This section presents information on selected characteristics for mothers and families. Information includes data on labor force participation, unemployment, occupations, family type and earnings.

Labor Force Participation

Labor force participation rate by sex and parental status

 

 

Labor force participation rate by sex and parental status
Group Gender Labor Force Participation Rate Civilian Labor Force Population
With children under 18 Mothers 71.5 25,239
With children under 18 Fathers 93.3 26,967
All Women 57.1 75,978
All Men 69.1 86,096

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2018

Women's labor force participation rates

 

 

Women's labor force participation rates
Year Labor force participation rate for all women Youngest child under 18 years Youngest child between 6 to 17 years Youngest child under 6 years Youngest child under 3 years
1975 46.3 47.4 54.9 39 34.3
1976 47.3 48.8 56.2 40.1 34.1
1977 48.4 50.8 58.3 41.2 35.4
1978 50 53 60 44 39.4
1979 50.9 54.5 61.6 45.7 41.1
1980 51.5 56.6 64.3 46.8 41.9
1981 52.1 58.1 65.5 48.9 44.3
1982 52.6 58.5 65.8 49.9 45.6
1983 52.9 58.9 66.3 50.5 46
1984 53.6 60.5 68.1 52.1 47.6
1985 54.5 62.1 69.9 53.5 49.5
1986 55.3 62.8 70.4 54.4 50.8
1987 56 64.7 72 56.7 52.9
1988 56.6 65.1 73.3 56.1 52.4
1989 57.4 65.7 74.2 56.7 52.4
1990 57.5 66.7 74.7 58.2 53.6
1991 57.4 66.6 74.4 58.4 54.5
1992 57.8 67.2 75.9 58 54.5
1993 57.9 66.9 75.4 57.9 53.9
1994 58.8 68.4 76 60.3 57.1
1995 58.9 69.7 76.4 62.3 58.7
1996 59.3 70.2 77.2 62.3 59
1997 59.8 72.1 78.1 65 61.8
1998 59.8 72.3 78.4 65.2 62.2
1999 60 72.1 78.5 64.4 60.7
2000 59.9 72.9 79 65.3 61
2001 59.8 72.7 79.4 64.4 60.7
2002 59.6 72.2 78.6 64.1 60.5
2003 59.5 71.7 78.7 62.9 58.7
2004 59.2 70.7 77.5 62.2 57.3
2005 59.3 70.5 76.9 62.6 58.9
2006 59.4 70.6 76.9 63 59.9
2007 59.3 71.3 77.7 63.5 60.1
2008 59.5 71.2 77.5 63.6 59.6
2009 59.2 71.6 78.2 63.6 61.1
2010 58.6 71.3 77.2 64.2 61.1
2011 58.1 70.9 76.5 64.2 60.9
2012 57.7 70.9 76 64.7 60.7
2013 57.2 70.3 74.8 64.7 62.1
2014 57 70.8 75.8 64.3 61.8
2015 56.7 69.9 74.6 63.9 61.4
2016 56.8 70.8 75.0 65.3 63.1
2017 57 71.3 76.0 65.1 63.1

Note: Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, step-children, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Labor force participation rate represents the percentage of persons in the civilian non-institutional population 16 years and older that are employed or actively looking for work.
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey Annual Averages 1975 - 2017. Participation rates for mothers are from March 1975-2017 CPS Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Labor force participation rate of mothers by age of youngest child

 

 

Labor force participation rate of mothers by age of youngest child
Group Labor Force Participation Rate
Children ages 6-17, none younger 76.4
Children under 6 65.1
Children under 3 61.9
Children under 1 57.8

Labor force participation rate of mothers by marital status and age of children

 

 

Labor force participation rate of mothers by marital status and age of children
Marital Status Age of Children Percentage
Married with children under 18 69.0
Married with children under 3 59.6
All other with children under 18 76.7
All other with children under 3 67.2

Note: Participation rates are 2018 Current Population Survey Annual Averages. All other includes mothers who are never married, widowed, divorced, separated, or married but living apart from their spouse. A cohabitating partner may be present.
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey

Labor force participation rate of mothers by age of youngest child, race and ethnicity

 

 

Labor force participation rate of mothers by age of youngest child, race and ethnicity
Age of Children Race Percentage
With children under 3 White 61.6
With children under 6 White 64.7
With children ages 6-17, none younger White 76.1
With children under 18 White 71.2
With children under 3 Black 71.2
With children under 6 Black 74.4
With children ages 6-17, none younger Black 79.5
With children under 18 Black 77.2
With children under 3 Asian 50.2
With children under 6 Asian 55.1
With children ages 6-17, none younger Asian 72.9
With children under 18 Asian 65.0
With children under 3 Hispanic 51.4
With children under 6 Hispanic 56.5
With children ages 6-17, none younger Hispanic 69.7
With children under 18 Hispanic 63.9

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2018

Employment / Unemployment

Percent of mothers and fathers employed by marital status

 

 

Percent of mothers and fathers employed by marital status
Family type Age of children Parent Percent employed
Married-couple families 6-17 years, none younger Mother 73.0
Married-couple families under 6 years Mother 61.5
Married-couple families under 18 years Mother 67.9
Families maintained by mother under 18 years Mother 74.1
Families maintained by father under 18 years Father 84.2
Families maintained by mother 6-17 years, none younger Mother 77.3
Families maintained by mother under 6 years Mother 68.8
Families maintained by father 6-17 years, none younger Father 83.9
Families maintained by father under 6 years Father 84.5

Note: Family households are maintained by married couples or by a man or woman living with other relatives—children may or may not be present. In contrast, nonfamily households are maintained only by men or women with no relatives at home.
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2018

Distribution of married-couple families by employment status

 

 

Distribution of married-couple families by employment status
Married-couple families 6-17 years, none younger under 6 years under 18 years
Neither parent employed 2.9 2.2 2.6
Father employed, not mother 24.1 36.4 29.5
Mother employed, not father 5.8 4.0 5.0
Both parents employed 67.2 57.5 63.0

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2018

Unemployment rate by sex and parental status

 

 

Unemployment rate by sex and parental status
Group Gender Unemployment Rate
All Women 3.8
All Men 3.9
With children under 18 Mothers 3.8
With children under 18 Fathers 2.4

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2018 Annual Averages

Unemployment rate of mothers by marital status

 

 

Unemployment rate of mothers by marital status
Age of Children Marital Status Unemployment Rate
with children under 18 Married 2.5
with children under 18 All other 6.4
with children under 3 Married 2.6
with children under 3 All other 8.7

Note: All other includes mothers who are never married, widowed, divorced, separated, or married but living apart from their spouse. A cohabitating partner may be present.
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2018 Annual Averages

Occupations

Occupations employing the largest number of mothers

 

 

