List of Products Produced by Forced or Indentured Child Labor

ILAB maintains a list of products and their source countries which it has a reasonable basis to believe are produced by forced or indentured child labor, pursuant to Executive Order 13126. This List is intended to ensure that U.S. federal agencies do not procure goods made by forced or indentured child labor. Under procurement regulations, federal contractors who supply products on the List must certify that they have made a good faith effort to determine whether forced or indentured child labor was used to produce the items supplied.

The Department of Labor, in consultation with the Departments of State and Homeland Security, publishes and maintains the List. ILAB released its initial List in 2001, and has revised it several times since then. As of March 25, 2019, the EO List comprises 34 products from 25 countries.

Legal Authorities

The List is required by Executive Order 13126, "Prohibition of Acquisition of Products Produced by Forced or Indentured Child Labor." The procurement requirements related to products on the List are set out in a 2001 Federal Acquisition Regulation Final Rule.

Procedural Guidelines

ILAB develops the List using criteria and procedures established in its "Procedural Guidelines for the Maintenance of the List of Products Requiring Federal Contractor Certification as to Forced or Indentured Child Labor."

Filters

Display
Country Sort descending Product
India
  Rice

There are reports of children working under conditions of forced labor in rice mills in India, particularly in Tamil Nadu. These children are forced to work producing rice through a system of bonded labor, often working with their families. Children of the lower castes, socially disadvantaged classes in India, are particularly vulnerable. According to an ILO study, over 1,000 families work in bonded labor in rice mills in one district of Tamil Nadu. Families take an advance payment from recruiters and then are forced to work to pay off the debt. Some children face harassment and restrictions on their movement from mill personnel. 

Hindi translation

India
  Cottonseed (Hybrid)

There are reports that children, especially girls ages 6-14, are forced to produce hybrid cottonseed in India. Cottonseed production, and cottonseed farms with bonded child laborers, are reported to be concentrated in the state of Andhra Pradesh. According to NGO reports, between 400,000 and 450,000 children are working in the production of hybrid cottonseed, many working as forced or bonded labor. Some of these children are bonded to their employer, forced to work to pay off the debt of advanced payments made to their parents. Some children are forced to work with toxic pesticides. 

Hindi translation

India
  Stones

There are reports that children in India are forced to quarry stones. These children work in stone quarries, mines, and crushers under conditions of bonded labor. According to an assessment by the ILO, as many as 500,000 stone quarry workers, including entire families, in Tamil Nadu were bonded laborers. Families receive an advance payment and become bonded for generations to pay off the debt. Some children are used as a guarantee for the loan and are forced to work to pay it off. Some children inherit the debt of their parents and may be bought and sold between contractors. Children of scheduled castes, a socially disadvantaged class in India, and migrant children, are particularly vulnerable. The children live at the worksite and face isolation and restrictions on their movement. Some children are forced to work under threat of financial penalties or physical violence, receive little pay, and are denied wages. 

Hindi translation

India
  Embellished Textiles

There are reports of children, many between the ages of 8-14, producing embellished textiles under conditions of forced labor in India. Some children work under a system of debt bondage. Most factories that produce zari, a type of embroidery, are concentrated in Mumbai and Delhi, but many children are trafficked from other locations such as Bihar. According to government raids and an NGO report, between 125,000 and 210,000 children are working in Delhi embroidery workshops, and approximately 100,000 are working in zari embroidery and other textile embellishment workshops in Mumbai and elsewhere. Some children are forced to work under threat of physical violence. Some work long hours including overtime and do not receive payment for their work. 

Hindi translation

Malawi
  Tobacco

There are reports that children in Malawi are forced to work producing tobacco. Tobacco estates are concentrated in the Mzimba, Kasungu, Mchinji and Mzimba districts. According to the most recently available data from the ILO and NGOs, over 70,000 children work on tobacco plantations, some of them under conditions of bonded labor. Families working on tobacco estates sometimes become bonded to their landlords, and their children are forced to work to repay their family debts. Landlords charge these tenant workers for costs such as rent, fertilizer, and seeds; these costs often exceed the profit earned from the tobacco harvest and result in debt for the worker and his or her family. Some children are also hired under deceptive terms of work and promised payment, and then are paid little, if at all, at the end of the season. Some children are forced to work long hours, including overtime, and are forced to perform dangerous tasks, such as carrying heavy loads and using pesticides. In addition, certain children work under threats and penalties including physical, verbal, and sexual abuse, and do not receive food or pay. 

