Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Wallis and Futuna

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Wallis and Futuna

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

No Assessment

For the 2015 reporting period, no assessment has been made regarding Wallis and Futuna’s efforts to advance the prevention of the worst forms of child labor, because there is no evidence of a worst form of child labor problem and the country has a good legal and enforcement framework on child labor.

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Research found no evidence that child labor, including its worst forms, exists in Wallis and Futuna. Wallis and Futuna has a population of 12,200 inhabitants, 3,430 of whom are children.(1) The population has decreased by 18 percent since 2003.(1)

Wallis and Futuna is considered a French Overseas Collectivity and, therefore, Wallis and Futuna cannot ratify international conventions; however, France’s ratification of such conventions applies to Wallis and Futuna.(2) France has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 1).

Table 1. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

French law applies in Wallis and Futuna.(1, 3) The Government of France has established laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms. These laws and regulations apply to Wallis and Futuna (Table 2).

Table 2. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article L4153-1 of the Labor Code (4-6)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article R234-6 of the Labor Code (5)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Article R234-6 of the Labor Code; Decree No. 2013-915, Relative to Work That Is Prohibited and Regulated for Young People Less Than 18 Years (5-7)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 212-1, 224-1, 225-4-1, 225-14-1, and 711-1of the Penal Code; Article 2 of Law No.52-1322 (6, 8)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 225-4-1 to 225-4-9, and 711-1 of the Penal Code (6, 8)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 225-5 to 12 and 711-1 of the Penal Code (6, 8)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

 

Article 227-15 to 227-28-3, and 711-1 of the Penal Code (8)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Combat: Yes

18

Article L121-1 and Book II, Article L5 of Law on National Service Reform (9)

Non-combat: Yes

17

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Articles L131-1 and L.161-1 of the Education Code (10)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Articles L132-1, L132-2 and L.161-1 of the Education Code (10)

* No conscription.(11, 12)

While Wallis and Futuna’s Penal Code does prohibit forced labor and slavery, it does not criminally prohibit the use of children in bonded labor. The Penal Code also does not prohibit the use of children in the production of drugs.(8)

Even with no evidence of a problem, the Government of France has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 3).

Table 3. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Service of Labor and Social Affairs Inspection of Wallis and Futuna

Enforce labor laws and report violations involving children to local social assistance personnel.(1)

Defender of Rights

Promote children’s rights, including through the prohibition of child labor.(13)

French National Police

Oversee the health and safety of children.(1)

 

As there is no evidence of a problem, there appears to be no need for enforcement actions to address child labor, including its worst forms.

As there is no evidence of a problem, there appears to be no need for mechanisms to coordinate efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms.

As there is no evidence of a problem, there appears to be no need for policies to address child labor, including its worst forms.

As there is no evidence of a problem, there appears to be no need for social programs to address child labor, including its worst forms.

 

Table 4. Suggested Government Actions to Prevent Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the use of children in bonded labor.

2015

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the use of children in the production of drugs.

2015

 

1.         U.S. Embassy- Paris. reporting, February 3, 2015.

2.         U.S. Embassy- Paris official. E-mail communication to USDOL official April 14, 2014.

3.         Government of France. Loi n° 61-814 du 29 juillet 1961 Conférant aux Iles Wallis et Futuna le Statut de Territoire d'Outre-Mer, enacted 1961. Updated May 1, 2012. http://www.wallis-et-futuna.pref.gouv.fr/Nos-publications/Publications-Institutionnelles/Statut-1961.

4.         Library of Congress. Children's Rights: France, Library of Congress, [online] [cited March 5, 2013]; http://www.loc.gov/law/help/child-rights/france.php.

5.         Government of France. Code du Travail, enacted May 2008. https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichCode.do;jsessionid=879345019B26E1D33B423B1B97FC6807.tpdila16v_2?cidTexte=LEGITEXT000006072050&dateTexte=20160404.

6.         U.S. Embassy- Paris. reporting, January 25, 2016.

7.         Government of France. Décret n° 2013-915 du 11 Octobre 2013 Relatif aux Travaux Interdits et Réglementés pour les Jeunes Agés de Moins de Dix-Huit Ans, enacted October 11, 2013. http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000028057273&dateTexte=&categorieLien=id.

8.         Government of France. Code Penal, enacted June 1998. http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichCode.do;jsessionid=5915BE44CD095CAE70B46222FFF096FF.tpdjo03v_3?cidTexte=LEGITEXT000006070719&dateTexte=20100929.

9.         Government of France. Law on National Service Reform, enacted October 1997. http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000000368950&dateTexte=19971108.

10.       Government of France. Code de l'Education, enacted 2014. http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/initRechCodeArticle.do;jsessionid=173B8CB01370804704F3991CB71FDC9B.tpdjo03v_3.

11.       Child Soldiers International. "Wallis and Futuna," in Louder Than Words: An Agenda for Action to End State Use of Child Soldiers. London; 2012; http://www.child-soldiers.org/global_report_reader.php?id=562.

12.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 8 of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict: Wallis and Futuna. Geneva; October 15, 2007. http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G07/445/51/PDF/G0744551.pdf?OpenElement.

13.       U.S. Embassy- Paris. reporting, January 17, 2014.

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