List of Products Produced by Forced or Indentured Child Labor
ILAB maintains a list of products and their source countries which it has a reasonable basis to believe are produced by forced or indentured child labor, pursuant to Executive Order 13126. This List is intended to ensure that U.S. federal agencies do not procure goods made by forced or indentured child labor. Under procurement regulations, federal contractors who supply products on the List must certify that they have made a good faith effort to determine whether forced or indentured child labor was used to produce the items supplied.
The Department of Labor, in consultation with the Departments of State and Homeland Security, publishes and maintains the List. ILAB released its initial List in 2001, and has revised it several times since then. As of March 25, 2019, the EO List comprises 34 products from 25 countries.
The List is required by Executive Order 13126, "Prohibition of Acquisition of Products Produced by Forced or Indentured Child Labor." The procurement requirements related to products on the List are set out in a 2001 Federal Acquisition Regulation Final Rule.
ILAB develops the List using criteria and procedures established in its "Procedural Guidelines for the Maintenance of the List of Products Requiring Federal Contractor Certification as to Forced or Indentured Child Labor."
There are reports that mostly girls as young as 11 are forced to produce garments in Thailand. Migrant children from Laos and Burma are particularly vulnerable. The ILO, media, trade unions, government raids, and NGOs report forced child labor in garment factories in Bangkok and along the Burma border in Mae Sai and Mae Sot. Many children live at the worksite, and their freedom of movement is sometimes restricted through confiscation of identity documents and threats of arrest. Children are often forced to work long hours and overtime, and are paid little, if at all. Some are not provided sufficient food and are physically abused. Mistakes made during the course of work are sometimes penalized with wage deductions.
There are reports of children ages 10-18 and some as young as 6 who work under conditions of forced labor producing garments in Vietnam. The most recently available information from government raids, NGOs and media reports indicates that groups of children are found in small privately-owned factories and informal workshops. These workplaces are located primarily in and around Ho Chi Minh City; however, many of these children have migrated, or have been trafficked, from the countryside and from central or northern provinces. Many of the children live in the factories; employers prevent the children from leaving through force and/or by withholding their wages. In some cases, employers pay the children only after a full year of work or at the completion of a multi-year contract. Employers refuse to pay the children who leave before the end of the contract; some withhold a portion of the wages dues under the contract in order to force the children to remain an additional year. The children are forced to work long hours, up to 18 hours per day, sometimes late into the night, and with few breaks. Reports indicate that these children are beaten or threatened with physical violence by their employers. In addition, there are reports of children as young as 12 years old found to be working while confined in government-run detention centers. These children are forced to sew garments under threat of physical or other punishments and without pay.
There are reports that children are forced to mine gold in the Sahel region of Burkina Faso. According to a report by the ILO containing the most recently available data, in the combined Sahel regions of Burkina Faso and Niger, up to 30-50 percent of the gold mine workforce is comprised of children; most are under the age of 15, and some work under conditions of forced labor. Some children from around the country are trafficked to mines in the country's Ioba, Oudalan, Passore, and Sissili provinces. These children work in small informal mines that are located in remote rural areas and mostly operate on a seasonal basis. The children, beginning between ages 12 and 14, are forced to work in hazardous conditions digging, breaking rocks, transporting, washing, and pounding the gold, including work underground in narrow shafts. These children receive little or no payment, with many receiving wage deductions for lodging and food expenses.
|Congo, Democratic Republic of the (DRC)||
There are reports that children ages 10-16 are forced to work in the production of gold in some mines in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Based on the most recently available NGO evidence, thousands of children are working in conditions of forced labor in the mines in Eastern Congo, particularly in North and South Kivu. Some children are forced to work at the mines with their families in situations of bonded labor, while other children are sent away to the mines by their parents to pay off the family's debt. Child miners are paid little if at all. Many mines are controlled by military officers or armed groups which force children to work. Some children are abducted to work in the mines.
There are reports that children, mostly boys ages 4-17, are forced to quarry granite in Nigeria. Some children are abducted and trafficked from within Nigeria and from Benin to work in granite quarries and mines in the Federal Capital Territory, as well as the states of Ebonyi, Enugu, Ogun, Oyo, and Osun. Reports from the United Nations (UN) and media indicate that between 5,000 and 6,000 children from Benin alone were forced to work in the granite quarries; multiple government rescue operations identified between 50 and 200 children engaged in this work at a time. The children are forced to work up to 16 hours a day, even when they are sick. Many are forced to work under threat of physical violence. Children are often forced to sleep outside and are denied food. Reports indicate that children frequently die while working, having been forced to work under extreme conditions.
There are reports that children, mostly boys as young as age four, are forced to excavate and process gravel in Nigeria. According to reports from the media and government raids, 5,000 children from Nigeria and Benin are working in forced gravel production in Nigeria. The children are trafficked from Benin and forced to work, on average for a total of six years, in gravel pits in the Ogun, Osun, and Oyo states. An NGO study revealed that hundreds of children had been trafficked from Zou province in Benin to work in gravel production; other reports have found that hundreds of children have been rescued from this forced labor and returned to other areas in Benin. These children are forced to work excessive hours and to sleep in the bush near the pits. They are threatened with physical violence and tortured by the work gang leaders, particularly if they fail to meet their daily work quotas. The children are forced to work under extreme, sometimes fatal, conditions.
There are reports that children are forced to engage in pornography in Russia. According to reports from NGOs, tens of thousands of children were exploited in the production of pornography, and evidence suggests that many of them were forced to do so. The production of child pornography is concentrated in big cities, particularly in St. Petersburg and Moscow. Street children in both cities are particularly vulnerable to exploitation in this industry. Some children are trafficked internally and from the former Soviet republics to engage in pornography in Russia. These children are often subject to various forms of physical abuse while they are exploited in this form of forced labor.
There are reports that children as young as age nine are forced to work in the production of rice in Burma. According to NGOs, villagers, including children, are forced to work planting and harvesting rice for the military camps. These children are forced to work on rotation year-round for the military, although most rice paddy cultivation occurs during the rainy season. Local officials and the military enforce the work orders, and workers cannot refuse to work, even if sick. The forced child laborers are not paid for their work, and the children are beaten if their work is considered to be of unacceptable quality.
There are reports of children working under conditions of forced labor in rice mills in India, particularly in Tamil Nadu. These children are forced to work producing rice through a system of bonded labor, often working with their families. Children of the lower castes, socially disadvantaged classes in India, are particularly vulnerable. According to an ILO study, over 1,000 families work in bonded labor in rice mills in one district of Tamil Nadu. Families take an advance payment from recruiters and then are forced to work to pay off the debt. Some children face harassment and restrictions on their movement from mill personnel.
There are reports that children are forced to work cultivating rice in Mali, particularly along the Niger River and in the Segou region. According to a university study and the ILO, some children are trafficked in groups of 25 to 50, and an estimated 2,000 children have been forced to work in rice fields in Mali. Some children are known to be recruited from villages in other parts of Mali to cultivate rice in Niono. Boys are also trafficked from Burkina Faso to produce rice in Mali. Some boys ages 10-15 from Burkina Faso and Mali are sent to work in rice fields by their Koranic teachers at religious schools. Organized trafficking rings link the farmers with the teachers and the children. These boys receive no pay for their work; the farmers pay the teachers and the recruiters for the boys' labor.