Occupations Employing the Largest Number of Mothers
Occupation Total employed Number of employed mothers Number of employed non-mothers Share who are mothers Share who are non-mothers Gap between mothers and non-mothers
Total employed 47,016,125 21,961,050 25,055,075 0.47 0.53 -0.07
Elementary And Middle School Teachers 2,232,878 1,279,196 953,682 0.57 0.43 0.15
Registered Nurses 2,004,537 1,061,079 943,458 0.53 0.47 0.06
Secretaries And Administrative Assistants 1,731,667 788,106 943,561 0.46 0.54 -0.09
Nursing, Psychiatric, And Home Health Aides 1,135,486 574,775 560,711 0.51 0.49 0.01
Miscellaneous Managers, Including Funeral Service Managers And Postmasters And Mail Superintendents 1,193,605 540,557 653,048 0.45 0.55 -0.09
Customer Service Representatives 1,133,392 493,050 640,342 0.44 0.56 -0.13
Maids And Housekeeping Cleaners 910,798 460,977 449,821 0.51 0.49 0.01
Cashiers 973,023 437,099 535,924 0.45 0.55 -0.10
Accountants And Auditors 897,374 430,814 466,560 0.48 0.52 -0.04
First-Line Supervisors Of Retail Sales Workers 1,023,831 415,396 608,435 0.41 0.59 -0.19
Personal Care Aides 683,491 325,703 357,788 0.48 0.52 -0.05
Childcare Workers 631,877 325,624 306,253 0.52 0.48 0.03
Teacher Assistants 587,034 323,580 263,454 0.55 0.45 0.10
Retail Salespersons 760,067 306,807 453,260 0.40 0.60 -0.19
Waiters And Waitresses 722,046 300,501 421,545 0.42 0.58 -0.17
Office Clerks, General 655,390 292,058 363,332 0.45 0.55 -0.11
First-Line Supervisors Of Office And Administrative Support Workers 602,253 278,967 323,286 0.46 0.54 -0.07
Bookkeeping, Accounting, And Auditing Clerks 584,960 268,027 316,933 0.46 0.54 -0.08
Cooks 558,540 266,616 291,924 0.48 0.52 -0.05
Hairdressers, Hairstylists, And Cosmetologists 534,831 258,576 276,255 0.48 0.52 -0.03
Licensed Practical And Licensed Vocational Nurses 503,054 257,797 245,257 0.51 0.49 0.02
Social Workers 537,864 256,927 280,937 0.48 0.52 -0.04
Receptionists And Information Clerks 574,046 252,898 321,148 0.44 0.56 -0.12
Janitors And Building Cleaners 502,277 228,812 273,465 0.46 0.54 -0.09
Education Administrators 423,626 224,108 199,518 0.53 0.47 0.06
Preschool And Kindergarten Teachers 398,629 219,494 179,135 0.55 0.45 0.10
Human Resources Workers 469,489 213,428 256,061 0.45 0.55 -0.09
Financial Managers 447,046 212,049 234,997 0.47 0.53 -0.05
Postsecondary Teachers 492,477 210,262 282,215 0.43 0.57 -0.15
Counselors 440,637 201,520 239,117 0.46 0.54 -0.09
Medical Assistants 351,909 183,839 168,070 0.52 0.48 0.04
Medical And Health Services Managers 355,500 180,655 174,845 0.51 0.49 0.02
Secondary School Teachers 320,979 166,000 154,979 0.52 0.48 0.03
Physicians And Surgeons 292,197 161,478 130,719 0.55 0.45 0.11
Lawyers, And Judges, Magistrates, And Other Judicial Workers 328,922 159,689 169,233 0.49 0.51 -0.03
Billing And Posting Clerks 323,438 159,278 164,160 0.49 0.51 -0.02
Marketing And Sales Managers 363,987 158,308 205,679 0.43 0.57 -0.13
Health Practitioner Support Technologists And Technicians 360,009 158,017 201,992 0.44 0.56 -0.12
Food Service Managers 333,632 147,929 185,703 0.44 0.56 -0.11
Real Estate Brokers And Sales Agents 285,424 144,072 141,352 0.50 0.50 0.01
First-Line Supervisors Of Non-Retail Sales Workers 290,687 134,608 156,079 0.46 0.54 -0.07
Other Teachers And Instructors 301,188 132,682 168,506 0.44 0.56 -0.12
Designers 342,620 131,870 210,750 0.38 0.62 -0.23
Stock Clerks And Order Fillers 328,420 129,901 198,519 0.40 0.60 -0.21
Miscellaneous Office And Administrative Support Workers, Including Desktop Publishers 285,312 128,128 157,184 0.45 0.55 -0.10
Food Preparation Workers 275,407 127,602 147,805 0.46 0.54 -0.07
Management Analysts 272,566 121,350 151,216 0.45 0.55 -0.11
Sales Representatives, Wholesale And Manufacturing 266,661 117,713 148,948 0.44 0.56 -0.12
Miscellaneous Personal Appearance Workers 227,966 116,120 111,846 0.51 0.49 0.02
Laborers And Freight, Stock, And Material Movers, Hand 268,502 115,102 153,400 0.43 0.57 -0.14
Miscellaneous Assemblers And Fabricators 254,764 112,580 142,184 0.44 0.56 -0.12
Miscellaneous Production Workers, Including Semiconductor Processors 238,611 106,749 131,862 0.45 0.55 -0.11
Diagnostic Related Technologists And Technicians 197,615 105,945 91,670 0.54 0.46 0.07
General And Operations Managers 231,998 101,218 130,780 0.44 0.56 -0.13
Chief Executives And Legislators 199,929 98,960 100,969 0.49 0.51 -0.01
Software Developers, Applications And Systems Software 204,686 98,694 105,992 0.48 0.52 -0.04
Property, Real Estate, And Community Association Managers 208,442 97,979 110,463 0.47 0.53 -0.06
Dental Assistants 196,592 97,366 99,226 0.50 0.50 -0.01
Insurance Claims And Policy Processing Clerks 213,925 97,128 116,797 0.45 0.55 -0.09
First-Line Supervisors Of Food Preparation And Serving Workers 206,887 96,756 110,131 0.47 0.53 -0.06
Paralegals And Legal Assistants 232,452 96,303 136,149 0.41 0.59 -0.17
Packers And Packagers, Hand 183,983 94,797 89,186 0.52 0.48 0.03
Insurance Sales Agents 182,673 91,626 91,047 0.50 0.50 0.00
Human Resources Managers 185,465 86,155 99,310 0.46 0.54 -0.07
Inspectors, Testers, Sorters, Samplers, And Weighers 204,147 86,025 118,122 0.42 0.58 -0.16
Special Education Teachers 160,934 84,025 76,909 0.52 0.48 0.04
Social And Community Service Managers 193,701 83,240 110,461 0.43 0.57 -0.14
Recreation And Fitness Workers 165,928 78,821 87,107 0.48 0.52 -0.05
Dental Hygienists 138,815 76,149 62,666 0.55 0.45 0.10
Bus Drivers 160,392 74,957 85,435 0.47 0.53 -0.07
Nurse Practitioners, And Nurse Midwives 125,317 73,628 51,689 0.59 0.41 0.18
Clinical Laboratory Technologists And Technicians 159,002 72,985 86,017 0.46 0.54 -0.08
Physical Therapists 138,112 72,581 65,531 0.53 0.47 0.05
Computer Systems Analysts 159,840 72,128 87,712 0.45 0.55 -0.10
Sales Representatives, Services, All Other 149,282 68,790 80,492 0.46 0.54 -0.08
