Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Armenia

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Armenia

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement – Efforts Made but Continued Law that Delayed Advancement

In 2015, Armenia made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. Despite new initiatives to address child labor, Armenia is receiving this assessment because it continued to implement a law that delayed advancement in eliminating the worst forms of child labor. The Government failed to remedy the uncertainty regarding its authority to monitor, inspect, and enforce child labor laws caused by its 2014 repeal of Article 34 of the Labor Code, which previously established the Government’s authority to conduct routine labor inspections. Since that time, the Government has lacked a functioning labor inspection mechanism to monitor, inspect, and enforce child labor laws. Otherwise, the Government made efforts by developing and conducting a National Child Labor Survey and introducing regulations that placed restrictions on acceptable working hours for children employed in the entertainment industry. Children in Armenia are engaged in child labor in the services sector. The Government also lacks a mechanism to coordinate its efforts to address all forms of child labor, including its worst forms. In addition, no programs exist to aid children engaged in work activities on the street or in agriculture.

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Although research is limited, evidence suggests that children are engaged in child labor in the services sector in Armenia.(1-6) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Armenia.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

8.1 (30,494)

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

89.8

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

9.9

Primary completion rate (%):

100.1

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2008, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(7)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Demographic and Health Survey, 2010.(8)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, including planting and harvesting potatoes* (1, 3-6, 9, 10)

Raising livestock,* including cattle breeding,* cattle herding,* and shepherding* (4-6, 11)

Industry

Construction,* activities unknown (1, 6, 10, 12)

Services

Washing cars* (3, 4)

Street work, including gathering scrap metal,* selling flowers,* and begging (1, 2, 4-6, 12, 13)

Working in shops* (6)

Dancing in clubs* (6)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (4, 10, 14-16)

Forced begging sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (4, 10, 15)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a) – (c) of ILO C. 182.

Although Article 38 of the Constitution of Armenia and Article 6 of the Law of Republic of Armenia on Education guarantee free universal education, children from low-income families and from families belonging to ethnic minorities continue to have reduced access to education.(17, 18) In addition, children with disabilities also face difficulty accessing mainstream education due to the inaccessibility of the physical infrastructure of schools, a lack of individual education planning and methodologies, a lack of community-based support services for the child and the family, and a general social stigma against individuals with disabilities.(17-20) As a result of these barriers, a source reports that over 70 percent of children with disabilities in the care of the state and almost 20 percent of children with disabilities in the care of their families do not attend school.(20, 21)

In addition, the rate of institutionalization of children remained high. Research found that children enrolled in government boarding schools, orphanages, and special education institutions were likely to experience physical and psychological violence, and were at a higher risk of becoming victims of human trafficking.(10, 18, 21)

Armenia has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Articles 15 and 17 of the Labor Code; Article 57 of the Constitution (22, 23)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 257 of the Labor Code (22)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

List of Work Categories Considered Excessive or Harmful for Persons Under the Age of 18, Women Who are Pregnant, and Women Caring for Infants Under the Age of One Year; Articles 140, 148, 153, 155, 249, and 257 of the Labor Code (22, 24)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 57 of the Constitution; Article 3 of the Labor Code; Articles 132 and 132.2 of the Criminal Code (22, 23, 25-27)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 132 and 132.2 of the Criminal Code (25, 28)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 132.2, 166, and 261-263 of the Criminal Code (25, 26, 28)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 165 and 166.1 of the Criminal Code (25, 26, 28)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Article 5 of the Law on Mandatory Military Service (28, 29)

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Article 18 of the Law on Education (28, 30)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 38 of the Constitution; Article 6 of the Law on Education (23, 30)

 

In December 2015, a national referendum resulted in significant changes to the Constitution. The Constitution continues to prohibit forced labor and ensure free public education, but these provisions are now housed in new articles, as referenced above.(23, 27)

It has been reported that in April 2015, the Government introduced an amendment to the Law on Education that will increase the compulsory education age to 19 years, beginning in 2017.(27)

