List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor
The Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) maintains a list of goods and their source countries which it has reason to believe are produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards, as required under the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA) of 2005 and subsequent reauthorizations. The List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor comprises 159 goods from 78 countries and areas, as of September 28, 2022.
ILAB maintains the List primarily to raise public awareness about forced labor and child labor around the world and to promote efforts to combat them; it is not intended to be punitive, but rather to serve as a catalyst for more strategic and focused coordination and collaboration among those working to address these problems.
Publication of the List has resulted in new opportunities for ILAB to engage with foreign governments to combat forced labor and child labor. It is also a valuable resource for researchers, advocacy organizations and companies wishing to carry out risk assessments and engage in due diligence on labor rights in their supply chains.
The countries on the List span every region of the world. The most common agricultural goods listed are sugarcane, cotton, coffee, tobacco, cattle, rice, and fish. In the manufacturing sector, bricks, garments, textiles, footwear, carpets, and fireworks appear most frequently. In mined or quarried goods, gold, coal and diamonds are most common.
ILAB published the initial TVPRA List in 2009 and updated it annually through 2014, following a set of procedural guidelines that were the product of an intensive public consultation process. ILAB now updates and publishes the List every other year, pursuant to changes in the law.
On May 15, 2020, ILAB's Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking published Procedural Guidelines for the development and maintenance of the List of Goods from countries produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards.
According to think tank and media reports, the textile industry works with the Government of China to make use of adult ethnic minority groups for forced, exploitative labor. Researchers note that Xinjiang is undergoing an expansion of the textile industry, and it is possible that hundreds of thousands of workers are being subjected to forced labor as part of this effort. Victim testimonies, news media, and think tanks report that factories, including for textiles, frequently engage in coercive recruitment; limit workers’ freedom of movement and communication; and subject workers to constant surveillance, retribution for religious beliefs, exclusion from community and social life, and threaten family members. Further, some workers have been subject to military-style management, government indoctrination, and are paid below the minimum wage. There are reports that adults are forced to produce textiles in China. More broadly, according to varied estimates, at least 100,000 to hundreds of thousands of Uyghurs, ethnic Kazakhs, and other Muslim minorities are being subjected to forced labor in China following detention in re-education camps. In addition to this, poor workers in rural areas may also experience coercion without detention. Workers can be placed at factories within the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, where the camps are located, or be transferred out of Xinjiang to factories in eastern China.
|Child Labor, Forced Labor|
There is evidence that children ages 5 to 14 are involved in the weaving of textiles in Ghana. Based on an analysis of the Ghana Living Standards Survey, an estimated 23,856 child laborers are involved in the weaving of textiles. There are numerous health and safety issues associated with the textile industry. These hazards include chemical exposure from the processing and dyeing of materials, exposure to cotton and other organic dusts, musculoskeletal stresses, and noise exposure. The release of this survey demonstrates the Government of Ghana’s commitment to addressing child labor and its acknowledgement that data collection is vital to the design and implementation of sound policies and programs.
|Korea, North||Forced Labor|
There is evidence that children under 14 work in the production of textiles in Pakistan. Based on an analysis of the Pakistan Labour Force Survey 2017– 2018, an estimated 45,699 children are involved in child labor in the production of textiles. The release of this survey demonstrates the Government of Pakistan’s commitment to addressing child labor and its acknowledgment that data collection is vital to the design and implementation of sound policies and programs.
There is evidence that children ages 5 to 17 in Vietnam produce textiles. Based on the Government of Vietnam’s National Child Labor Survey 2012, the results of which were published in 2014, an estimated 6,049 child laborers work in textile production, mainly in the fabrication and finishing stages of the process. About 42.9 percent, or 2,595, of these child laborers are under 15 years old, which is the minimum age for employment in Vietnam. Of the estimated 6,049 child laborers who produce textiles, about 448 are 5-11 years old, 2,147 are 12-14 years old, and 3,454 are 15-17 years old. Approximately 96 percent of child textile workers are female. The survey considers a child to be engaged in child labor if the child is working an excessive number of hours per week for his or her age, or if the child is engaged in work that is prohibited for underage employees according to national legislation.
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