Pharmacists 131,998 68,624 63,374 0.52 0.48 0.04
Miscellaneous Agricultural Workers, Including Animal Breeders 123,477 68,088 55,389 0.55 0.45 0.10
Speech-Language Pathologists 121,391 67,627 53,764 0.56 0.44 0.11
Tellers 140,923 65,948 74,975 0.47 0.53 -0.06
Claims Adjusters, Appraisers, Examiners, And Investigators 148,798 64,943 83,855 0.44 0.56 -0.13
Driver/Sales Workers And Truck Drivers 161,268 63,945 97,323 0.40 0.60 -0.21
Word Processors And Typists 143,708 62,769 80,939 0.44 0.56 -0.13
Market Research Analysts And Marketing Specialists 146,677 60,454 86,223 0.41 0.59 -0.18
Data Entry Keyers 157,581 60,183 97,398 0.38 0.62 -0.24
Bartenders 173,801 59,927 113,874 0.34 0.66 -0.31
Computer And Information Systems Managers 135,282 58,208 77,074 0.43 0.57 -0.14
Credit Counselors And Loan Officers 122,396 57,112 65,284 0.47 0.53 -0.07
Security Guards And Gaming Surveillance Officers 146,052 56,931 89,121 0.39 0.61 -0.22
Production, Planning, And Expediting Clerks 137,489 56,199 81,290 0.41 0.59 -0.18
First-Line Supervisors Of Production And Operating Workers 129,018 55,061 73,957 0.43 0.57 -0.15
Other Therapists, Including Exercise Physiologists 114,394 54,807 59,587 0.48 0.52 -0.04
Dispatchers 122,592 54,529 68,063 0.44 0.56 -0.11
Medical Records And Health Information Technicians 117,836 54,428 63,408 0.46 0.54 -0.08
Business Operations Specialists, All Other 127,172 53,353 73,819 0.42 0.58 -0.16
Shipping, Receiving, And Traffic Clerks 117,830 52,756 65,074 0.45 0.55 -0.10
Social And Human Service Assistants 111,738 52,664 59,074 0.47 0.53 -0.06
Compliance Officers 110,716 51,144 59,572 0.46 0.54 -0.08
Psychologists 100,206 49,710 50,496 0.50 0.50 -0.01
Computer Support Specialists 116,807 49,345 67,462 0.42 0.58 -0.16
Packaging And Filling Machine Operators And Tenders 94,308 48,892 45,416 0.52 0.48 0.04
Computer Occupations, All Other 121,278 48,630 72,648 0.40 0.60 -0.20
Massage Therapists 111,722 47,315 64,407 0.42 0.58 -0.15
Combined Food Preparation And Serving Workers, Including Fast Food 107,744 44,992 62,752 0.42 0.58 -0.16
Occupational Therapists 86,710 44,408 42,302 0.51 0.49 0.02
Postal Service Mail Carriers 94,973 43,962 51,011 0.46 0.54 -0.07
Writers And Authors 93,910 42,570 51,340 0.45 0.55 -0.09
Personal Financial Advisors 89,946 41,160 48,786 0.46 0.54 -0.08
Librarians 86,939 40,549 46,390 0.47 0.53 -0.07
Payroll And Timekeeping Clerks 87,331 39,991 47,340 0.46 0.54 -0.08
Police Officers 86,510 39,180 47,330 0.45 0.55 -0.09
Sales And Related Workers, All Other 76,747 38,862 37,885 0.51 0.49 0.01
Bakers 85,552 38,447 47,105 0.45 0.55 -0.10
Miscellaneous Food Preparation And Serving Related Workers, Including Dining Room And Cafeteria Attendants And Bartender Helpers 69,437 37,204 32,233 0.54 0.46 0.07
Sewing Machine Operators 78,381 36,910 41,471 0.47 0.53 -0.06
Miscellaneous Legal Support Workers 78,596 36,776 41,820 0.47 0.53 -0.06
File Clerks 84,243 36,565 47,678 0.43 0.57 -0.13
Loan Interviewers And Clerks 73,163 36,306 36,857 0.50 0.50 -0.01
Purchasing Agents, Except Wholesale, Retail, And Farm Products 93,791 35,837 57,954 0.38 0.62 -0.24
Bill And Account Collectors 68,016 34,688 33,328 0.51 0.49 0.02
Laundry And Dry-Cleaning Workers 67,824 34,643 33,181 0.51 0.49 0.02
Nonfarm Animal Caretakers 109,500 34,376 75,124 0.31 0.69 -0.37
Door-To-Door Sales Workers, News And Street Vendors, And Related Workers 53,182 34,156 19,026 0.64 0.36 0.28
Bailiffs, Correctional Officers, And Jailers 86,319 34,024 52,295 0.39 0.61 -0.21
Phlebotomists 69,277 33,528 35,749 0.48 0.52 -0.03
Photographers 61,982 32,671 29,311 0.53 0.47 0.05
Meeting, Convention, And Event Planners 82,191 32,417 49,774 0.39 0.61 -0.21
Miscellaneous Health Technologists And Technicians 67,998 32,370 35,628 0.48 0.52 -0.05
Computer Programmers 65,941 31,943 33,998 0.48 0.52 -0.03
Physical Scientists, All Other 84,464 31,751 52,713 0.38 0.62 -0.25
Physician Assistants 66,672 30,072 36,600 0.45 0.55 -0.10
Other Education, Training, And Library Workers 60,736 30,023 30,713 0.49 0.51 -0.01
Financial Analysts 70,521 29,832 40,689 0.42 0.58 -0.15
Purchasing Managers 66,935 29,442 37,493 0.44 0.56 -0.12
Miscellaneous Metal Workers And Plastic Workers, Including Multiple Machine Tool Setters 62,117 29,253 32,864 0.47 0.53 -0.06
Taxi Drivers And Chauffeurs 64,297 28,893 35,404 0.45 0.55 -0.10
Dietitians And Nutritionists 66,055 28,298 37,757 0.43 0.57 -0.14
Interviewers, Except Eligibility And Loan 57,857 28,272 29,585 0.49 0.51 -0.02
Miscellaneous Media And Communication Workers 56,676 28,082 28,594 0.50 0.50 -0.01
Healthcare Support Workers, All Other, Including Medical Equipment Preparers 60,015 27,961 32,054 0.47 0.53 -0.07
Wholesale And Retail Buyers, Except Farm Products 73,920 27,739 46,181 0.38 0.62 -0.25
Medical Scientists, And Life Scientists, All Other 61,619 27,420 34,199 0.44 0.56 -0.11
Financial Clerks, All Other 60,149 27,161 32,988 0.45 0.55 -0.10
Respiratory Therapists 50,664 25,833 24,831 0.51 0.49 0.02
Securities, Commodities, And Financial Services Sales Agents 54,862 25,727 29,135 0.47 0.53 -0.06
First-Line Supervisors Of Housekeeping And Janitorial Workers 62,231 25,685 36,546 0.41 0.59 -0.17
Other Healthcare Practitioners And Technical Occupations 54,351 25,435 28,916 0.47 0.53 -0.06
Construction Managers 54,894 25,152 29,742 0.46 0.54 -0.08
Public Relations Specialists 64,268 24,969 39,299 0.39 0.61 -0.22
Advertising Sales Agents 62,886 24,629 38,257 0.39 0.61 -0.22
Editors 64,783 24,433 40,350 0.38 0.62 -0.25
Personal Care And Service Workers, All Other 61,408 24,329 37,079 0.40 0.60 -0.21
Chefs And Head Cooks 68,842 24,245 44,597 0.35 0.65 -0.30
Information And Record Clerks, All Other 51,021 24,207 26,814 0.47 0.53 -0.05
Training And Development Specialists 53,405 24,172 29,233 0.45 0.55 -0.09
Food Servers, Nonrestaurant 52,528 24,027 28,501 0.46 0.54 -0.09