It has also been reported that in June 2015, the National Assembly adopted changes to the Labor Code that introduced regulations for children’s work in the entertainment industry and included restrictions on acceptable working hours for children of all ages.(27) According to the updated legislation, children ages 14 to 15 may work no more than 24 hours per week, while children ages 16 to 17 may work no more than 36 hours per week.(27)

The minimum age for work is 16. If children ages 14 and 15 obtain the written consent of a parent or a guardian, they may work restricted hours as specified by the labor code; however, Armenia does not specify the type or conditions of light work in which they may engage.(22, 31)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

State Health Inspectorate (SHI)

Enforce labor laws and impose sanctions for violations.(32) In particular, enforce occupational safety and health provisions through the Oversight Department for Work Safety and other labor laws through the Oversight Department Over the Implementation of Labor Code Norms.(27)

Main Department on Especially Serious Crimes within the Investigative Committee

Investigate cases of child trafficking and the commercial sexual exploitation of children referred to the Investigative Committee by the Police.(19, 33)

Department on Defending the Rights of Minors and Combating Domestic Violence within the Police

Identify and conduct preliminary investigation of crimes in which children are victims or perpetrators.(14, 19) Enforce laws against the worst forms of child labor under the General Department of Criminal Intelligence.(19, 28, 33) Refer identified crimes to the Investigative Committee for further investigation.(19)

Anti-Trafficking Unit within the Police

Identify and conduct preliminary investigation of crimes related to child trafficking and the commercial sexual exploitation of children through a staff of seven field officers. Operate within the Department of Combating High-Tech related (Cyber) Crimes, Human Trafficking, Illegal Migration, and Terrorism of the General Department on Combating Organized Crime.(34) Refer identified crimes to the Investigative Committee for further investigation.(19)

Police Hotline

Receive complaints related to human trafficking and migration issues.(10)

 

Due to successive legislative changes reorganizing labor inspection in Armenia and a lack of clarity surrounding the legal mandate for conducting inspections, in 2015 the State Health Inspectorate (SHI) was unable to systematically monitor or enforce child labor laws in Armenia.(35)

Since 2013, a number of legislative changes to the labor inspection mechanism have taken place as part of a broader inspection reform agenda in Armenia. In July 2013, the Government adopted Decree #857-N that created the new State Health Inspectorate (SHI) under the Ministry of Health to take over the combined inspection functions of the former State Labor Inspectorate under the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (MoLSA) and the former State Hygiene and Anti-Epidemic Inspectorate under the Ministry of Health.(34) This decree outlined the SHI’s mandate, which includes supervision of labor legislation and safeguards for working children established by the Labor Code.(27, 36)

However, in December 2014, the National Assembly adopted legislation repealing Article 34 of the Labor Code, which had previously established Government authority to conduct routine labor inspections.(27, 35, 37) SHI officials reported that this legislative change, which came into force in January 2015, restricts the SHI to conducting inspections based on complaints related to occupational safety and health violations.(35) Despite this statement from SHI officials, another source reported that the Law on Inspection Bodies, also passed in December 2014, may have obviated the need for Article 34 of the Labor Code, as Article 6 of the Law on Inspection Bodies outlines the powers of all inspection bodies in Armenia, including the ability to conduct inspections.(27, 38) As a result of these conflicting understandings of the current legislation, the SHI’s mandate to monitor, inspect, and enforce child labor laws remains unclear, and the SHI remained unable to monitor, inspect, and enforce child labor laws in 2015.

SHI officials report that the SHI will undergo further reorganization as part of the Government’s continuing campaign to streamline inspections in Armenia, which should increase clarity on the SHI’s mandate to conduct inspections. In anticipation of these further changes and clarification, the SHI halted all inspections of any kind in July 2015, with the exception of sanitary oversight over kindergartens and schools.(27)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Armenia remained unable to monitor, inspect, and enforce laws against child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6.  Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspectors

60 (35)

60 (39)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (40)

Yes (39)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown

No (39)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (40)

No (39)

Number of Labor Inspections

48 (40)

72 (27)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

Unknown

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

2 (40)

1 (27)

Number of Child Labor Violations for which Penalties were Imposed

2 (40)

0 (39)

Number of Penalties Imposed that were Collected

Unknown

N/A

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (40)

