security is currently reviewing a proposal by IOM to double the number of official border crossings and implementing improved surveillance mechanisms.(38)

Research indicates the laws governing the worst forms of child labor are not effectively enforced or well understood by law enforcement officials. The ILO CEACR, multiple NGOs, and other international organizations have also noted this.(4, 17, 18, 23, 85) To address this concern, in 2015, the Government integrated a 50-hour training module into the curriculum of the academy for gendarmes and the police academy.(38, 65) Four members of the ATU are designated trainers and provided training on the worst forms of child labor to 56 gendarmes during the reporting period.(38) UNICEF also continued to provide general training to law enforcement on child protection issues.(13) In addition, the Interministerial Committee on the Fight Against Trafficking, Exploitation, and Child Labor (CIM) supported IOM and Interpol to train more than 100 law enforcement officials and social workers on investigation and interrogation techniques related to child trafficking. A subsequent police operation rescued 48 victims of child trafficking and arrested 22 alleged perpetrators in June 2015.(13, 17, 34, 35, 83) The children received support from social services providers, and victims who were not Ivorian received repatriation assistance. Of the 22 alleged perpetrators who were arrested, 12 were formally charged, imprisoned and are awaiting trial; 6 were charged and freed on provisional release pending further investigation; and 4 were released due to insufficient cause.(27) During the reporting period, 17 young women ages 15 to 26 were rescued from Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, en route to Saudi Arabia for forced domestic work. Another four girls were rescued from Saudi Arabia in 2015 and reunited with their families in Côte d’Ivoire.(38)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Monitoring Committee on Actions to Combat Trafficking, Exploitation, and Child Labor (CNS)

Supervise, monitor, and evaluate all government activities in Côte d’Ivoire related to child labor and child trafficking. Make policy recommendations and initiate awareness-raising campaigns to combat the worst forms of child labor.(44, 45, 70, 85) Composed of 16 international and domestic partners, including UNICEF and Save the Children, and chaired by the First Lady of Côte d’Ivoire.(19, 28, 44, 71, 86, 87) The CNS met regularly in 2015.(13)

Interministerial Committee on the Fight Against Trafficking, Exploitation, and Child Labor (CIM)

Design, coordinate, and implement all government actions to combat the worst forms of child labor in Côte d’Ivoire. Monitor and evaluate programs implemented by partner organizations related to the fight against child trafficking.(19, 45, 85, 87) Chaired by MESAPT and comprising representatives from 13 ministries, including the ministries of Justice, National Education, Agriculture, Human Rights, and Youth.(28, 73, 75, 87) The CIM met regularly in 2015.(13)

National Committee for the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons (CNLTdP)

Dedicated to combatting all issues related to human trafficking, including both adults and children.(67, 74, 75) Operate at the working level and chaired by the MSFWC.(66, 67, 74) In 2015, assisted in creating the National Action Plan and Strategy Against Human Trafficking, which was sent to the CNS and the CIM for review and approval.(37) Implement the National Action Plan and Strategy Against Human Trafficking.(27)

 

The CNS and the CIM published a joint report on implementation of the pilot phase of Côte d’Ivoire’s child labor monitoring system SOSTECI, which was intended to establish baseline data on child labor and ended in July 2014.(13) The report did not analyze the effectiveness of SOSTECI directly, but included data from 2,878 children under age 14 who were engaged in child labor. The results were in line with previous studies on child labor, which found the majority of the children to be employed in agricultural activities, including cocoa production.(13)

The respective roles and responsibilities of the CIM and the CNS are not clear, which some NGOs and companies have also noted. This undermines effective coordination at all levels and results in disjointed or duplicated efforts.(1, 18, 67, 88)

The Government of Côte d’Ivoire has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

 

Compulsory Education Policy†

In support of the Law on Education, aims to achieve 100 percent enrollment in primary school by 2020 and 100 percent enrollment in junior high by 2025.(46, 64) Allocates $1.34 billion to modernize the education system, including by building new classrooms and providing free textbooks to low-income families and additional pedagogical training to teachers.(46)

 

PRSP (2012–2015)