Operations Research Analysts 53,558 23,709 29,849 0.44 0.56 -0.11
Miscellaneous Engineers, Including Nuclear Engineers 58,047 23,679 34,368 0.41 0.59 -0.18
Insurance Underwriters 50,402 23,486 26,916 0.47 0.53 -0.07
Dentists 42,797 23,369 19,428 0.55 0.45 0.09
Athletes, Coaches, Umpires, And Related Workers 51,563 23,334 28,229 0.45 0.55 -0.09
Clergy 46,577 21,696 24,881 0.47 0.53 -0.07
Physical Therapist Assistants And Aides 44,350 21,402 22,948 0.48 0.52 -0.03
Emergency Medical Technicians And Paramedics 48,719 21,397 27,322 0.44 0.56 -0.12
Miscellaneous Community And Social Service Specialists, Including Health Educators And Community Health Workers 38,780 20,847 17,933 0.54 0.46 0.08
Probation Officers And Correctional Treatment Specialists 38,595 20,731 17,864 0.54 0.46 0.07
Veterinarians 42,149 20,667 21,482 0.49 0.51 -0.02
Hosts And Hostesses, Restaurant, Lounge, And Coffee Shop 49,636 20,343 29,293 0.41 0.59 -0.18
Butchers And Other Meat, Poultry, And Fish Processing Workers 39,249 20,224 19,025 0.52 0.48 0.03
Hotel, Motel, And Resort Desk Clerks 54,258 20,148 34,110 0.37 0.63 -0.26
Web Developers 54,967 19,826 35,141 0.36 0.64 -0.28
Fundraisers 50,116 19,603 30,513 0.39 0.61 -0.22
Reservation And Transportation Ticket Agents And Travel Clerks 50,181 19,572 30,609 0.39 0.61 -0.22
Lodging Managers 50,832 19,423 31,409 0.38 0.62 -0.24
Artists And Related Workers 62,165 19,399 42,766 0.31 0.69 -0.38
Correspondence Clerks And Order Clerks 45,899 19,281 26,618 0.42 0.58 -0.16
Miscellaneous Life, Physical, And Social Science Technicians, Including Social Science Research Assistants 56,389 19,272 37,117 0.34 0.66 -0.32
Eligibility Interviewers, Government Programs 42,215 18,933 23,282 0.45 0.55 -0.10
Administrative Services Managers 36,807 18,586 18,221 0.50 0.50 0.01
First-Line Supervisors Of Personal Service Workers 44,372 18,296 26,076 0.41 0.59 -0.18
Construction Laborers 43,298 18,179 25,119 0.42 0.58 -0.16
Farmers, Ranchers, And Other Agricultural Managers 40,097 17,783 22,314 0.44 0.56 -0.11
Industrial Production Managers 38,642 17,640 21,002 0.46 0.54 -0.09
Gaming Services Workers 38,234 17,503 20,731 0.46 0.54 -0.08
Court, Municipal, And License Clerks 33,252 17,346 15,906 0.52 0.48 0.04
Dishwashers 36,607 17,039 19,568 0.47 0.53 -0.07
Graders And Sorters, Agricultural Products 27,373 16,995 10,378 0.62 0.38 0.24
Architects, Except Naval 43,228 16,854 26,374 0.39 0.61 -0.22
Electrical, Electronics, And Electromechanical Assemblers 35,015 16,739 18,276 0.48 0.52 -0.04
Civil Engineers 43,467 16,590 26,877 0.38 0.62 -0.24
Food Processing Workers, All Other 31,752 16,532 15,220 0.52 0.48 0.04
Industrial Engineers, Including Health And Safety 34,798 16,444 18,354 0.47 0.53 -0.05
Religious Workers, All Other 26,129 16,032 10,097 0.61 0.39 0.23
Grounds Maintenance Workers 45,260 15,959 29,301 0.35 0.65 -0.29
Supervisors Of Transportation And Material Moving Workers 41,295 15,950 25,345 0.39 0.61 -0.23
Engineering Technicians, Except Drafters 43,960 15,846 28,114 0.36 0.64 -0.28
Cleaners Of Vehicles And Equipment 36,465 15,645 20,820 0.43 0.57 -0.14
Postal Service Clerks 37,435 15,616 21,819 0.42 0.58 -0.17
Directors, Religious Activities And Education 27,773 15,470 12,303 0.56 0.44 0.11
Opticians, Dispensing 34,030 14,971 19,059 0.44 0.56 -0.12
Library Assistants, Clerical 37,838 14,894 22,944 0.39 0.61 -0.21
Flight Attendants 50,555 14,369 36,186 0.28 0.72 -0.43
Tax Preparers 33,363 13,959 19,404 0.42 0.58 -0.16
Logisticians 34,925 13,941 20,984 0.40 0.60 -0.20
Network And Computer Systems Administrators 32,373 13,788 18,585 0.43 0.57 -0.15
Medical, Dental, And Ophthalmic Laboratory Technicians 27,675 13,769 13,906 0.50 0.50 0.00
Industrial Truck And Tractor Operators 37,683 13,588 24,095 0.36 0.64 -0.28
Producers And Directors 48,852 13,384 35,468 0.27 0.73 -0.45
Painters And Paperhangers 30,979 13,306 17,673 0.43 0.57 -0.14
Transportation, Storage, And Distribution Managers 33,084 13,305 19,779 0.40 0.60 -0.20
Travel Agents 28,859 13,107 15,752 0.45 0.55 -0.09
Compensation, Benefits, And Job Analysis Specialists 31,140 13,062 18,078 0.42 0.58 -0.16
Miscellaneous Entertainment Attendants And Related Workers 36,244 12,986 23,258 0.36 0.64 -0.28
Public Relations And Fundraising Managers 30,111 12,843 17,268 0.43 0.57 -0.15
Counter Attendants, Cafeteria, Food Concession, And Coffee Shop 29,015 12,799 16,216 0.44 0.56 -0.12
Miscellaneous Mathematical Science Occupations, Including Mathematicians And Statisticians 27,008 12,773 14,235 0.47 0.53 -0.05
Musicians, Singers, And Related Workers 27,601 12,563 15,038 0.46 0.54 -0.09
Veterinary Assistants And Laboratory Animal Caretakers 31,176 12,466 18,710 0.40 0.60 -0.20
Detectives And Criminal Investigators 28,066 11,989 16,077 0.43 0.57 -0.15
Biological Scientists 31,259 11,965 19,294 0.38 0.62 -0.23
Couriers And Messengers 29,743 11,937 17,806 0.40 0.60 -0.20
Human Resources Assistants, Except Payroll And Timekeeping 28,413 11,893 16,520 0.42 0.58 -0.16
Private Detectives And Investigators 31,028 11,795 19,233 0.38 0.62 -0.24
Tailors, Dressmakers, And Sewers 28,220 11,739 16,481 0.42 0.58 -0.17
Drafters 25,608 11,596 14,012 0.45 0.55 -0.09
Weighers, Measurers, Checkers, And Samplers, Recordkeeping 25,378 11,532 13,846 0.45 0.55 -0.09
Database Administrators 30,184 11,500 18,684 0.38 0.62 -0.24
Pharmacy Aides 21,154 11,432 9,722 0.54 0.46 0.08
Food Batchmakers 32,015 11,396 20,619 0.36 0.64 -0.29
Computer Operators 25,244 11,381 13,863 0.45 0.55 -0.10
Training And Development Managers 24,029 11,051 12,978 0.46 0.54 -0.08
Occupational Therapy Assistants And Aides 18,256 10,930 7,326 0.60 0.40 0.20
Chemists And Materials Scientists 26,828 10,563 16,265 0.39 0.61 -0.21
Financial Specialists, All Other 19,539 10,078 9,461 0.52 0.48 0.03
Budget Analysts 22,315 9,699 12,616 0.43 0.57 -0.13
Telemarketers 21,185 9,487 11,698 0.45 0.55 -0.10