Yes (39)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (40)

Yes (39)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

No (35)

No (39)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

No (35)

No (39)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (35)

Yes (27)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Unknown

Yes (27)

 

As part of the 2013 restructuring, the number of labor inspectors was reduced from 146 to 60, which the SHI reported was insufficient to fully enforce labor laws prior to the cessation of inspections. The 20 inspectors based at the SHI headquarters are civil servants, while the remaining 40 are contractors.(35) The SHI reports that while civil servants must receive training at least once every three years, there is no requirement that contractors receive regular training. As a result, the SHI anticipates that the high proportion of contracted inspectors will negatively impact the overall training level and competency of the body of inspectors over time.(35) In addition, the SHI lacks sufficient funding, work space, computers, and transportation to effectively enforce labor laws. SHI officials reported that inspectors are often required to walk to inspection sites in order to perform inspections due to lack of transportation.(35, 39) Inspectors do have the authority to enter the premises of a business during the course of inspections.(39)

While inspectors do not have the right to issue penalties for violations discovered during the course of investigations, the head of the SHI, his deputies, and regional unit managers do have the power to review cases of violations and issue administrative penalties.(39) An SHI official indicated that penalties for violations of labor laws were insufficient to deter violations.(27)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Armenia took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).

Table 7.  Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (39)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (16, 40)

Yes (39)

Number of Investigations

5 (40)

Unknown

Number of Violations Found

5 (40)

3 (39)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

2 (40)

2 (39)

Number of Convictions

Unknown

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (40)

Yes (39)

 

The Investigative Committee’s police officers respond to allegations of a crime and conduct a pre-investigation during a period of 10 days to determine whether a crime has been committed. After this period, the case is either transferred to the Investigative Committee for full investigation or dropped due to lack of evidence of a crime.(19)

The Main Department on Especially Serious Crimes within the Investigative Committee has 40 investigators, 7 of whom are specialized in investigating human trafficking cases, and the Government reports that overall almost 300 police officers and investigators are engaged in investigations of crimes involving children.(33, 39, 40) The Investigative Committee requires that its personnel receive training at least once every two years. As a result, over 200 investigators received refresher training in 2015, which included 2 hours of instruction on trafficking in persons, including child trafficking. During the reporting period, 174 police officers focusing on juvenile cases also received training on child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation of children.(39)

Child victims discovered during the course of criminal investigations are referred to the Fund for Armenian Relief Children’s Center, where they are provided with specialized social services.(39) A source reported that because not all the children who are referred to social service providers by the Police are officially registered as victims, official statistics for begging, forced begging, and commercial sexual exploitation may underreport the scope of the problem.(4)

Research found that although the Police work with social service providers when conducting the pre-investigation, the Investigative Committee does not work with social service providers to ensure the well-being of the children during the investigation period.(4) In addition, a source reported that law enforcement officials do not receive sufficient specialized training on interviewing child victims of crime.(4) The Government’s implementation of the Criminal Procedural Code’s provisions on victim and witness protection continued to be inadequate due to lack of an appropriate victim witness protection mechanism and of sufficient funding for these efforts.(10, 41)

Although the Government has established coordinating mechanisms to combat human trafficking and ensure the protection of child rights, research found no evidence of mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including all its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Commission on the Protection of Child Rights

Coordinate activities of state bodies responsible for child protection, assist in developing state policy and programs aimed at the protection of children’s rights, and assist in developing solutions to new child welfare problems as they arise. Facilitate cooperation between state and local government and NGOs.(28) Maintain a working group to prevent child begging, which includes representatives from the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, the Ministry of Health, and the Ministry of Education.(28)

Ministerial Council to Combat Human Trafficking

Implement, coordinate, and monitor government efforts on human trafficking.(15, 28) Chaired by the Deputy Prime Minister and composed of various officials from 17 government entities.(15)

Inter-Agency Working Group against Trafficking in Persons

Advise, organize, and implement decisions made by the Ministerial Council to Combat Human Trafficking.(15) Chaired by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and composed of officials from all government entities. Includes nongovernmental stakeholders such as NGOs, international organizations, and social partners in regularly scheduled meetings.(15, 28)