Aims to increase access to education, train youth and adults in a trade, enhance agricultural production, promote certified agricultural products, ensure food security, and strengthen the country’s capacity to combat the worst forms of child labor.(54)

 

UN Development Assistance Framework (2009–2015)*

Sought to increase access to education, with the goal of reducing by half the number of children without access to primary school. Extended for 2 years, until 2015, to fully align UN support with national priorities.(89-91)

 

ECOWAS Regional Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor, Especially the Worst Forms (2013–2015)

Aims to eliminate the worst forms of child labor in West Africa by 2015 through the implementation of a regional action plan with 14 other ECOWAS countries.(92)

 

Joint Declarations Against Cross-Border Trafficking

Bilateral declarations signed by the First Ladies of Côte d’Ivoire and Burkina Faso, and Côte d’Ivoire and Mali.(70, 85, 93, 94) As part of these agreements, the Government established measures to systematically verify the identities of all children and accompanying adults at border crossings.(73) In 2015, the Governments of Burkina Faso and Côte d’Ivoire worked together to apprehend three individuals in Ouagadougou who were trafficking 17 girls and young women to Saudi Arabia.(38)

 

2010 Declaration of Joint Action to Support the Implementation of the Harkin-Engel Protocol (2010 Declaration) and Its Accompanying Framework of Action

Joint declaration by the Governments of Ghana, Côte d’Ivoire, and the United States, and the International Cocoa and Chocolate Industry.(68, 95, 96) Provide resources and coordinates with key stakeholders on efforts to reduce the worst forms of child labor in cocoa-producing areas.(95, 96) Ensures that all project efforts implemented under the Declaration and Frameworks align with Côte d’Ivoire’s national action plans in order to promote coherence and sustainability.(68, 95, 96)

 

Joint Declaration of Commitment to Combat Child Labor

Joint declaration between regulatory bodies and the media to improve efforts to fight against the worst forms of child labor.(75)

 

National Policy Document on Child Protection

Led by the MSFWC. Seeks to reduce the incidence of violence, abuse, and exploitation of children.(75) In 2015, provided $70,300 to establish 6 regional coordination mechanisms and 6 platforms for child protection.(65) Regional coordination mechanisms, led by prefects, oversee implementation of the National Policy. Child protection platforms bring together relevant actors to identify specific problems in the region.(27, 65)

 

Country Partnership Framework*

Up to $1 billion lending program financed by the World Bank, which aims to eliminate extreme poverty through job creation and improved spending on education, health, and social protection.(97)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.
† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

The Ministry of Planning and Development also drafted a National Development Plan for 2016–2020 during the reporting period, which includes provisions that address poverty alleviation, child trafficking, and child labor.(13, 38)

In 2015, the Government of Côte d’Ivoire funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

National Action Plan for the Fight Against the Worst Forms of Child Labor (NAP) (2015–2017)*†

Coordinated by the CNS and the CIM, a $25.8 million project that builds on the previous National Action Plan to Fight Against the Worst Forms of Child Labor, which was implemented from 2012–2014. The budget for the 2015–2017 NAP represents almost a $6 million increase from the previous NAP.(13, 86, 87) Aims to significantly reduce the number of children engaged in the worst forms of child labor by eliminating risk factors and creating a protective environment for children.(13, 86, 87) Informed by the baseline data from the results of the SOSTECI pilot phase, the new NAP aims to raise awareness of child labor issues, revise the list of hazardous activities prohibited for children, build the capacity of law enforcement, and improve social services for victims. It also includes a monitoring and evaluation component to assess the impact of existing policies and programs to combat child labor.(13, 65, 87) Includes the construction of 2,000 classrooms, 333 school canteens, and 3 new reception centers for victims. Also aims to distribute 6,000 school kits to vulnerable children, expand research on child labor, enhance subregional cooperation, implement poverty alleviation measures, and extend SOSTECI into 20 new departments.(65, 86, 98, 99) To reinforce regional cooperation, aims to convene a summit of First Ladies of West African countries on transnational child trafficking, sign an accord with Ghana to combat child trafficking between the two countries, and organize annual meetings with the Governments of Burkina Faso and Mali to review the bilateral declarations against cross-border trafficking.(87)

