Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Armenia

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Armenia

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement – Efforts Made but Continued Law that Delayed Advancement

In 2016, Armenia made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. Despite new initiatives to address child labor, Armenia is receiving this assessment because it continued to implement a law that delayed advancement in eliminating the worst forms of child labor. The Government failed to remedy the uncertainty regarding its authority to monitor, inspect, and enforce child labor laws caused by its 2014 repeal of Article 34 of the Labor Code, which previously established the Government's authority to conduct routine labor inspections. Since that time, the Government has lacked a functioning labor inspection mechanism to monitor, inspect, and enforce child labor laws. Otherwise, the Government made efforts by publishing a National Child Labor Survey and adopting the National Plan of Action Against Trafficking in Persons and Exploitation. However, children in Armenia performed dangerous tasks in agriculture. The Government also lacks a mechanism to coordinate its efforts to address all forms of child labor, including its worst forms. In addition, no programs exist to aid children engaged in work activities in agriculture.

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Children in Armenia perform dangerous tasks in agriculture.(1-7) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Armenia.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

7.0 (24,602)

Working children by sector

5 to 14

 

Agriculture

 

93.9

Industry

 

0.5

Services

 

5.7

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

95.4

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

8.6

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

99.1

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(8)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from National Child Labor Survey, 2015.(9)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, including planting and harvesting potatoes (1-7)

Raising livestock, including cattle breeding, cattle herding, and shepherding (2, 3, 5, 7, 10)

Industry

Construction, activities unknown (1, 5-7, 11)

Services

Vehicle maintenance (3, 7)

Selling food (7)

Street work, including gathering scrap metal, selling flowers, and begging (1-3, 5, 11-13)

Working in shops (5, 7)

Dancing in clubs (3, 5)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3, 6, 14-17)

Forced begging, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3, 6, 15)

‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a) – (c) of ILO C. 182.

In 2016, the Government published a National Child Labor Survey conducted by the National Statistical Service in cooperation with the ILO. Survey results showed that a majority of children in hazardous child labor worked in agriculture.(7) Data showed that boys were more likely than girls to be engaged in child labor, and that child labor is more prevalent in rural areas.(7)

Although Article 38 of the Constitution of Armenia and Article 6 of the Law of Republic of Armenia on Education guarantee free universal education, children from low-income families and from families belonging to ethnic minorities continue to have reduced access to education.(18, 19) Children with disabilities also face difficulty accessing mainstream education due to the inaccessibility of the physical infrastructure of schools, a lack of community-based support services for the child and the family, and a general social stigma against individuals with disabilities.(18-21) As a result of these barriers, more than 70 percent of children with disabilities in the care of the state and almost 20 percent of children with disabilities in the care of their families reportedly do not attend school.(21, 22) Changes to the Law on Public Education that came into effect in January 2015 require all schools to be inclusive for children with disabilities by 2025.(19, 23)

The rate of institutionalization of children remained high in 2016. Children enrolled in government boarding schools, orphanages, and special education institutions were likely to experience physical and psychological violence and were at a higher risk of becoming victims of human trafficking.(6, 19, 22)

Armenia has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Armenia's legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Articles 15 and 17 of the Labor Code; Article 57 of the Constitution (24, 25)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 257 of the Labor Code (24)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Law on Approval of the List of Occupations and Work That Are Likely to be Heavy and Hazardous for Persons Under the Age of 18 years, Pregnant Women, and Women Taking Care of a Child under the Age of 1 year; Articles 140, 148–149, 153, 155, 209, 249, and 257 of the Labor Code (24, 26)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 57 of the Constitution; Article 3 of the Labor Code; Articles 132 and 132.2 of the Criminal Code (24, 25, 27)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 132 and 132.2 of the Criminal Code (27)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 132.2, 166, and 261–263 of the Criminal Code (27)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 63, 165, 166.1, and 266.1 of the Criminal Code (27-29)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

18

Articles 5 and 11 of the Law on Conscription (30)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Articles 4 and 10 of the Law on Military Service (31)

Non-state Compulsory

Yes

18

Article 29 of the Law on the Rights of the Child; Articles 63, 165, and 224 of the Criminal Code (27, 32)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Article 18 of the Law on Education (33)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 38 of the Constitution; Article 6 of the Law on Education (25, 33)

 

Children ages 14 and 15 may work restricted hours with the permission of a parent or guardian; however, the Labor Code does not list specific activities that constitute light work.(24, 34)