Printing Press Operators 22,218 9,333 12,885 0.42 0.58 -0.16
Carpenters 21,758 9,306 12,452 0.43 0.57 -0.14
Counter And Rental Clerks 21,732 9,256 12,476 0.43 0.57 -0.15
Tax Examiners And Collectors, And Revenue Agents 19,637 9,139 10,498 0.47 0.53 -0.07
Optometrists 17,585 8,933 8,652 0.51 0.49 0.02
Appraisers And Assessors Of Real Estate 16,488 8,907 7,581 0.54 0.46 0.08
Nurse Anesthetists 14,794 8,743 6,051 0.59 0.41 0.18
Environmental Scientists And Geoscientists 18,704 8,579 10,125 0.46 0.54 -0.08
Technical Writers 23,274 8,392 14,882 0.36 0.64 -0.28
Welding, Soldering, And Brazing Workers 19,189 8,259 10,930 0.43 0.57 -0.14
Pressers, Textile, Garment, And Related Materials 16,154 8,151 8,003 0.50 0.50 0.01
Credit Authorizers, Checkers, And Clerks 21,954 8,051 13,903 0.37 0.63 -0.27
Architectural And Engineering Managers 13,724 7,971 5,753 0.58 0.42 0.16
First-Line Supervisors Of Construction Trades And Extraction Workers 18,740 7,672 11,068 0.41 0.59 -0.18
Health Diagnosing And Treating Practitioners, All Other 14,933 7,631 7,302 0.51 0.49 0.02
Archivists, Curators, And Museum Technicians 21,132 7,501 13,631 0.35 0.65 -0.29
Postal Service Mail Sorters, Processors, And Processing Machine Operators 19,236 7,493 11,743 0.39 0.61 -0.22
Machine Tool Cutting Setters, Operators, And Tenders, Metal And Plastic 17,691 7,466 10,225 0.42 0.58 -0.16
Medical Transcriptionists 16,171 7,386 8,785 0.46 0.54 -0.09
First-Line Supervisors Of Mechanics, Installers, And Repairers 16,129 7,265 8,864 0.45 0.55 -0.10
Models, Demonstrators, And Product Promoters 17,705 7,210 10,495 0.41 0.59 -0.19
Audiologists 12,550 7,155 5,395 0.57 0.43 0.14
Electrical And Electronics Engineers 17,945 7,131 10,814 0.40 0.60 -0.21
Mail Clerks And Mail Machine Operators, Except Postal Service 20,109 7,096 13,013 0.35 0.65 -0.29
Advertising And Promotions Managers 21,869 7,063 14,806 0.32 0.68 -0.35
Transportation Attendants, Except Flight Attendants 13,661 6,862 6,799 0.50 0.50 0.00
Crossing Guards 14,964 6,698 8,266 0.45 0.55 -0.10
Telephone Operators 13,566 6,572 6,994 0.48 0.52 -0.03
First-Line Supervisors Of Police And Detectives 12,179 6,464 5,715 0.53 0.47 0.06
Office Machine Operators, Except Computer 12,343 6,452 5,891 0.52 0.48 0.05
Chiropractors 12,719 6,316 6,403 0.50 0.50 -0.01
Barbers 14,481 6,303 8,178 0.44 0.56 -0.13
Procurement Clerks 12,953 6,291 6,662 0.49 0.51 -0.03
Construction And Building Inspectors 10,783 6,227 4,556 0.58 0.42 0.15
News Analysts, Reporters And Correspondents 21,619 6,172 15,447 0.29 0.71 -0.43
Cost Estimators 13,458 5,885 7,573 0.44 0.56 -0.13
Information Security Analysts 12,703 5,881 6,822 0.46 0.54 -0.07
Library Technicians 16,371 5,870 10,501 0.36 0.64 -0.28
Credit Analysts 11,121 5,756 5,365 0.52 0.48 0.04
First-Line Supervisors Of Protective Service Workers, All Other 13,951 5,732 8,219 0.41 0.59 -0.18
Chemical Technicians 15,264 5,716 9,548 0.37 0.63 -0.25
Residential Advisors 12,559 5,498 7,061 0.44 0.56 -0.12
Firefighters 11,133 5,329 5,804 0.48 0.52 -0.04
Mechanical Engineers 18,861 5,327 13,534 0.28 0.72 -0.44
Computer, Automated Teller, And Office Machine Repairers 15,936 5,300 10,636 0.33 0.67 -0.33
Maintenance And Repair Workers, General 13,629 5,286 8,343 0.39 0.61 -0.22
Radiation Therapists 9,422 5,249 4,173 0.56 0.44 0.11
Aerospace Engineers 11,661 5,081 6,580 0.44 0.56 -0.13
Electricians 13,572 5,015 8,557 0.37 0.63 -0.26
Cutting Workers 11,739 4,959 6,780 0.42 0.58 -0.16
Compensation And Benefits Managers 9,626 4,913 4,713 0.51 0.49 0.02
Natural Sciences Managers 9,863 4,759 5,104 0.48 0.52 -0.03
First-Line Supervisors Of Correctional Officers 10,141 4,554 5,587 0.45 0.55 -0.10
Parts Salespersons 9,542 4,463 5,079 0.47 0.53 -0.06
Miscellaneous Installation, Maintenance, And Repair Workers, Including Wind Turbine Service Technicians 11,151 4,433 6,718 0.40 0.60 -0.20
Painting Workers 8,994 4,387 4,607 0.49 0.51 -0.02
Animal Trainers 16,370 4,370 12,000 0.27 0.73 -0.47
Agricultural And Food Science Technicians 9,433 4,308 5,125 0.46 0.54 -0.09
Judicial Law Clerks 10,014 4,258 5,756 0.43 0.57 -0.15
Machinists 9,337 4,228 5,109 0.45 0.55 -0.09
Agents And Business Managers Of Artists, Performers, And Athletes 14,147 4,190 9,957 0.30 0.70 -0.41
First-Line Supervisors Of Gaming Workers 7,756 4,087 3,669 0.53 0.47 0.05
Chemical Engineers 9,926 4,037 5,889 0.41 0.59 -0.19
Industrial And Refractory Machinery Mechanics 10,713 3,944 6,769 0.37 0.63 -0.26
Helpers-Production Workers 7,678 3,897 3,781 0.51 0.49 0.02
New Accounts Clerks 8,827 3,851 4,976 0.44 0.56 -0.13
Transportation Security Screeners 8,615 3,849 4,766 0.45 0.55 -0.11
Statistical Assistants 10,929 3,844 7,085 0.35 0.65 -0.30
Actuaries 8,968 3,794 5,174 0.42 0.58 -0.15
Switchboard Operators, Including Answering Service 9,335 3,748 5,587 0.40 0.60 -0.20
Miscellaneous Social Scientists, Including Survey Researchers And Sociologists 13,214 3,677 9,537 0.28 0.72 -0.44
Lifeguards And Other Recreational, And All Other Protective Service Workers 10,109 3,643 6,466 0.36 0.64 -0.28
Actors 14,251 3,526 10,725 0.25 0.75 -0.51
Economists 5,891 3,512 2,379 0.60 0.40 0.19
Aircraft Pilots And Flight Engineers 7,945 3,510 4,435 0.44 0.56 -0.12
Automotive Service Technicians And Mechanics 10,932 3,455 7,477 0.32 0.68 -0.37
Radio And Telecommunications Equipment Installers And Repairers 9,497 3,443 6,054 0.36 0.64 -0.27
Baggage Porters, Bellhops, And Concierges 11,121 3,439 7,682 0.31 0.69 -0.38
Automotive And Watercraft Service Attendants 7,948 3,420 4,528 0.43 0.57 -0.14
Biological Technicians 6,829 3,263 3,566 0.48 0.52 -0.04
First-Line Supervisors Of Landscaping, Lawn Service, And Groundskeeping Workers 6,686 3,253 3,433 0.49 0.51 -0.03
Entertainers And Performers, Sports And Related Workers, All Other 12,241 3,168 9,073 0.26 0.74 -0.48
Prepress Technicians And Workers 8,071 3,146 4,925 0.39 0.61 -0.22
