List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor

The Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) maintains a list of goods and their source countries which it has reason to believe are produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards, as required under the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA) of 2005 and subsequent reauthorizations. The List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor comprises 148 goods from 76 countries, as of September 20, 2018.

ILAB maintains the List primarily to raise public awareness about forced labor and child labor around the world and to promote efforts to combat them; it is not intended to be punitive, but rather to serve as a catalyst for more strategic and focused coordination and collaboration among those working to address these problems.

Publication of the List has resulted in new opportunities for ILAB to engage with foreign governments to combat forced labor and child labor. It is also a valuable resource for researchers, advocacy organizations and companies wishing to carry out risk assessments and engage in due diligence on labor rights in their supply chains.

The countries on the List span every region of the world. The most common agricultural goods listed are sugarcane, cotton, coffee, tobacco, cattle, rice, and fish. In the manufacturing sector, bricks, garments, textiles, footwear, carpets, and fireworks appear most frequently. In mined or quarried goods, gold, coal and diamonds are most common.

ILAB published the initial TVPRA List in 2009 and updated it annually through 2014, following a set of procedural guidelines that were the product of an intensive public consultation process. ILAB now updates and publishes the List every other year, pursuant to changes in the law.

Procedural Guidelines

 

On December 27, 2007, ILAB's Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking published Procedural Guidelines for the development and maintenance of the List of Goods from countries produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards.

Filters

Country
Goods
Exploitation Type
Display
Country Good Exploitation Type
Bolivia
  Brazil Nuts/Chestnuts

There are reports that children are forced to harvest Brazil nuts in Bolivia. Forced child labor in the production of Brazil nuts is known to be found in the Amazon region in particular, and migrant workers are particularly vulnerable. According to international organizations, NGOs, and the U.S. Department of State, many children are forced to work, often with their families, under conditions of bonded labor. Often entire families, including children, are given an advance payment to work in the harvest, and then incur more debt during the harvest. The families are prohibited from leaving, even once the harvest is complete, until their debts are paid off. Sometimes identity papers and wages are withheld as a means to restrict freedom of movement. 

Spanish Translation

Child Labor, Forced Labor
Peru
  Brazil Nuts/Chestnuts
Forced Labor
Afghanistan
  Bricks

There are reports that children as young as age four in Afghanistan are working in conditions of forced labor and in debt bondage at brick kilns. Based on the most recently available data from non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and media sources, up to 200 children were working at each of the 90 kilns in the Surkhrod District and more than 2,200 children were working as debt bonded laborers in 38 brick factories in Nangarhar Province in eastern Afghanistan. These children are bound by their parents' debt and work alongside their families making bricks. The bonded families are required to work under a contract between the families and the kiln owners; under the contracts, workers can be bought and sold among kiln owners. Some children are held at the kiln as collateral for their parents' debt, and will inherit their parents' outstanding debt.

Dari Translation

Child Labor, Forced Labor
Argentina
  Bricks
Child Labor
Bangladesh
  Bricks
Child Labor
Bolivia
  Bricks
Child Labor
Brazil
  Bricks
Child Labor
Burma
  Bricks

There are reports that children are forced by the military to work in the production of bricks in Burma. According to NGOs, forced child labor in brick production is pervasive, particularly in Northern Rakhine State and near military camps. In some cases, children are recruited into the military and forced to live in barracks and work for years in brick production; in other cases, children are sent by their families on rotation to fulfill the military's forced labor mandate for their household. The children are not paid for their work, and they face physical abuse and other punishments for refusing to work or for producing work that is considered of unacceptable quality. 

Burmese Translation

Child Labor, Forced Labor
Cambodia
  Bricks
Child Labor
China
  Bricks

There are reports that children, ages 8-17, are forced to produce bricks in China, with concentrations in the Shanxi and Henan provinces. Victims are from provinces across China; some children are abducted or trafficked through coercion and sold to work in brick kilns. Information from media sources and a research study indicate that the children are forced to work without pay under threat of physical violence, held against their will, watched by guards, and denied sufficient food. 

Chinese Translation

Child Labor, Forced Labor
Showing 21 - 30 of 418 results
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Public Comments & Submissions

ILAB accepts public submissions for the TVPRA List on an ongoing basis, and reviews them as they are received. Submissions will continue to be taken into account as ILAB works to release periodic updates to the List. To submit information, please send an email to ILAB-TVPRA@dol.gov; fax to 202-693-4830; or mail to ILAB, U.S. Department of Labor, c/o OCFT Research and Policy Unit, 200 Constitution Ave NW, S-5315, Washington, DC 20210. View the list of submissions.


The List in Numbers

The List in Numbers: 148 goods from 76 countries for a total of 418 line items. Number of goods produced globally by production sector: Agriculture: 74, Manufacturing: 42, Mining/Quarrying: 31, Pornography: 1. Goods with Most Child Labor and Forced Labor Listings by number of countries and productions sector: Sugarcane: 18, Cotton: 17, Coffee: 17, Tobacco: 16, Cattle: 14, Fish: 12, Rice: 9, Bricks: 20, Garments: 10, Textiles: 7, Footwear: 7, Carpets: 5, Fireworks: 5, Gold: 22, Coal: 7, Diamonds: 6, Pornography: 7. Number of goods produced globally by child labor and forced forced labor by production sector: Agriculture, child labor: 66; Agriculture, forced labor: 29; Manufacturing, child labor: 38; Manufacturing, forced labor: 15; Mining/Quarrying, child labor: 31, Mining/Quarrying, forced labor: 12; Pornography, child labor: 1; Pornography, forced labor: 1. Goods with the Most Child Labor Listings by Number of Countries: Gold: 21, Bricks: 19, Sugarcane: 17, Coffee: 17, Tobacco: 16, Cotton: 15. Goods with the Most Forced Labor Listings by Number of Countries: Bricks: 8, Cotton: 8, Garments: 7, Cattle: 5, Sugarcane: 5.148 goods; 76 countries; 418 line items

What You Can Do

 

  • What Can You Do to Help Address Child Labor and Forced Labor?
    • Ask Questions
      • Do workers have a voice to speak out against labor abuses where these goods are made?
      • What are the companies I buy from doing to fight child labor and forced labor in global supply chains?
      • What are governments doing to combat child labor and forced labor?
      • Could some of the goods I buy be made by child labor or forced labor?
    • Take Action
      • Empower yourself with knowledge about this problem: Download DOL's Sweat & Toil app.
      • Make your voice heard: spread the word among friends, family, and the companies you buy from and invest in.
      • Show your support for organizations that are working to end these abuses.
    • Demand Change. Advocate for a world in which:
      • Workers everywhere can raise their voices against child labor, forced labor, and other abuses.
      • Companies make serious commitments to addressing these issues.
      • Your investments have a positive social impact by promoting responsible labor practices in supply chains.
      • Governments work vigorously to adopt the country-specific Suggested Actions in DOL's Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor report.

To contact us, please email GlobalKids@dol.gov