 

The Government of Armenia has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Concept on Combatting Violence Against Children

Defines government priorities for combatting violence against children and outlines a list of related activities. Addresses labor exploitation of children, especially in rural communities, and commercial sexual exploitation of children, especially child trafficking.(33)

Strategic Program for the Protection of Children’s Rights (2013–2016)*

Outlines the Government’s goals and activities in the sphere of child rights protection; formerly included a child labor component focusing on data collection on working children, awareness raising of the rights of working children, and implementation of oversight mechanisms for children’s work.(42) The National Child Labor Survey and recommendations for the prevention of child labor exploitation originally envisaged in the 2013–2016 Strategic Program remains in the list of activities for 2016. However, during a 2014 revision, the Government removed the child labor component from the document.(19, 33)

National Plan of Action Against Trafficking in Persons for the Years 2013–2015

Aims to improve victim identification, including for child laborers; conduct surveys among working children; improve prevention efforts; and work with the media on the format and approach of reporting on human trafficking cases.(43) Focuses on five areas: legislation on action against trafficking in persons and enforcement of laws; prevention of trafficking in persons; protection of and support to victims of trafficking in persons; cooperation; and surveys, monitoring, and evaluation.(43)

UNDAF Plan for Armenia (2016–2020)*†

Focuses on poverty reduction through expanding economic and social opportunities for vulnerable groups, including improving access to basic education and social protection services for vulnerable children.(20)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.
† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In 2015, the Government of Armenia funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (MAP)

USDOL-funded research project implemented by the ILO in 10 countries, including Armenia, to increase the knowledge base around child labor by collecting new data, analyzing existing data, and building capacity to conduct research in this area.(44) In 2015, the ILO signed an agreement with the National Statistics Services to conduct a national child labor survey.(45) The project trained 48 enumerators on survey techniques, piloted the survey in two districts, and then implemented the full survey from October – December 2015. The project anticipates publicizing the full results of the survey in June 2016.(45)

Family Benefits Program†

Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (MoLSA)-funded poverty-mitigation program for families with children recorded in the Family Poverty Assessment System. Families receive a monthly payment based on their financial situation, the number of children in the family, and the geographical location of their home.(39)

Social Response to Labor Migration in Armenia Project (2013–2016)

EU-funded, 3-year project implemented by UNICEF, the Ministry of Territorial Administration, and MoLSA designed to mitigate the social vulnerability of labor migrants’ families, including children.(46)

Armenia Social Protection Administration II Project (SPAP) (2014–2018)†

$25.5 million World Bank project, including a $4.3 million Government contribution, to improve social services delivery through the functional integration of agencies responsible for social services. Continues the first SPAP’s efforts to co-locate service providers for social protection benefits by building 37 new Integrated Social Protection Centers, 19 of which were completed by the close of the reporting period.(39, 47) Will target unemployed youth through the Youth Without Education and Skills program.(47)

UNICEF Country Program for 2010–2015

Outlines a plan for the development of an enhanced child care system, a continuum of child protection services to identify and respond to the exploitation and abuse of children, and a comprehensive policy framework for protecting vulnerable children in cooperation with UNICEF.(48)

Day Care Centers†

Government-supported day care centers that provide alternatives to working children and daytime centers that provide services for children with special needs.(34) In 2015, the Government contributed funding to four daytime centers to support up to 250 children, providing funding for wages of 84 day care center employees.(34, 39, 49-51)

Shelter for Victims of Human Trafficking†

Government shelter co-funded and run by the United Methodist Committee on Relief—Armenia that provides victims of human trafficking with medical, psychological, social, and legal services; access to education for children; and vocational training for adult victims.(16)

School Feeding Program†

Program co-funded by the World Food Program. In 2015, the government provided over $1 million to provide in-school meals for 22,209 children in 3 regions of Armenia, while World Food Program funding provided meals to 67,000 children in schools throughout the rest of the country.(39)

† Program is funded by the Government of Armenia.