Crushing, Grinding, Polishing, Mixing, And Blending Workers 6,571 3,059 3,512 0.47 0.53 -0.07
Machine Feeders And Offbearers 7,740 2,942 4,798 0.38 0.62 -0.24
Computer Network Architects 7,178 2,885 4,293 0.40 0.60 -0.20
Transportation Inspectors 5,763 2,801 2,962 0.49 0.51 -0.03
Agricultural And Food Scientists 8,558 2,775 5,783 0.32 0.68 -0.35
Cargo And Freight Agents 5,882 2,775 3,107 0.47 0.53 -0.06
Urban And Regional Planners 7,021 2,716 4,305 0.39 0.61 -0.23
Refuse And Recyclable Material Collectors 4,718 2,684 2,034 0.57 0.43 0.14
Jewelers And Precious Stone And Metal Workers 6,882 2,681 4,201 0.39 0.61 -0.22
Textile Winding, Twisting, And Drawing Out Machine Setters, Operators, And Tenders 5,373 2,586 2,787 0.48 0.52 -0.04
Ambulance Drivers And Attendants, Except Emergency Medical Technicians 4,145 2,574 1,571 0.62 0.38 0.24
Upholsterers 3,887 2,542 1,345 0.65 0.35 0.31
Computer Control Programmers And Operators 5,245 2,538 2,707 0.48 0.52 -0.03
First-Line Supervisors Of Farming, Fishing, And Forestry Workers 5,361 2,527 2,834 0.47 0.53 -0.06
Pipelayers, Plumbers, Pipefitters, And Steamfitters 5,562 2,504 3,058 0.45 0.55 -0.10
Materials Engineers 4,417 2,344 2,073 0.53 0.47 0.06
Environmental Engineers 5,598 2,343 3,255 0.42 0.58 -0.16
Morticians, Undertakers, And Funeral Directors 5,973 2,305 3,668 0.39 0.61 -0.23
Aircraft Mechanics And Service Technicians 4,586 2,293 2,293 0.50 0.50 0.00
Recreational Therapists 6,945 2,281 4,664 0.33 0.67 -0.34
Photographic Process Workers And Processing Machine Operators 7,184 2,269 4,915 0.32 0.68 -0.37
Food And Tobacco Roasting, Baking, And Drying Machine Operators And Tenders 3,273 2,260 1,013 0.69 0.31 0.38
Parking Lot Attendants 6,568 2,257 4,311 0.34 0.66 -0.31
Dancers And Choreographers 9,764 2,209 7,555 0.23 0.77 -0.55
Model Makers, Patternmakers, And Molding Machine Setters, Metal And Plastic 4,190 2,152 2,038 0.51 0.49 0.03
Gaming Managers 5,643 2,126 3,517 0.38 0.62 -0.25
Print Binding And Finishing Workers 5,534 2,119 3,415 0.38 0.62 -0.23
Tour And Travel Guides 8,266 2,097 6,169 0.25 0.75 -0.49
Motor Vehicle Operators, All Other 4,050 2,032 2,018 0.50 0.50 0.00
Miscellaneous Textile, Apparel, And Furnishings Workers, Except Upholsterers 5,798 1,998 3,800 0.34 0.66 -0.31
Financial Examiners 4,553 1,907 2,646 0.42 0.58 -0.16
Carpet, Floor, And Tile Installers And Finishers 3,767 1,883 1,884 0.50 0.50 0.00
Computer Hardware Engineers 4,466 1,831 2,635 0.41 0.59 -0.18
Textile Knitting And Weaving Machine Setters, Operators, And Tenders 3,415 1,795 1,620 0.53 0.47 0.05
Construction Equipment Operators, Except Paving, Surfacing, And Tamping Equipment Operators 5,471 1,744 3,727 0.32 0.68 -0.36
Surveyors, Cartographers, And Photogrammetrists 5,359 1,741 3,618 0.32 0.68 -0.35
Television, Video, And Motion Picture Camera Operators And Editors 7,343 1,693 5,650 0.23 0.77 -0.54
Precision Instrument And Equipment Repairers 5,483 1,683 3,800 0.31 0.69 -0.39
Computer And Information Research Scientists 5,605 1,648 3,957 0.29 0.71 -0.41
Paper Goods Machine Setters, Operators, And Tenders 3,739 1,635 2,104 0.44 0.56 -0.13
Railroad Conductors And Yardmasters 3,454 1,627 1,827 0.47 0.53 -0.06
Emergency Management Directors 2,777 1,625 1,152 0.59 0.41 0.17
Miscellaneous Plant And System Operators 3,445 1,581 1,864 0.46 0.54 -0.08
Fire Inspectors 3,434 1,574 1,860 0.46 0.54 -0.08
Heating, Air Conditioning, And Refrigeration Mechanics And Installers 2,644 1,565 1,079 0.59 0.41 0.18
Chemical Processing Machine Setters, Operators, And Tenders 4,733 1,536 3,197 0.32 0.68 -0.35
Petroleum, Mining And Geological Engineers, Including Mining Safety Engineers 3,231 1,513 1,718 0.47 0.53 -0.06
Hazardous Materials Removal Workers 3,205 1,481 1,724 0.46 0.54 -0.08
Announcers 7,296 1,404 5,892 0.19 0.81 -0.62
Communications Equipment Operators, All Other 3,170 1,404 1,766 0.44 0.56 -0.11
Avionics Technicians 1,657 1,399 258 0.84 0.16 0.69
Shoe And Leather Workers 2,202 1,346 856 0.61 0.39 0.22
Air Traffic Controllers And Airfield Operations Specialists 3,510 1,337 2,173 0.38 0.62 -0.24
Broadcast And Sound Engineering Technicians And Radio Operators, And Media And Communication Equipment Workers, All Other 6,247 1,328 4,919 0.21 0.79 -0.57
Podiatrists 1,784 1,326 458 0.74 0.26 0.49
Brokerage Clerks 3,619 1,318 2,301 0.36 0.64 -0.27
Meter Readers, Utilities 2,975 1,289 1,686 0.43 0.57 -0.13
Textile Bleaching And Dyeing, And Cutting Machine Setters, Operators, And Tenders 2,656 1,289 1,367 0.49 0.51 -0.03
Bus And Truck Mechanics And Diesel Engine Specialists 3,096 1,251 1,845 0.40 0.60 -0.19
Adhesive Bonding Machine Operators And Tenders 2,593 1,237 1,356 0.48 0.52 -0.05
Extruding, Forming, Pressing, And Compacting Machine Setters, Operators, And Tenders 3,844 1,220 2,624 0.32 0.68 -0.37
Conservation Scientists And Foresters 4,078 1,186 2,892 0.29 0.71 -0.42
Proofreaders And Copy Markers 4,088 1,181 2,907 0.29 0.71 -0.42
Sales Engineers 2,059 1,140 919 0.55 0.45 0.11
Agricultural Inspectors 5,028 1,140 3,888 0.23 0.77 -0.55
Miscellaneous Law Enforcement Workers 2,777 1,135 1,642 0.41 0.59 -0.18
Buyers And Purchasing Agents, Farm Products 1,694 1,076 618 0.64 0.36 0.27
Gaming Cage Workers 2,582 1,075 1,507 0.42 0.58 -0.17
Drywall Installers, Ceiling Tile Installers, And Tapers 2,828 1,047 1,781 0.37 0.63 -0.26
Power Plant Operators, Distributors, And Dispatchers 2,524 1,036 1,488 0.41 0.59 -0.18
Sawing Machine Setters, Operators, And Tenders, Wood 1,855 1,030 825 0.56 0.44 0.11
Water And Wastewater Treatment Plant And System Operators 2,779 1,022 1,757 0.37 0.63 -0.26
Biomedical And Agricultural Engineers 2,256 987 1,269 0.44 0.56 -0.13
Insulation Workers 1,894 942 952 0.50 0.50 -0.01
Food Cooking Machine Operators And Tenders 1,608 934 674 0.58 0.42 0.16
Ushers, Lobby Attendants, And Ticket Takers 5,031 930 4,101 0.18 0.82 -0.63