Mali
  Rice

There are reports that children are forced to work cultivating rice in Mali, particularly along the Niger River and in the Segou region. According to a university study and the ILO, some children are trafficked in groups of 25 to 50, and an estimated 2,000 children have been forced to work in rice fields in Mali. Some children are known to be recruited from villages in other parts of Mali to cultivate rice in Niono. Boys are also trafficked from Burkina Faso to produce rice in Mali. Some boys ages 10-15 from Burkina Faso and Mali are sent to work in rice fields by their Koranic teachers at religious schools. Organized trafficking rings link the farmers with the teachers and the children. These boys receive no pay for their work; the farmers pay the teachers and the recruiters for the boys' labor. 

French Translation

Nepal
  Carpets

There are reports that children are forced to produce carpets in Nepal. Children age 14 and older are found in registered carpet factories, while children younger than 14 are found in informal, unregistered carpet factories. Carpet factories are concentrated in the Kathmandu Valley. Some children work alone or with their families as bonded laborers in the factories. Most children do not receive payment for their work. Some children work to pay off advance payments for their labor made by the employer to the recruiter or their families. These children live in the factory or nearby in accommodations provided by the employer. The children are not free to leave until the debt has been repaid. Many of the children are forced to work long hours and overtime, up to 18 hours per day; many cannot leave the factory even after they have completed their long workday. Such children are punished by employers for refusing to work, missing production quotas, falling asleep, or making mistakes.

Nepali translation

Nepal
  Embellished Textiles

There are reports that children, mostly boys ages 7-17, are forced to produce embellished textiles in Nepal. The factories are spread across the Kathmandu Valley and are concentrated in Thankot. The child workers are mainly recruited from Sarlahi, Mohattari, and Dhanusha Districts. Based on a research report, close to 7,500 children are working under forced labor conditions in the sector. Factory owners often recruit certain boys to work on one- or two-year contracts, paying an advance to their parents for the boys' labor. The boys are forced to work long hours without pay. At the end of the contract, the factory owner offers another advance payment to the parents, and the boys then return to work for the factory. During the subsequent contract, the children receive little or no wages after the initial advance payment as wages are deducted to repay the advance, and accommodation and food expenses are also deducted. These children live at the worksite, and the factories are often locked, preventing the children from leaving.

Nepali Translation

Nepal
  Stones

There are reports that children as young as age five are forced to quarry stones in Nepal. An NGO report and the media indicate that these children work as bonded laborers, often working alongside their parents and other family members in quarries and riverbeds across the country. Families borrow money and are paid too little to escape their debt, remaining in debt bondage. Some children, usually with their families, live at the worksite where they are watched by guards and forbidden from leaving. The children are often forced to perform hazardous work, including carrying heavy loads. Employers threaten to withhold food from the workers, including children. Some children experience physical violence by their employers.

Nepali translation

Nepal
  Bricks

There are reports that children ages 6-17 and some younger than age 5 are working under conditions of forced labor to produce bricks in Nepal. According to available information from an NGO report, two-thirds of the children are male. Brick kilns are concentrated in the Kathmandu Valley and Terai, and operate seasonally between October and June. According to the most recently available NGO data, between 30,000 and 60,000 children work in Nepal's brick kilns, of which up to 39 percent are working as bonded labor. Migrant families, members of certain castes – a socially disadvantaged class in Nepal – and ethnic minorities, such as Dalit, Janajati, and Madeshi, are particularly vulnerable to bonded labor in brick kilns. Most of the children are from Nepal, however some are from West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh, India. Many families take advance loans from brick kiln employers or brokers with a commitment to produce a specified quantity of bricks, and become bonded laborers. Their children are bound by their parents' debt and work alongside their families making bricks. The bonded families live at the kiln worksites, without access to safe water or sanitation facilities, and are prohibited from leaving until the debts are paid in full. Some bonded children are forced to work 12 hours a day, and receive little, if any, payment after wage deductions to repay the family debt. Some children are penalized by their employers with verbal or physical abuse.

Nepali translation

Showing 31 - 40 of 53 results
Want this report plus over a thousand pages of research in the palm of
your hand? Download ILAB's Sweat & Toil App today!
Are you a company looking to fight child labor and forced labor in supply
chains? Download ILAB's Comply Chain App Today!

Further Resources

Related

Public Comments and Submissions

Each revision to the List is published first as an Initial Determination for public comment. The Departments of Labor, State and Homeland Security consider all public comments before publishing a Final Determination to revise the List. ILAB also accepts public submissions about the List on an ongoing basis, and reviews them as they are received. To submit information, please send an email to eo13126@dol.gov; fax to 202-693-4830; or mail to ILAB, U.S. Department of Labor, c/o OCFT Research and Policy Unit, 200 Constitution Ave NW, S-5317, Washington, DC 20210. View the list of submissions.