List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor

The Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) maintains a list of goods and their source countries which it has reason to believe are produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards, as required under the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA) of 2005 and subsequent reauthorizations. The List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor comprises 148 goods from 76 countries, as of September 20, 2018.

ILAB maintains the List primarily to raise public awareness about forced labor and child labor around the world and to promote efforts to combat them; it is not intended to be punitive, but rather to serve as a catalyst for more strategic and focused coordination and collaboration among those working to address these problems.

Publication of the List has resulted in new opportunities for ILAB to engage with foreign governments to combat forced labor and child labor. It is also a valuable resource for researchers, advocacy organizations and companies wishing to carry out risk assessments and engage in due diligence on labor rights in their supply chains.

The countries on the List span every region of the world. The most common agricultural goods listed are sugarcane, cotton, coffee, tobacco, cattle, rice, and fish. In the manufacturing sector, bricks, garments, textiles, footwear, carpets, and fireworks appear most frequently. In mined or quarried goods, gold, coal and diamonds are most common.

ILAB published the initial TVPRA List in 2009 and updated it annually through 2014, following a set of procedural guidelines that were the product of an intensive public consultation process. ILAB now updates and publishes the List every other year, pursuant to changes in the law.

Procedural Guidelines


On December 27, 2007, ILAB's Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking published Procedural Guidelines for the development and maintenance of the List of Goods from countries produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards.


Country Good Exploitation Type
  Embellished Textiles

There are reports of children, many between the ages of 8-14, producing embellished textiles under conditions of forced labor in India. Some children work under a system of debt bondage. Most factories that produce zari, a type of embroidery, are concentrated in Mumbai and Delhi, but many children are trafficked from other locations such as Bihar. According to government raids and an NGO report, between 125,000 and 210,000 children are working in Delhi embroidery workshops, and approximately 100,000 are working in zari embroidery and other textile embellishment workshops in Mumbai and elsewhere. Some children are forced to work under threat of physical violence. Some work long hours including overtime and do not receive payment for their work. 

Hindi translation

Child Labor, Forced Labor
  Embellished Textiles

There are reports that children, mostly boys ages 7-17, are forced to produce embellished textiles in Nepal. The factories are spread across the Kathmandu Valley and are concentrated in Thankot. The child workers are mainly recruited from Sarlahi, Mohattari, and Dhanusha Districts. Based on a research report, close to 7,500 children are working under forced labor conditions in the sector. Factory owners often recruit certain boys to work on one- or two-year contracts, paying an advance to their parents for the boys' labor. The boys are forced to work long hours without pay. At the end of the contract, the factory owner offers another advance payment to the parents, and the boys then return to work for the factory. During the subsequent contract, the children receive little or no wages after the initial advance payment as wages are deducted to repay the advance, and accommodation and food expenses are also deducted. These children live at the worksite, and the factories are often locked, preventing the children from leaving.

Nepali Translation

Child Labor, Forced Labor
Child Labor
Child Labor
Child Labor
Korea, North
Forced Labor

There is evidence that children ages 5 to 17 in Vietnam produce textiles. Based on the Government of Vietnam’s National Child Labor Survey 2012, the results of which were published in 2014, an estimated 6,049 child laborers work in textile production, mainly in the fabrication and finishing stages of the process. About 42.9 percent, or 2,595, of these child laborers are under 15 years old, which is the minimum age for employment in Vietnam. Of the estimated 6,049 child laborers who produce textiles, about 448 are 5-11 years old, 2,147 are 12-14 years old, and 3,454 are 15-17 years old. Approximately 96 percent of child textile workers are female. The survey considers a child to be engaged in child labor if the child is working an excessive number of hours per week for his or her age, or if the child is engaged in work that is prohibited for underage employees according to national legislation. 

Vietnamese Translation

Child Labor
  Textiles (Hand-Woven)

There are reports that children, mostly boys as young as seven years old, produce woven textiles under conditions of forced labor in Ethiopia. These children typically work in Addis Ababa, however many come from the south, including Gamo Gofa and Wolaita zones, some of them as victims of trafficking. The trafficked children are often sold to recruiters, and the parents and children are deceived with false promises about the wages and opportunities for education while working. Some of the children sleep at the worksites, held in captivity and isolation, and are not provided with sufficient food. They are punished with physical abuse. Some children are forced to work long hours and overtime, and receive little, if any, pay. 

Amharic Translation

Child Labor, Forced Labor
  Textiles (Jute)
Child Labor
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Public Comments & Submissions

ILAB accepts public submissions for the TVPRA List on an ongoing basis, and reviews them as they are received. Submissions will continue to be taken into account as ILAB works to release periodic updates to the List. To submit information, please send an email to; fax to 202-693-4830; or mail to ILAB, U.S. Department of Labor, c/o OCFT Research and Policy Unit, 200 Constitution Ave NW, S-5315, Washington, DC 20210. View the list of submissions.

The List in Numbers

The List in Numbers: 148 goods from 76 countries for a total of 418 line items. Number of goods produced globally by production sector: Agriculture: 74, Manufacturing: 42, Mining/Quarrying: 31, Pornography: 1. Goods with Most Child Labor and Forced Labor Listings by number of countries and productions sector: Sugarcane: 18, Cotton: 17, Coffee: 17, Tobacco: 16, Cattle: 14, Fish: 12, Rice: 9, Bricks: 20, Garments: 10, Textiles: 7, Footwear: 7, Carpets: 5, Fireworks: 5, Gold: 22, Coal: 7, Diamonds: 6, Pornography: 7. Number of goods produced globally by child labor and forced forced labor by production sector: Agriculture, child labor: 66; Agriculture, forced labor: 29; Manufacturing, child labor: 38; Manufacturing, forced labor: 15; Mining/Quarrying, child labor: 31, Mining/Quarrying, forced labor: 12; Pornography, child labor: 1; Pornography, forced labor: 1. Goods with the Most Child Labor Listings by Number of Countries: Gold: 21, Bricks: 19, Sugarcane: 17, Coffee: 17, Tobacco: 16, Cotton: 15. Goods with the Most Forced Labor Listings by Number of Countries: Bricks: 8, Cotton: 8, Garments: 7, Cattle: 5, Sugarcane: 5.148 goods; 76 countries; 418 line items

What You Can Do

What Can You Do to Help Address Child Labor and Forced Labor?


  • What Can You Do to Help Address Child Labor and Forced Labor?
    • Ask Questions
      • Do workers have a voice to speak out against labor abuses where these goods are made?
      • What are the companies I buy from doing to fight child labor and forced labor in global supply chains?
      • What are governments doing to combat child labor and forced labor?
      • Could some of the goods I buy be made by child labor or forced labor?
    • Take Action
      • Empower yourself with knowledge about this problem: Download DOL's Sweat & Toil app.
      • Make your voice heard: spread the word among friends, family, and the companies you buy from and invest in.
      • Show your support for organizations that are working to end these abuses.
    • Demand Change. Advocate for a world in which:
      • Workers everywhere can raise their voices against child labor, forced labor, and other abuses.
      • Companies make serious commitments to addressing these issues.
      • Your investments have a positive social impact by promoting responsible labor practices in supply chains.
      • Governments work vigorously to adopt the country-specific Suggested Actions in DOL's Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor report.

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