Electronic Home Entertainment Equipment Installers And Repairers 1,634 923 711 0.56 0.44 0.13
Pest Control Workers 3,070 898 2,172 0.29 0.71 -0.41
Molders, Shapers, And Casters, Except Metal And Plastic 2,654 894 1,760 0.34 0.66 -0.33
Fishing And Hunting Workers 1,405 880 525 0.63 0.37 0.25
Embalmers And Funeral Attendants 1,329 868 461 0.65 0.35 0.31
Geological And Petroleum Technicians, And Nuclear Technicians 2,705 849 1,856 0.31 0.69 -0.37
Surveying And Mapping Technicians 2,334 844 1,490 0.36 0.64 -0.28
Furniture Finishers 1,702 823 879 0.48 0.52 -0.03
Subway, Streetcar, And Other Rail Transportation Workers 1,939 814 1,125 0.42 0.58 -0.16
Miscellaneous Construction Workers, Including Solar Photovoltaic Installers, Septic Tank Servicers And Sewer Pipe Cleaners 1,427 810 617 0.57 0.43 0.14
Telecommunications Line Installers And Repairers 2,949 809 2,140 0.27 0.73 -0.45
Coin, Vending, And Amusement Machine Servicers And Repairers 2,861 809 2,052 0.28 0.72 -0.43
Sheet Metal Workers 3,435 792 2,643 0.23 0.77 -0.54
Ship And Boat Captains And Operators 1,880 777 1,103 0.41 0.59 -0.17
Structural Iron And Steel Workers 1,579 776 803 0.49 0.51 -0.02
Rolling Machine Setters, Operators, And Tenders, Metal And Plastic 1,801 770 1,031 0.43 0.57 -0.14
Stationary Engineers And Boiler Operators 927 767 160 0.83 0.17 0.65
Furnace, Kiln, Oven, Drier, And Kettle Operators And Tenders 1,828 766 1,062 0.42 0.58 -0.16
Miscellaneous Material Moving Workers, Including Mine Shuttle Car Operators, And Tank Car, Truck, And Ship Loaders 2,291 761 1,530 0.33 0.67 -0.34
Crane And Tower Operators 1,132 756 376 0.67 0.33 0.34
Conveyor Operators And Tenders, And Hoist And Winch Operators 1,344 755 589 0.56 0.44 0.12
Miscellaneous Extraction Workers, Including Roof Bolters And Helpers 1,707 704 1,003 0.41 0.59 -0.18
Derrick, Rotary Drill, And Service Unit Operators, And Roustabouts, Oil, Gas, And Mining 677 677 0 1.00 0.00 1.00
Animal Control Workers 2,781 662 2,119 0.24 0.76 -0.52
Automotive Body And Related Repairers 1,072 648 424 0.60 0.40 0.21
Automotive Glass Installers And Repairers 909 628 281 0.69 0.31 0.38
Helpers, Construction Trades 1,750 613 1,137 0.35 0.65 -0.30
Logging Workers 1,230 601 629 0.49 0.51 -0.02
Roofers 1,481 565 916 0.38 0.62 -0.24
Astronomers And Physicists 1,299 557 742 0.43 0.57 -0.14
Maintenance Workers, Machinery 1,005 532 473 0.53 0.47 0.06
Woodworking Machine Setters, Operators, And Tenders, Except Sawing 2,824 491 2,333 0.17 0.83 -0.65
Home Appliance Repairers 590 470 120 0.80 0.20 0.59
Mining Machine Operators 1,090 454 636 0.42 0.58 -0.17
Atmospheric And Space Scientists 2,389 450 1,939 0.19 0.81 -0.62
Brickmasons, Blockmasons, Stonemasons, And Reinforcing Iron And Rebar Workers 622 421 201 0.68 0.32 0.35
Cabinetmakers And Bench Carpenters 2,024 380 1,644 0.19 0.81 -0.62
Highway Maintenance Workers 1,767 379 1,388 0.21 0.79 -0.57
Forest And Conservation Workers 2,726 370 2,356 0.14 0.86 -0.73
Miscellaneous Transportation Workers, Including Bridge And Lock Tenders And Traffic Technicians 1,675 367 1,308 0.22 0.78 -0.56
First-Line Supervisors Of Fire Fighting And Prevention Workers 1,208 364 844 0.30 0.70 -0.40
Control And Valve Installers And Repairers 1,608 348 1,260 0.22 0.78 -0.57
Sailors And Marine Oilers, And Ship Engineers 862 341 521 0.40 0.60 -0.21
Forging Machine Setters, Operators, And Tenders, Metal And Plastic 565 333 232 0.59 0.41 0.18
Millwrights 501 314 187 0.63 0.37 0.25
Etchers And Engravers 2,306 311 1,995 0.13 0.87 -0.73
Miscellaneous Woodworkers, Including Model Makers And Patternmakers 833 296 537 0.36 0.64 -0.29
Electronic Equipment Installers And Repairers, Motor Vehicles 556 240 316 0.43 0.57 -0.14
Aircraft Structure, Surfaces, Rigging, And Systems Assemblers 430 239 191 0.56 0.44 0.11
Earth Drillers, Except Oil And Gas 364 226 138 0.62 0.38 0.24
Metal Furnace Operators, Tenders, Pourers, And Casters 1,708 223 1,485 0.13 0.87 -0.74
Fence Erectors 949 221 728 0.23 0.77 -0.53
Miscellaneous Vehicle And Mobile Equipment Mechanics, Installers, And Repairers 459 220 239 0.48 0.52 -0.04
Marine Engineers And Naval Architects 1,089 213 876 0.20 0.80 -0.61
Tire Builders 1,692 203 1,489 0.12 0.88 -0.76
Extruding And Drawing Machine Setters, Operators, And Tenders, Metal And Plastic 1,619 198 1,421 0.12 0.88 -0.76
Elevator Installers And Repairers 632 195 437 0.31 0.69 -0.38
Rail-Track Laying And Maintenance Equipment Operators 193 193 0 1.00 0.00 1.00
Heavy Vehicle And Mobile Equipment Service Technicians And Mechanics 1,719 186 1,533 0.11 0.89 -0.78
Pumping Station Operators 463 183 280 0.40 0.60 -0.21
Locomotive Engineers And Operators 956 175 781 0.18 0.82 -0.63
Helpers--Installation, Maintenance, And Repair Workers 491 168 323 0.34 0.66 -0.32
Engine And Other Machine Assemblers 746 163 583 0.22 0.78 -0.56
Riggers 527 150 377 0.28 0.72 -0.43
Paving, Surfacing, And Tamping Equipment Operators 692 145 547 0.21 0.79 -0.58
Tool And Die Makers 385 86 299 0.22 0.78 -0.55
Electric Motor, Power Tool, And Related Repairers 707 83 624 0.12 0.88 -0.77
Glaziers 978 73 905 0.07 0.93 -0.85
Explosives Workers, Ordnance Handling Experts, And Blasters 71 71 0 1.00 0.00 1.00
Security And Fire Alarm Systems Installers 554 71 483 0.13 0.87 -0.74
Electrical Power-Line Installers And Repairers 750 70 680 0.09 0.91 -0.81
Structural Metal Fabricators And Fitters 921 48 873 0.05 0.95 -0.90
Dredge, Excavating, And Loading Machine Operators 588 27 561 0.05 0.95 -0.91
Motion Picture Projectionists 242 0 242 0.00 1.00 -1.00
Boilermakers 149 0 149 0.00 1.00 -1.00
Cement Masons, Concrete Finishers, And Terrazzo Workers 170 0 170 0.00 1.00 -1.00
Plasterers And Stucco Masons 90 0 90 0.00 1.00 -1.00
Electrical And Electronics Repairers, Transportation Equipment, And Industrial And Utility 373 0 373 0.00 1.00 -1.00
Small Engine Mechanics 1,212 0 1,212 0.00 1.00 -1.00
Locksmiths And Safe Repairers 667 0 667 0.00 1.00 -1.00