Although forced labor is prohibited by the Constitution, Criminal Code, and Labor Code, enforcement of this prohibition is hindered by the lack of a definition of "forced labor" in Armenian law.(35)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

State Health Inspectorate (SHI)

Enforce labor laws and impose sanctions for violations.(36) In particular, enforce occupational safety and health provisions through the Oversight Department for Work Safety and other labor laws through the Oversight Department Over the Implementation of Labor Code Norms.(37)

Main Department on Especially Serious Crimes Within the Investigative Committee

Investigate cases of child trafficking and the commercial sexual exploitation of children referred to the Investigative Committee by the police.(20, 38)

Department on Defending the Rights of Minors and Combating Domestic Violence Within the Police

Identify and conduct preliminary investigation of crimes in which children are victims or perpetrators.(14, 20) Enforce laws against the worst forms of child labor under the General Department of Criminal Intelligence.(20, 28) Refer identified crimes to the Investigative Committee for further investigation.(20)

Anti-Trafficking Unit Within the Police

Identify and conduct preliminary investigation of crimes related to child trafficking and the commercial sexual exploitation of children through a staff of seven field officers. Operate within the Department of Combating High-Tech related (Cyber) Crimes, Human Trafficking, Illegal Migration, and Terrorism of the General Department on Combating Organized Crime.(39) Refer identified crimes to the Investigative Committee for further investigation.(20)

Police Hotline

Receive complaints related to human trafficking and migration issues.(6)

 

Due to successive legislative changes reorganizing labor inspection in Armenia and a lack of clarity surrounding the legal mandate for conducting inspections, in 2016 the State Health Inspectorate (SHI) was unable to systematically monitor or enforce child labor laws in Armenia.(35, 40)

As part of a broader inspection reform agenda in Armenia, responsibility for conducting labor inspections was transferred from the State Labor Inspectorate, which was abolished in 2013, to the Department of Work Safety Control within the SHI, created the same year.(35, 40) Subsequent changes to legislation regulating labor inspections, including the 2014 repeal of Article 34 of the Labor Code, which previously established the Government's authority to conduct routine labor inspections, have left the SHI's mandate to conduct insepctions unclear. As a result, a moratorium placed on labor inspections in 2015 is expected to remain in effect at least until the Government's program of inspection reform is completed in 2017.(35, 40)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Armenia did not take actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspectors

60 (41)

60 (35)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (41)

Yes (41)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

No (41)

No (42)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (41)

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspections

72 (37)

0 (35)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

0 (35)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

0 (35)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

1 (37)

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

0 (41)

Unknown

Number of Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

N/A

0 (42)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (41)

No (35)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (41)

No (35)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

No (41)

No (35)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

No (41)

No (35)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (37)

Yes (42)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (37)

Yes (42)

 

When labor inspections were transferred to the SHI, the number of labor inspectors was reduced from 146 to 60, which the SHI reported was insufficient to fully enforce labor laws prior to the cessation of inspections. The 20 inspectors based at the SHI headquarters are civil servants, while the remaining 40 are contractors.(43) The SHI reports that while civil servants must receive training at least once every 3 years, there is no requirement that contractors receive regular training. As a result, the SHI anticipates that the high proportion of contracted inspectors will negatively impact the overall training level and competency of the body of inspectors over time.(43)

In addition, the SHI lacks sufficient funding, workspace, computers, and transportation to effectively enforce labor laws. SHI officials reported that inspectors are often required to walk to inspection sites to perform inspections due to a lack of transportation.(41, 43) Inspectors do have the authority to enter the premises of a business during the course of inspections.(41)

Although inspectors do not have the right to issue penalties for violations discovered during the course of investigations, the head of the SHI, his deputies, and regional unit managers do have the power to review cases of violations and issue administrative penalties.(41) An SHI official indicated that penalties for violations of labor laws were insufficient to deter violations.(37)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Armenia took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (41)

Yes (42)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

Yes (42)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (41)

Yes (40)

Number of Investigations

Unknown

2 (42)

Number of Violations Found

3 (41)

1 (42)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

2 (41)

1 (42)

Number of Convictions

Unknown

0 (40)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (41)

Yes (41)

 

The Main Department on Especially Serious Crimes within the Investigative Committee has 40 investigators, 7 of whom are specialized in investigating human trafficking cases, and the Government reports that overall almost 300 police officers and investigators are engaged in investigations of crimes involving children.(38, 41, 44) The Investigative Committee requires that its personnel receive training at least once every 2 years.(41)

Child victims discovered during the course of criminal investigations are referred to the Fund for Armenian Relief Children's Center, where they are provided with specialized social services.(41) A source reported that because not all the children who are referred to social service providers by the police are officially registered as victims, official statistics for begging, forced begging, and commercial sexual exploitation may underreport the scope of the problem.(3)

Research found that although the police work with social service providers when conducting the pre-investigation, the Investigative Committee does not typically work with social service providers to ensure the well-being of the children during the investigation period.(3) In addition, a source reported that law enforcement officials do not receive sufficient specialized training on interviewing child victims of crime, which in some cases can prevent local investigators from collecting sufficient evidence to build a prosecutable case.(3, 40) The Government's implementation of the provisions on victim and witness protection in the Criminal Procedural Code continued to be inadequate due to the lack of an appropriate victim witness protection mechanism and insufficient funding for these efforts.(6, 45)

Although the Government has established coordinating mechanisms to combat human trafficking and ensure the protection of child rights, research found no evidence of mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including all its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Commission on the Protection of Child Rights

Coordinate activities of state bodies responsible for child protection, assist in developing state policy and programs aimed at the protection of children's rights, and assist in developing solutions to new child welfare problems as they arise. Facilitate cooperation between state and local government and NGOs.(28) Maintain a working group to prevent child begging.(28)

Ministerial Council to Combat Human Trafficking

Implement, coordinate, and monitor government efforts on human trafficking.(15, 28) Chaired by the Deputy Prime Minister.(15)

Inter-Agency Working Group Against Trafficking in Persons

Advise, organize, and implement decisions made by the Ministerial Council to Combat Human Trafficking.(15) Composed of officials from all government entities; non-governmental stakeholders participate in regular meetings.(15, 28)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Concept on Combating Violence Against Children

Defines government priorities for combating violence against children and outlines a list of related activities. Addresses labor exploitation of children, especially in rural communities, and commercial sexual exploitation of children, especially child trafficking.(38)

National Plan of Action Against Trafficking in Persons and Exploitation (2016–2018)†

Aims to improve the legal framework and enforcement of legislation related to trafficking in and exploitation of children. Planned activities include developing tools for identification of the worst forms of child labor, as well as a guide for the proper identification and referral of child trafficking victims.(35, 46) In 2016, the Government conducted trainings for law enforcement personnel on legislation prohibiting the worst forms of child labor.(35)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

Armenia's Strategic Program for the Protection of Children's Rights, which outlines the Government's child rights protection program, does not incorporate child labor concerns.(20, 35) The UNDAF Plan for Armenia, which focuses on poverty reduction, also lacks specific provisions on child labor.(21)

Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the Concept on Combating Violence Against Children during the reporting period.

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (MAP)

USDOL-funded research project implemented by the ILO, which supported the publication of a National Child Labor Survey in 2016. For additional information on USDOL’s work, please see our Web site.(47)

Family Benefits Program†

Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs-funded poverty-mitigation program for families with children recorded in the Family Poverty Assessment System. Families receive a monthly payment based on their financial situation, the number of children in the family, and the geographical location of their home.(41)

UNICEF Country Program for 2016–2020*

Improve child protection systems, including through expanding programs for children in extreme poverty, improving social integration of children with disabilities, and developing a victim-witness protection system.(48)

Day Care Centers†

Government-supported day care centers that provide alternatives to working children and daytime centers that provide services for children with special needs.(39)

Shelter for Victims of Human Trafficking†

Government shelter co-funded and run by the United Methodist Committee on Relief-Armenia that provides medical, psychological, social, and legal services to victims of human trafficking; access to education for children; and vocational training for adult victims.(16)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Armenia.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(41, 49, 50)

Although the Government of Armenia has implemented programs to address child labor, research found no evidence that it has carried out programs to assist children engaged in child labor in street work or in agriculture.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Armenia (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that Armenian law specifies the types of light work acceptable for children age 14-15.

2014 – 2016

Facilitate enforcement of labor law by codifying a definition of forced labor.

2016

Enforcement

Ensure that the legal framework on inspections clearly empowers the SHI to monitor, inspect, and enforce child labor laws through quality inspections, including targeted, complaint-based, and unannounced inspections; and that data on the number and type of inspections, violations, and penalties are made publicly available.

2014 – 2016

Address deficiencies in the SHI's labor inspection resources, including by increasing the number of labor inspectors; increasing the funding and resources available to the SHI; and ensuring that all inspectors receive an adequate amount of training.

2014 – 2016

Make information on the SHI's funding publicly available.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that penalties for child labor violations are sufficient to serve as a deterrent.

2014 – 2016

Protect children by providing law enforcement officials with specialized training on interviewing child victims of crime, and by ensuring that law enforcement officials coordinate with social service providers during investigations.

2014 – 2016

Implement and adequately fund a victim-witness protection mechanism for criminal proceedings.

2011 – 2016

Coordination

Establish coordinating mechanisms to combat child labor, including all its worst forms.

2009 – 2016

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into national policies, including the Strategic Program for the Protection of Children's Rights and the UNDAF Plan for Armenia.

2011 – 2016

Take steps to implement the Concept on Combating Violence Against Children.

2016

Social Programs

Ensure that all children, including children from low-income families and those belonging to ethnic minorities, have equal access to education.

2010 – 2016

Increase efforts to prevent institutionalization of children and to ensure the safety and well-being of children currently residing in government institutions.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that mainstream education is accessible to children with special education needs and children with disabilities by improving the accessibility of the physical infrastructure, expanding community-based support services, and ensuring that social stigmas against disabilities do not prevent children from accessing schools.

2014 – 2016

Implement programs to address child labor in street work and in agriculture.

2009 – 2016

1.         UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention: Concluding Observations: Armenia. Geneva; July 8, 2013. Report No. CRC/C/ARM/CO/3-4. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/docs/co/CRC-C-ARM-CO-3-4.pdf.

2.         Word Vision Armenia officials. Interview with USDOL official. February 25, 2015.

3.         Mira Antonyan- Director of the Children's Support Center Foundation. Interview with USDOL official. February 26, 2015.

4.         Government of Armenia official. Interview with USDOL official. February 24, 2015.

5.         OSCE. Forced Labour and Labour Trafficking in Armenia: Pilot Study. Yerevan; 2015. http://www.osce.org/yerevan/212571?download=true.

6.         U.S. Department of State. "Armenia," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2015/243385.htm.

7.         ILO, and National Statistical Service of the Republic of Armenia. Armenia National Child Labor Survey 2015: Analytical Report. Geneva; October 20, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_28755/lang--en/index.htm.

8.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). [accessed December 16, 2016] http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

9.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from National Child Labor Survey, 2015. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information,  please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

10.       UNICEF official. Interview with USDOL official. February 23, 2015.

11.       Chitemyan, A. On Guard Against Child Labour in Armenia, World Vision, [online] June 12, 2013 [cited January 25, 2014]; http://www.wvi.org/armenia/article/guard-against-child-labour-armenia.

12.       UNICEF and the European Union. Situation Analysis of Children in Armenia 2012. Yerevan; 2013. [source on file].

13.       Hasmik Smbatyan. "Armenian Teen Demands 'Right To A Good Life'," Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty- Armenian Service; June 12, 2013; 3 min., 9 sec., Youtube Video; http://youtu.be/Q2H4Y2LmUQE.

14.       U.S. Department of State official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 28, 2013.

15.       U.S. Embassy- Yerevan. reporting, February 28, 2014.

16.       U.S. Embassy- Yerevan. reporting, March 3, 2015.

17.       De Boer-Buquicchio, M. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography on her visit to Armenia. New York, UN Human Rights Council; February 1, 2016. Report No. A/HRC/31/58/Add.2. http://www.refworld.org/docid/56dfe0134.html.

18.       The Helsinki Committee of Armenia. Ditord Observer. Yerevan; February 2012. http://armhels.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/515eng-Ditord_459_2012-1.pdf.

19.       U.S. Department of State. "Armenia," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington, DC; April 13, 2016; https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2016&dlid=265392#wrapper.

20.       U.S. Embassy- Yerevan official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 28, 2015.

21.       UNDP. Armenia-United Nations Development Assistance Framework 2016-2020. Yerevan; July 31, 2015. http://www.un.am/up/file/Armenia%20-%20UNDAF%202016-2020%20-%20eng_arm.pdf.

22.       UNICEF. It's about Inclusion: Access to Education, Health, and Social Protection Services for Children with Disabilities in Armenia. Yerevan; 2012. http://www.unicef.org/ceecis/UNICEF_Disability_Report_ENG_small.pdf.

23.       Government of Armenia. Law on General Education, enacted 2009. http://www.translation-centre.am/pdf/Translat/HH_orenk/Education/HO_160_N_General_Edu_en.pdf.

24.       Government of Armenia. Labor Code of the Republic of Armenia, enacted November 9, 2004. [source on file].

25.       Government of Armenia. Constitution of the Republic of Armenia, enacted July 5, 1995. http://www.concourt.am/english/constitutions/index.htm.

26.       Government of Armenia. List of Work Categories Considered Excessive or Harmful for Persons Under the Age of 18, Women Who are Pregnant, and Women Caring for Infants Under the Age of One Year, ROA Official Bulletin 2006.02.01/6(461) Article. 151, enacted February 2, 2006. [English translation on file].

27.       Government of Armenia. Criminal Code of the Republic of Armenia, enacted April 18, 2003. http://www.parliament.am/legislation.php?sel=show&ID=1349&lang=eng.

28.       Government of Armenia. Government of Armenia Response to the TDA Questionnaire. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (December 3, 2013) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Yerevan; January 20, 2014.

29.       U.S. Embassy- Yerevan official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 14, 2011.

30.       Government of Armenia. Law on Conscription, enacted 1998. http://www.mindiaspora.am/res/3.%20Iravakan%20akter/ENGLISH/Zinapart_orenq_ENG.docx.

31.       Government of Armenia. Law on Military Service, enacted July 3, 2002. http://www.parliament.am/legislation.php?sel=show&lang=arm&ID=1317.

32.       Government of Armenia. Law on the Rights of the Child, enacted May 29, 1996. http://www.ombuds.am/resources/ombudsman/uploads/files/agreements/2d25331b2ad440a56d9e450a307813f3.pdf.

33.       Government of Armenia. Law of the Republic of Armenia on Education, enacted April 14, 1999. http://www.anqa.am/en/about-us/legal-field/laws/law-of-the-republic-of-armenia-on-education/.

34.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Armenia (ratification: 2006) Submitted: 2011 accessed March 5, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:::.

35.       U.S. Embassy- Yerevan. reporting, January 13, 2017.

36.       Structure:  Ministry of Healthcare, Government of Armenia, [online] [cited November 26, 2014]; http://www.gov.am/en/structure/1/.

37.       U.S. Embassy- Yerevan. reporting, January 15, 2016.

38.       U.S. Embassy- Yerevan. reporting, January 15, 2015.

39.       U.S. Embassy- Yerevan. reporting, January 17, 2014.

40.       U.S. Embassy- Yerevan. reporting, February 23, 2017.

41.       Government of Armenia. Government of Armenia Response to the TDA Questionnaire. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (November 26, 2015) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Yerevan; 2016.

42.       Government of Armenia. Government of Armenia Response to the TDA Questionnaire. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (November 26, 2016) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Yerevan; 2017.

43.       State Health Inspectorate officials. Interview with USDOL official. February 25, 2015.

44.       Government of Armenia. Government Response to the Information request to inform preparation of the U.S. Department of Labor's 2014 annual findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Yerevan.

45.       U.S. Embassy- Yerevan. reporting, March 1, 2013.

46.       Government of Armenia. National Action Plan on Organizing the Fight Against Trafficking in Human Beings and Exploitation in the Republic of Armenia During 2016-2018, enacted July 7, 2016. [Source on file].

47.       ILO-IPEC. Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (MAP). Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2016.

48.       UNICEF. Country Programme Document: Armenia. New York; April 17, 2015. https://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/2015-PL7-Armenia_CPD-ODS-EN.pdf.

49.       World Bank. World Bank Supports Social Service Delivery in Armenia, [online] March 24, 2014 [cited November 25, 2014]; http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2014/03/24/world-bank-integrated-social-service-delivery-armenia.

50.       UNICEF Armenia. EU, UNICEF Launch Project to Mitigate Social Consequences of Labor Migration in Armenia, UNICEF, [online] April 3, 2013 [cited November 28, 2014]; http://unicef.am/en/news/i/EU,+UNICEF+LAUNCH+PROJECT+TO+MITIGATE+SOCIAL+CONSEQUENCES+OF+LABOUR+MIGRATION+IN+ARMENIA.

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