Although the Government of Armenia has implemented programs to address child labor, research found no evidence that it has carried out programs to assist children engaged in child labor in street work or in agriculture.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Armenia (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that Armenian law specifies the types of light work and the working conditions acceptable for children age 14-15.

2014 – 2015

Enforcement

Ensure that the legal framework on inspections clearly empowers the SHI to monitor, inspect, and enforce child labor laws through quality inspections, including targeted, complaint-based, and unannounced inspections; that inspectors have the ability to assess penalties; and that data on the number and type of inspections, violations, and penalties are made publicly available.

2014 – 2015

Address deficiencies in the SHI’s labor inspection resources, including by increasing the number of labor inspectors and empowering inspectors to perform unannounced inspections; increasing the funding and resources available to the SHI; and ensuring that all inspectors receive an adequate amount of training.

2014 – 2015

Make information on the SHI’s funding publicly available.

2015

Ensure that penalties for child labor violations are sufficient to serve as a deterrent.

2014 – 2015

Make information on the number of investigations and convictions related to criminal laws against the worst forms of child labor publicly available.

2015

Protect children by providing law enforcement officials with specialized training on interviewing child victims of crime, and by ensuring that law enforcement officials coordinate with social service providers to protect the best interests of the child during an investigation.

2014 – 2015

Implement and adequately fund a victim-witness protection mechanism for criminal proceedings.

2011 – 2015

Coordination

Establish coordinating mechanisms to combat child labor, including its worst forms.

2009 – 2015

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into national policies, including the Strategic Program for the Protection of Children’s Rights and the UNDAF Plan for Armenia (2016–2020).

2011 – 2015

Social Programs

Ensure that all children, including children from low-income families and those belonging to ethnic minorities, have equal access to education.

2010 – 2015

Increase efforts to prevent institutionalization of children and to ensure the safety and well-being of children currently residing in government institutions.

2015

Ensure that mainstream education is accessible to children with special education needs and children with disabilities by improving the accessibility of the physical infrastructure, bringing the child disability assessment criteria up to international standards, improving needs assessments, expanding community-based support services, and ensuring that social stigmas against individuals with disabilities do not prevent children from accessing schools.

2014 – 2015

Implement programs to address child labor in street work and in agriculture.

2009 – 2015

1.         UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention: Concluding Observations: Armenia. Geneva; July 8, 2013. Report No. CRC/C/ARM/CO/3-4. http://tb.ohchr.org/default.aspx.

2.         Hasmik Smbatyan. "Armenian Teen Demands 'Right To A Good Life'," Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty- Armenian Service; June 12, 2013; 3 min., 9 sec., Youtube Video; http://youtu.be/Q2H4Y2LmUQE.

3.         Gayane Mkrtchyan, and Sara Khojoyan. "Social: Poverty in Shirak Province Hampers Struggle against Illegal Child Labor." armenianow.com [online] August 16, 2011 [cited 2013]; http://armenianow.com/social/31461/poverty_child_labors_gyumri_shirak_armenia?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+armenianow%2Fhome+%28Home+Page++%7C+ArmeniaNow.com%29.

4.         Mira Antonyan- Director of the Children's Support Center Foundation. Interview with USDOL official. February 26, 2015.

5.         Word Vision Armenia officials. Interview with USDOL official. February 25, 2015.

6.         OSCE. Forced Labour and Labour Trafficking in Armenia: Pilot Study. Yerevan; 2015. http://www.osce.org/yerevan/212571?download=true.

7.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015] http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

8.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Demographic and Health Survey, 2010. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

9.         Government of Armenia official. Interview with USDOL official. February 24, 2015.

10.       U.S. Department of State. "Armenia," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2015/243385.htm.

11.       UNICEF official. Interview with USDOL official. February 23, 2015.

12.       Chitemyan, A. On Guard against Child Labour in Armenia, World Vision, [online] June 12, 2013 [cited January 25, 2014]; http://www.wvi.org/armenia/article/guard-against-child-labour-armenia.

13.       UNICEF and the European Union. Situation Analysis of Children in Armenia 2012. Yerevan; 2013. [source on file].

14.       U.S. Department of State official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 28, 2013.

15.       U.S. Embassy- Yerevan. reporting, February 28, 2014.

16.       U.S. Embassy- Yerevan. reporting, March 3, 2015.

17.       The Helsinki Committee of Armenia. Ditord Observer. Yerevan; February 2012. http://armhels.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/515eng-Ditord_459_2012-1.pdf.

18.       U.S. Department of State. "Armenia," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2014&dlid=236496.

19.       U.S. Embassy- Yerevan official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 28, 2015.

20.       United Nations Development Programme. Armenia-United Nations Development Assistance Framework 2016-2020. Yerevan; July 31, 2015. http://www.un.am/up/file/Armenia%20-%20UNDAF%202016-2020%20-%20eng_arm.pdf.

21.       UNICEF. It's about Inclusion: Access to Education, Health, and Social Protection Services for Children with Disabilities in Armenia; 2012. http://www.unicef.org/ceecis/UNICEF_Disability_Report_ENG_small.pdf.

22.       Government of Armenia. Labor Code of the Republic of Armenia, enacted November 9, 2004. [source on file].

23.       Government of Armenia. Constitution of the Republic of Armenia, enacted July 5, 1995. http://www.concourt.am/english/constitutions/index.htm.

24.       Government of Armenia. List of Work Categories Considered Excessive or Harmful for Persons Under the Age of 18, Women Who are Pregnant, and Women Caring for Infants Under the Age of One Year, ROA Official Bulletin 2006.02.01/6(461) Article. 151, enacted February 2, 2006. [English translation on file].

25.       Government of Armenia. Criminal Code of the Republic of Armenia, enacted April 18, 2003. http://www.legislationline.org/documents/section/criminal-codes.

26.       U.S. Embassy- Yerevan official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 14, 2011.

27.       U.S. Embassy- Yerevan. reporting, January 15, 2016.

28.       Government of Armenia. Government of Armenia Response to the TDA Questionnaire. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (December 3, 2013) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Yerevan; January 20, 2014.

29.       Government of Armenia. Law on Military Service, enacted 1998.

30.       Government of Armenia. Law of the Republic of Armenia on Education, enacted April 14, 1999. http://www.translation-centre.am/pdf/Translat/HH_orenk/Education/Education_en.pdf.

31.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Armenia (ratification: 2006) Submitted: 2011 accessed March 5, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:::.

32.       Structure:  Ministry of Healthcare, Government of Armenia, [online] [cited November 26, 2014]; http://www.gov.am/en/structure/1/.

33.       U.S. Embassy- Yerevan. reporting, January 15, 2015.

34.       U.S. Embassy- Yerevan. reporting, January 17, 2014.

35.       State Health Inspectorate officials. Interview with USDOL official. February 25, 2015.

36.       Government of Armenia. Decree No. 857-N, enacted July 25, 2013. http://www.arlis.am/documentview.aspx?docid=84966.

37.       Government of Armenia. Law on Amendments to the Labor Code enacted December 17, 2014. http://www.arlis.am/documentview.aspx?docid=95030.

38.       Government of Armenia. Law on Inspection Bodies, enacted December 17, 2014. http://www.arlis.am/DocumentView.aspx?docID=95028.

39.       Government of Armenia. Government of Armenia Response to the TDA Questionnaire. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (November 26, 2015) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Yerevan; 2016.

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41.       U.S. Embassy- Yerevan. reporting, March 1, 2013.

42.       U.S. Embassy- Yerevan official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 18, 2013.

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47.       World Bank. World Bank Supports Social Service Delivery in Armenia, [online] March 24, 2014 [cited November 25, 2014]; http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2014/03/24/world-bank-integrated-social-service-delivery-armenia.

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49.       Government of Armenia. Government of Armenia Response to the TDA Questionnaire. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (November 26, 2012) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Yerevan; February 14, 2013.

50.       Bridge of Hope. Bridge Of Hope Non-Governmental, Non-Profitable, Non-Political Organization of the Republic of Armenia, Civil Society Partnership Network, [online] [cited March 1, 2013]; http://www.cspn.am/eng/members/bridge-of-hope/about-us.

51.       U.S. Department of State official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 3, 2014.

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