Note: Civilian employed women ages 25 to 54.
Data: American Community Survey 2017

Family Type

 

 

Share of families with children
Year Married-couple families Mother-only families Father-only families One-parent families
1975 83.7 14.7 1.6 16.3
1976 83.2 15.3 1.5 16.8
1977 82.5 15.9 1.6 17.5
1978 81.1 17.1 1.8 18.9
1979 80.7 17.4 1.9 19.3
1980 80.5 17.5 2.0 19.5
1980 80.5 17.6 2.0 19.5
1981 79.8 18.0 2.1 20.2
1982 78.9 18.9 2.2 21.1
1983 79.1 18.6 2.4 20.9
1984 78.4 19.0 2.6 21.6
1985 77.8 19.3 2.9 22.2
1986 77.8 19.3 3.0 22.2
1987 77.3 19.7 3.0 22.7
1988 77.1 19.7 3.3 22.9
1989 76.5 20.2 3.3 23.5
1990 76.0 20.4 3.6 24.0
1991 75.3 21.1 3.6 24.7
1992 74.6 21.5 3.9 25.4
1993 74.3 21.7 4.0 25.7
1994 73.7 22.5 3.9 26.3
1995 73.6 22.2 4.2 26.4
1996 72.9 22.4 4.8 27.1
1997 72.4 22.7 4.9 27.6
1998 72.7 22.1 5.2 27.3
1999 72.4 22.7 4.9 27.6
2000 73.0 21.9 5.2 27.0
2001 73.5 21.3 5.2 26.5
2002 72.2 22.4 5.3 27.8
2003 72.0 22.6 5.3 28.0
2004 71.8 22.9 5.4 28.2
2005 71.6 22.8 5.6 28.4
2006 71.2 23.0 5.7 28.8
2007 71.2 23.4 5.5 28.8
2008 70.5 23.5 6.1 29.5
2009 70.5 23.6 5.9 29.5
2010 69.8 23.9 6.3 30.2
2011 68.9 24.7 6.4 31.1
2011 68.8 24.8 6.4 31.2
2012 67.7 25.3 6.9 32.3
2013 68.1 24.6 7.3 31.9
2014 68.5 24.5 7.1 31.5
2015 68.7 24.4 6.8 31.3
2016 68.4 24.5 7.1 31.6
2017 69.0 24.0 7.0 31.0
2018 69.1 23.7 7.2 30.9

Notes: Prior to 1980 the counts of families include unrelated subfamilies. Data for 1970 and 1980 are revised based on the 1980 decennial census. Data from 2014 onwards reflect redesigned questions.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, March 1975 - 2018 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

Earnings

Weekly median earnings (in $) by sex and age of children

 

 

Weekly median earnings (in $) by sex and age of children
Gender Group Weekly Earnings in $s
Women Total 660
Men Total 884
Women with children under 18 693
Men with children under 18 1061
Women with children 6-17 715
Men with children 6-17 1121
Women with children under 6 659
Men with children under 6 1002
Women with no children under 18 643
Men with no children under 18 803

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey. Unpublished tables.

Married women's earnings as a percent of total family income

 

 

Married women's earnings as a percent of total family income
Year Women with no children under 18 Mothers with children under 18 Total
2000 33.6 32.1 32.8
2001 34.3 32.8 33.5
2002 35.2 33.6 34.4
2003 35.7 34 34.8
2004 36.1 34.3 35.2
2005 35.5 34.2 34.9
2006 35.8 34.4 35.1
2007 36.4 34.8 35.6
2008 36.7 35.2 36
2009 36.5 35.5 36
2010 37.3 36.9 37.1
2011 38.1 37.1 37.6
2012 37.2 36.7 37
2013 37.4 37.1 37.3
2014 37.4 37.2 37.3
2015 35.9 36.2 36
2016 36.8 37.4 37.1
2017 36.8 37.4 37.1
2018 37.1 36.7 36.9

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2000 - 2018 Annual Social and Economic Supplement, Unpublished Table.

Percent of households with children under 18 in which mothers are equal, primary, or sole earners

 

 

Percent of households with children under 18 in which mothers are equal, primary, or sole earners
Year Married-couple Families Mother-only Families Total Percentage
1960 4 7.3 11.2
1970 4.6 11.0 15.6
1980 7.2 16.1 23.3
1990 11.4 19.1 30.5
2000 13.9 21.3 35.1
2010 16.6 25.1 41.6
2014 16.1 25.0 41.2
2015 16.3 24.6 40.9
2016 16.5 24.2 40.7
2017 16.6 23.8 40.4

Sources: 1960-2000 Decennial Census and 2017 American Community Survey (ACS) Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS). Sources: 1960-2000 Decennial Census and 2017 American Community Survey (ACS) Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS).