Skip to page content
Office of the Secretary
Bookmark and Share

Flexible Staffing Arrangements

A Report on Temporary Help, On-Call, Direct-Hire Temporary, Leased, Contract Company, and Independent Contractor Employment in the United States

Susan N. Houseman
August 1999


Abraham, Katharine G. 1988. “Flexible Staffing Arrangements and Employers’ Short-term Adjustment Strategies.” In Robert A. Hart, ed., Employment, Unemployment, and Labor Utilization. Boston: Unwin Hyman.

____________. 1990. “Restructuring the Employment Relationship: The Growth of Market- Mediated Work Arrangements.” In Katherine Abraham and Robert McKersie, eds., New Developments in the Labor Market: Toward a New Institutional Paradigm. 85-120. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Abraham, Katharine G. and Susan K. Taylor. 1996. “Firms’ Use of Outside Contractors: Theory and Evidence.” Journal of Labor Economics, 14(3): 394-424.

Barker, Kathleen and Kathleen Christensen. 1998. Contingent Work: American Employment Relations in Transition. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press.

Beard, Kathy M. and Jeffrey R. Edwards. 1995. “Employees at Risk: Contingent Work and the Psychological Experience of Contingent Workers,” in Trends in Organizational Behavior, Vol. 2, Edited by Cary L. Cooper and Denise M. Rousseau, New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Belous, Richard. 1989. The Contingent Economy: The Growth of the Temporary, Part-time, and Subcontracted Workforce. Washington, DC: National Planning Association.

Bowker, Lindsay Newland. 1997. “Employee Leasing: Liability in Limbo?” Risk Management, 44, (6): (June), 37-47.

Bugarin, Alicia. 1998. “Linking Welfare Recipients to Jobs: The Role of Temporary Help Agencies,” California Research Bureau, CRB-98-017, (November).

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. 1995. “New Data on Contingent and Alternative Employment Examined by BLS." USDL 95-318, (August 17).

Bureau of National Affairs, Inc. 1994. “Staffing and Scheduling Strategies.” Personal Policies Forum Survey No.152, (June).

Christensen, Kathleen. 1995. Contingent Work Arrangements in Family-Sensitive Corporations. Boston: Center on Work and Family, Boston University.

Clark, Charles S. 1997. “Contingent Work Force.” CQ Researcher, 7, (40): (October, 24).

Commission on the Future of Worker-Management Relations. 1996. Report and Recommendations of the Commission on the Future of Worker-Management Relations Issued January 9, 1995. Report DLR, No. 6, Special Supplement. Washington, DC: Bureau of National Affairs, Inc.

Conference Board. 1995. “Contingent Employment.” HR Executive Review, 3, (2).

Freedman, Audrey. 1985. “The New Look in Wage Policy and Employee Relations.” Conference Board Report No. 865. New York: The Conference Board.

Giddens, Brent M. 1997. “Employment Law.” The National Law Journal, (January 13), B6-7.

Houseman, Susan N. 1997. “Temporary, Part-Time, and Contract Employment in the United States: A Report on the W.E. Upjohn Institute’s Employer Survey on Flexible Staffing Policies.” Report to the U.S. Department of Labor, Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.

Houseman, Susan N. and Anne E. Polivka. 1999. "The Implications of Flexible Staffing Arrangements for Job Stability." Upjohn Institute for Employment Research Working Paper.

Jobs for the Future. 1997. “Skills Assessment, Job Placement, and Training: What Can Be Learned from the Temporary Help/Staffing Industry? An Overview of the Industry and a Case Study of Manpower Inc.” Boston.

Joerg, Nancy E. 1996. Welcome to the World of Independent Contractors and Other Contingent Workers. Chicago: CCH, Inc.

Kahn, Shulamit. 1996. “The Impact of Large Companies’ Increased Use of Temporary Workers on Financial Measures of Performance.” Presented at the Changes in Working Time in Canada and the United States Conference, June 13-15, 1996 in Ottawa, Canada.

Kalleberg, Arne L., Jeremy Reynolds, and Peter V. Marsden. 1999. “Externalizing Employment: Flexible Staffing Arrangements in U.S. Organizations.” Unpublished paper, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Klein, Jeffrey S. 1996. “Weighing the Legal Considerations.” In Stanley Nollen and Helen Axel, ed., Managing Contingent Workers: How to Reap the Benefits and Reduce the Risks. New York: American Management Association, 183-208.

KRA Corporation. 1996. Employee Leasing: Implications for State Unemployment Insurance Programs. Final Report, submitted to Unemployment Insurance Service, U.S. Department of Labor, contract no. K-4280-3-00-80-30.

Lee, Dwight R. 1996. “Why is Flexible Employment Increasing?” Journal of Labor Research, XVII, (4): (Fall), 543-554.

Lenz, Edward A. 1996. "Flexible Employment: Positive Work Strategies for the 21st Century," Journal of Labor Research, XVII, (4): (Fall), 555-566.

Mangum, Garth, Donald Mayall, and Kristen Nelson. 1985. “The Temporary Help Industry: A Response to the Dual Internal Labor Market.” Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 38 (4): 599-611.

Montana Legislative Council. 1994. “Workers’ Compensation Emerging Issues: Independent Contractors, Contractor Licensing, and Employee Leasing: A Report to the Governor and 54th Legislature” November.

National Employment Law Project. 1997. Mending the Unemployment Compensation Safety Net for Contingent Workers, New York: National Employment Law Project, October.

Nollen, Stanley D. and Helen A. Axel. 1996. Managing Contingent Workers. New York: AMACOM.

Peck, Jamie and Nikolas Theodore. 1998. “The Business of Contingent Work: Growth and Restructuring in Chicago’s Temporary Employment Industry,” Work, Employment, and Society, 12, (4).

Pivec, Mary E. and Nina Massen. 1996. “FMLA’s Reach Extends to Contingent Work Force.” The National Law Journal, 18, (6): (February 26), C12-C13.

Polivka, Anne E. and Thomas Nardone. 1989. "On the Definition of 'Contingent Work." Monthly Labor Review. (December), 9-16.

Polivka, Anne E. 1996. "Contingent and Alternative Work Arrangements, Defined." Monthly Labor Review 119 (10), (October): 3-9.

Pranschke, Sibyl C. 1996. “Contingent Workers.” Employee Benefit Journal, (September), 7-14.

Rebitzer, James B. 1998. “Contract Workers in the Petrochemical Industry,” Contingent Work: American Employment Relations in Transition, edited by Kathleen Barker and Kathleen Christensen, Ithaca, NY: ILR Press.

Schwab, Stewart J. 1995. “The Diversity of Contingent Workers and the Need for Nuanced Policy.” Washington and Lee Law Review, 52, (3): 915-933.

Segal, Lewis M. and Daniel G. Sullivan. 1997a. "Temporary Services Employment Durations: Evidence from State UI Data," Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago Working Paper, WP-97- 23.

Segal, Lewis M. and Daniel G. Sullivan. 1997b. “The Growth of Temporary Services Work.” Journal of Economic Perspectives. Vol.11, 2, (Spring). 117-36.

Segal, Lewis M. and Daniel G. Sullivan. 1998. "Wage Differentials for Temporary Services Work: Evidence from Administrative Data." Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago Working Paper, WP-98-23.

Stamps, David. 1997. “Look Who’s Joined the Training Game.” Training, 34, (March): 32+.

Previous Section Next Section
---division bar --