National Action Plan and Strategy Against Human Trafficking (2016–2020)*†

With the support of UNODC and coordinated by the CNLTdP, $14.8 million project drafted to prevent trafficking; expand social services for victims; provide training for law enforcement personnel and other stakeholders; promote coordination; and collect data on human trafficking, including the development of a system to track and disseminate data.(13, 38) Aims to build two new victim support centers, rehabilitate three existing transit centers, and establish social centers or cooperatives in areas with a high prevalence of child trafficking to raise awareness of human trafficking issues.(38) The Government will contribute 22 percent of the funding and seek the remainder from donors.(13)

National Awareness Campaign Against Child Labor (2015–2017)*†

CNS-led large-scale national awareness campaign against child labor that disseminates information to increase public awareness through television and radio broadcasts, billboards, and newspapers in French and in local languages. Calls on national actors to take on a greater role in media campaigns to raise awareness about child labor.(38, 75) In 2015, spent $82,000 on a 2-day event that commemorated World Day Against Child Labor and educated 5,000 individuals on child labor and education issues.(65)

Self-Help Village Initiative†

Government-implemented initiative that provides villages with funds to combat child labor in the cocoa sector. Builds schools and health centers, trains vulnerable households in income-generating activities, and implements a child labor monitoring system.(69, 100) Participating villages are provided with service packages worth approximately $60,000, which is funded by taxes and fees on cocoa exports.(23)

Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce Child Labor (CLEAR)*

USDOL-funded capacity-building project implemented by the ILO in at least 10 countries to build the local and national capacity of the Government to address child labor. Aims to improve monitoring and enforcement of laws and policies on child labor in Côte d’Ivoire, including by enhancing the Government’s ability to implement SOSTECI and ensure its sustainability.(101-103)

Towards Child Labor Free Cocoa Growing Communities in Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana Through an Integrated Area-Based Approach (2010–2015)

$10 million USDOL-funded, 4-year project implemented by the ILO. In support of the 2010 Declaration of Joint Action to Support the Implementation of the Harkin-Engel Protocol aimed at reducing the worst forms of child labor in cocoa-producing areas in Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana by providing direct services to communities.(1, 84, 95) In Côte d’Ivoire, worked with the Government to develop and implement SOSTECI in cocoa-growing areas.(1, 84, 95) By the end of the project in 2015, established 40 community Child Protection Committees, provided educational services to 2,500 children, and provided livelihood services to 1,000 families in Côte d’Ivoire.(104)

Survey on Child Labor in West African Cocoa Growing Areas (2012–2015)

$1.9 million USDOL-funded, 3-year research project implemented by the Payson Center for International Development at Tulane University. Supported the collection of nationally representative survey data on child labor in Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana to assess the prevalence of the worst forms of child labor in cocoa-growing areas.(68, 105, 106) Coordinated with the Government and worked with government statistical experts from Côte d’Ivoire to build the country’s capacity to implement future child labor surveys.(68) Conducted a nationally representative survey in the cocoa sector during the 2013–2014 harvest season survey.(9, 68, 106)

Assessing Progress in Reducing Child Labor in Cocoa-Growing Areas of Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana (2015–2019)*

$3 million USDOL-funded, 4-year project implemented by NORC at the University of Chicago. Evaluates and measures progress to reduce child labor in the cocoa sectors of Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana.(107) Includes a mapping of stakeholder interventions to reduce child labor in the cocoa sector, an assessment of the effectiveness of funded efforts to reduce child labor, and a survey of the incidence of child labor in cocoa-growing areas of Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana in the 2018–2019 growing season.(107, 108)

Eliminating Child Labor in Cocoa (2015–2019)*

$4.5 million USDOL-funded, 4-year project implemented by International Cocoa Initiative. In support of the 2010 Declaration of Joint Action to Support the Implementation of the Harkin-Engel Protocol, works with communities in Côte d’Ivoire to develop community action plans to address child labor in cocoa-growing areas, provide households with livelihood assistance and occupational safety and health training, and provide at-risk youth with marketable job skills.(109)

Empowering Cocoa Households with Opportunities and Education Solutions (2007–2015)

$14.5 million, World Cocoa Foundation-funded, 8-year project that strengthened cocoa-growing communities by expanding leadership and educational opportunities for youth.(110-112) By the end of the project, provided 6,632 students with 1 year of agricultural training, awarded scholarships to 486 parent-child pairs that was equivalent to 3 years of school-related expenses, built or upgraded 5 teacher resource centers, provided literacy instruction to 5,661 youth and adults, and provided 1,518 teachers and 43 administrators with pre-service and in-service training.(13)

Council of Coffee and Cocoa Platform Public-Private Partnership†

Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of the Economy program that aims to monitor exports, stabilize coffee and cocoa prices, improve productivity, promote rural development, and reduce the prevalence of child labor in the cocoa and coffee sectors.(17, 113-115) Between October 2014 and June 2016, dedicated $66,500 to an awareness-raising campaign in cocoa-growing communities, constructed 15 school latrines and 6 canteens, distributed 45,000 school kits worth $420,500, and provided classrooms with 2,825 desks worth $229,400.(65) Research was unable to determine the amount of funding allocated specifically for 2015.

CocoaAction (2014–2020)

$400 million World Cocoa Foundation-funded project, in collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of the Economy through the Council of Coffee and Cocoa Platform Public-Private Partnership. Aims to increase sustainability in the cocoa sector and to improve the livelihoods of 300,000 farmers in Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana through increased productivity and improved agricultural practices.(116-119) Includes six pillars, one of which aims to eliminate the worst forms of child labor and to increase access to basic education for children in cocoa-growing areas.(116, 118)

Transforming Education in Cocoa Communities (TRECC) (2015–2022)*

$51 million public-private partnership among the Swiss Government, the Jacobs Foundation, the World Cocoa Foundation, and the Government of Côte d’Ivoire, 7-year project that aims to improve access to education in cocoa-growing areas through the construction of schools.(13) Aligned with the strategy of CocoaAction and led by the CNS, TRECC aims to reach more than 200,000 direct beneficiaries by the conclusion of the project.(13, 119-121)

Nestlé Schools Project (2011–2015)

$1.5 million Nestlé-funded, 4-year project that built and renovated schools in cocoa-growing areas where children are most vulnerable to child labor.(68, 122) In support of the 2010 Declaration, collaborated with the Ministry of Education to reduce the prevalence of child labor in Côte d’Ivoire’s cocoa-growing areas, including by improving children’s access to education and increasing household incomes.(68, 95, 96, 123) By the end of the project in March 2015, built 36 schools benefitting 11,663 students.(122)

Creating a Protective Environment for Children in Cocoa-Growing Communities (2012–2016)

$1 million Mars, Incorporated-funded program that supports the implementation of SOSTECI and the development of community action plans to combat child labor.(124, 125) In support of the 2010 Declaration, collaborated with the Government to reduce the prevalence of child labor in Côte d’Ivoire’s cocoa-growing areas, including by improving children’s access to education and increasing household incomes.(68, 95, 96, 123)

Promotion of Human Security and Stability in West Africa*†

$370,000 Government of Japan-funded project implemented by UNODC, which aims to strengthen the capacity of the CNS, to build the capacity of law enforcement officials to combat human trafficking, and to provide specialized equipment to identify victims at border crossings.(126)

Centers for Vulnerable Children†

Approximately 110 MSFWC- and MESAPT-funded social centers and mobile schools throughout the country that receive women and children who are victims of crime or violence, including children who are victims of the worst forms of child labor. International NGOs also operate additional centers that provide meals and basic education.(31, 38)

School Feeding Programs†

The Integrated Program for Sustainable School Feeding is a $42.5 million WFP-funded program that aims to raise school attendance rates in rural areas, particularly among girls, by providing school meals, conditional cash transfers, nutritional supplements, and training for the National Directorate of School Feeding and local school feeding management committees.(127) The Ministry of National Education School Feeding Program aims to provide incentives for school attendance by providing nutritious meals in rural areas using U.S. soy commodities. Meal delivery will begin in the 2016–2017 academic year.(13) The McGovern-Dole School Feeding Program is a $31 million joint initiative between the WFP and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, in coordination with the Ministry of National Education, which aims to provide meals to 150,000 children in 1,000 rural schools. Girls in fifth and sixth grade who have an attendance rate of more than 80 percent are eligible to receive a 100-pound ration of rice three times per year.(13)

It Takes a Village to Protect a Child*†

Operated by the Office of the First Lady and the CIM, this project will train cooperatives on the Fairtrade Child Labor Standards and project management. Youth will receive training on child rights and 58 children will be selected as youth leaders for local child labor committees.(128)

Emergency Support Project for Basic Education (2012–2016)

$41.4 million World Bank-funded project that aims to improve access to basic education by constructing and rehabilitating classrooms and school latrines.(129) In 2015, built 638 new primary school classrooms, rehabilitated 167 classrooms, equipped 200 classrooms, and began construction on 141 latrines and water pumps in cocoa-growing areas.(130-132)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Côte d’Ivoire.

Although the Government of Côte d’Ivoire maintains programs and coordinates with industry, international organizations, NGOs, and other governments to help children working on cocoa farms, the scope of existing programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem.(9, 13, 133) Although SOSTECI has been implemented in several cocoa-growing communities, it has not been expanded throughout the country because it requires a significant amount of resources for implementation.(13, 38, 98) The Government primarily relies on NGOs to provide social services to victims of child trafficking. Research indicates that there is poor coordination among service providers, and the distribution of services throughout the country is uneven.(38)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Côte d’Ivoire (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Enforcement

Strengthen the labor inspectorate by authorizing the inspectorate to assess penalties.

2014 – 2015

Significantly increase the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor in accordance with the ILO recommendation.

2009 – 2015

Build enforcement capacity to address child labor protections for all children, including those who are self-employed or who work in the informal sector.

2015

Ensure that labor inspectorates and criminal law enforcement agencies receive adequate funding to proactively conduct inspections and investigations throughout the country, including in the informal sector, and that penalties are enforced according to the law.

2014 – 2015

Systematically collect and make publically available information about criminal law enforcement statistics, including the number of prosecutions initiated and convictions made.

2015

Establish a mechanism to track cases of child labor identified as a result of calls made to the MSFWC hotline.

2015

Establish a sufficient number of official border crossings to enable the Government to identify and prevent transnational trafficking activity.

2015

Coordination

Improve coordination by clarifying the respective roles and responsibilities of the CNS and CIM.

2012 – 2015

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into existing policies.

2013 – 2015

Social Programs

Improve access to education by eliminating all school-related fees, providing all children with birth certificates, increasing the number of schools and teachers in rural areas, and ensuring that schools are free of physical and sexual abuse.

2011 – 2015

Replicate and expand models, such as SOSTECI, for addressing exploitative child labor for effective implementation of government policies to combat the worst forms of child labor, including efforts to reduce child trafficking and forced labor in agriculture and domestic work.

2009 – 2015

Ensure that victims of the worst forms of child labor are able to access services throughout the country.

2015

1.         ILO-IPEC. Towards Child Labor Free Cocoa Growing Communities through an Integrated Area Based Approach Project. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 31, 2014.

2.         U.S. Department of State. "Côte d’Ivoire," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243558.pdf.

3.         Ministere d'Etat de la Republique de Cote d'Ivoire et Ministere de l'Emploi des Affairs Sociales et de la Formation Professionelle, ILO, and Cote d'Ivoire National Institute of Statistics. Etude des phénomènes de la traite et du travail des enfants dans les secteurs de l’agriculture, des mines, du transport, du commerce et du domestique. Abidjan; 2013.

4.         ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Côte d'Ivoire (ratification: 2003) Published: 2011; accessed January 31, 2012; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:2335155.

5.         Global March Against Child Labour. Child Labour in Cocoa Farming in Cote d'Ivoire: Report of the Scoping Mission Conducted by Global March Against Child Labour. New Delhi; January-February 2013. http://globalmarch.org/images/CHILD-LABOUR-IN-COCOA-FARMING-IN-COTE-D'IVOIRE.pdf.

6.         Thorson, DD. Children Working in Commercial Agriculture: Evidence from West and Central Africa. Briefing Paper n.2. New York, UNICEF; April 2012. http://www.unicef.org/wcaro/english/Briefing_paper_No_2_-_children_working_in_commercial_agriculture.pdf.

7.         Hawksley, H. "Ivory Coast Cocoa Farms Child Labour: Little Change." bbc.co.uk [online] November 10, 2011 [cited March 25, 2013]; http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15681986?print=true.

8.         Associated Press. "Child Labor Probed in Ivory Coast’s Cocoa Fields." azcentral.com [online] November 28, 2011 [cited March 25, 2013]; http://www.azcentral.com/arizonarepublic/news/articles/2011/11/28/20111128child-labor-probed-ivory-coasts-cocoa-fields.html.

9.         Tulane University. Final Report: 2013/14 Survey Research on Child Labor in West African Cocoa-Growing Areas. New Orleans, Payson Center for International Development and Technology Transfer; July 30, 2015.

10.       UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

11.       UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Enquête Démographique et de Santé (EDSCI-III), 2011-2012. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

12.       Webb, S. "Is your chocolate bar worth a child's life? Documentary lays bare child slavery in West Africa's cocoa plantations - and what is being done to free them." Daily Mail UK, February 27, 2014. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2569091/Is-chocolate-bar-worth-childs-life-Documentary-lays-bare-child-slavery-West-Africas-cocoa-plantations-free-them.html.

13.       U.S. Embassy- Abidjan. reporting, February 22, 2016.

14.       Adele, A. "The lost childhoods behind our chocolate." IRINnews.org [online] August 25, 2015 [cited October 25, 2015]; http://www.irinnews.org/report/101912/the-lost-childhoods-behind-our-chocolate.

15.       Fair Labor Association. Independent External Monitoring Of Nestlé’s Cocoa Supply Chain In Ivory Coast: 2014 - 2015. Washington, D.C.,  September 2, 2015. http://www.fairlabor.org/sites/default/files/documents/reports/september_2015_nestle_executive_summary.pdf.

16.       United Nations General Assembly. Human Rights Council, nineteenth session, Report of the independent expert on the situation of human rights in Cote d'Ivoire, Doudou Deine; January 9, 2012. http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/RegularSession/Session19/A-HRC-19-72_en.pdf.

17.       O'Keefe, B. "Bitter sweets: Inside big chocolate’s child labor problem." Fortune.com [online] March 1, 2016 [cited March 2, 2016]; http://fortune.com/big-chocolate-child-labor/.

18.       International Trade Union Confederation. Internationally Recognized Core Labour Standards in Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau and Togo. Geneva; July 2 and 4, 2012. http://www.ituc-csi.org/IMG/pdf/final-en-cote_d_ivoire_guinea_bissau_togo_tpr_.pdf.

19.       Government of Côte d'Ivoire. Plan d'action national 2012-2014 de lutte contre la traite, l'exploitation et le travail des enfants. Abidjan; March 23, 2012.

20.       ILO. Renforcement des capacités des Inspecteurs du Travail en matière d’intervention dans le secteur agricole : travail des enfants, santé et sécurité au travail et Système d’Observation et de Suivi du Travail des Enfants dans le secteur du cacao. Geneva; November 2013. [source on file].

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25.       Elbow, K, S Pennes. Artisanal Diamond Mining Sector Assessment in Côte d’Ivoire Consultancy Report. Washington, DC, USAID; October 2012. http://www.usaidlandtenure.net/sites/default/files/USAID_Land_Tenure_Artisanal_Mining_Assessment-Report_Cote_%20d'Ivoire.pdf.

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30.       Thorson, DD. Children Working in the Urban Informal Economy: Evidence from West and Central Africa. Briefing Paper n.3. New York, UNICEF; April 2012. http://www.sussex.ac.uk/anthropology/people/peoplelists/person/118526.

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41.       ILO. The twin challenges of child labour and educational marginalisation in the ECOWAS region; July 1, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/download.do?type=document&id=25517.

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