List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor

The Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) maintains a list of goods and their source countries which it has reason to believe are produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards, as required under the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA) of 2005 and subsequent reauthorizations. The List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor comprises 148 goods from 76 countries, as of September 20, 2018.

ILAB maintains the List primarily to raise public awareness about forced labor and child labor around the world and to promote efforts to combat them; it is not intended to be punitive, but rather to serve as a catalyst for more strategic and focused coordination and collaboration among those working to address these problems.

Publication of the List has resulted in new opportunities for ILAB to engage with foreign governments to combat forced labor and child labor. It is also a valuable resource for researchers, advocacy organizations and companies wishing to carry out risk assessments and engage in due diligence on labor rights in their supply chains.

The countries on the List span every region of the world. The most common agricultural goods listed are sugarcane, cotton, coffee, tobacco, cattle, rice, and fish. In the manufacturing sector, bricks, garments, textiles, footwear, carpets, and fireworks appear most frequently. In mined or quarried goods, gold, coal and diamonds are most common.

ILAB published the initial TVPRA List in 2009 and updated it annually through 2014, following a set of procedural guidelines that were the product of an intensive public consultation process. ILAB now updates and publishes the List every other year, pursuant to changes in the law.

Procedural Guidelines

 

On December 27, 2007, ILAB's Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking published Procedural Guidelines for the development and maintenance of the List of Goods from countries produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards.

Filters

Country
Goods
Exploitation Type
Display
Country Sort ascending Good Exploitation Type
Zambia
  Gems
Child Labor
Zambia
  Stones
Child Labor
Zambia
  Cattle
Child Labor
Zambia
  Tobacco
Child Labor
Zambia
  Cotton
Child Labor
Yemen
  Fish
Child Labor
Vietnam
  Sugarcane

There is evidence that children ages 5 to 17 grow sugarcane in Vietnam. The results of the Government of Vietnam’s National Child Labor Survey 2012, published in 2014, show that an estimated 28,303 child laborers are involved in growing sugarcane. Approximately 32.6 percent, or 9,227 of these child laborers are under 15 years old, which is the minimum age for employment in Vietnam. Of the estimated 28,303 child laborers who grow sugarcane, 3.9 percent are 5-11 years old, 28.7 percent are 12-14 years old, and 67.4 percent are 15-17 years old. The survey considers a child to be engaged in child labor if the child is working an excessive number of hours per week for his or her age, or if the child is engaged in work that is prohibited for underage employees according to national legislation. 

Vietnamese Translation

Child Labor
Vietnam
  Garments

There are reports of children ages 10-18 and some as young as 6 who work under conditions of forced labor producing garments in Vietnam. The most recently available information from government raids, NGOs and media reports indicates that groups of children are found in small privately-owned factories and informal workshops. These workplaces are located primarily in and around Ho Chi Minh City; however, many of these children have migrated, or have been trafficked, from the countryside and from central or northern provinces. Many of the children live in the factories; employers prevent the children from leaving through force and/or by withholding their wages. In some cases, employers pay the children only after a full year of work or at the completion of a multi-year contract. Employers refuse to pay the children who leave before the end of the contract; some withhold a portion of the wages dues under the contract in order to force the children to remain an additional year. The children are forced to work long hours, up to 18 hours per day, sometimes late into the night, and with few breaks. Reports indicate that these children are beaten or threatened with physical violence by their employers. In addition, there are reports of children as young as 12 years old found to be working while confined in government-run detention centers. These children are forced to sew garments under threat of physical or other punishments and without pay. 

Vietnamese Translation

Child Labor, Forced Labor
Vietnam
  Furniture

There is evidence that children ages 5 to17 produce furniture in Vietnam. According to the Government of Vietnam’s National Child Labor Survey 2012, the results of which were published in 2014, an estimated 24,377 child laborers work in the production of furniture, including beds, wardrobes, chairs, and tables. Nearly three-quarters of child laborers involved in this activity are boys. Of the 24,377 child laborers engaged in the production of furniture, 13,670 children worked in furniture production for more than 42 hours per week. In addition, 21,873 of the total number of child laborers working in the production of furniture were involved in work that could be considered hazardous according to national legislation. The survey considers a child to be engaged in child labor if the child is working an excessive number of hours per week for his or her age, or if the child is engaged in work that is prohibited for underage employees according to national legislation. 

Vietnamese Translation

Child Labor
Vietnam
  Timber

There is evidence that children ages 5 to 17 engage in the production of timber in Vietnam. The results of the Government of Vietnam’s National Child Labor Survey 2012, published in 2014, show that an estimated 58,079 child laborers are involved in logging, including carrying and loading timber. Of the 58,079 child laborers involved in the production of timber, 6,428 children worked in timber production for more than 42 hours per week. Approximately 89 percent of child laborers working in this sector, were involved in work that could be considered hazardous according to national legislation. The survey considers a child to be engaged in child labor if the child is working an excessive number of hours per week for his or her age, or if the child is engaged in work that is prohibited for underage employees according to national legislation. 

Vietnamese Translation

Child Labor
Showing 1 - 10 of 418 results
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Public Comments & Submissions

ILAB accepts public submissions for the TVPRA List on an ongoing basis, and reviews them as they are received. Submissions will continue to be taken into account as ILAB works to release periodic updates to the List. To submit information, please send an email to ILAB-TVPRA@dol.gov; fax to 202-693-4830; or mail to ILAB, U.S. Department of Labor, c/o OCFT Research and Policy Unit, 200 Constitution Ave NW, S-5315, Washington, DC 20210. View the list of submissions.


The List in Numbers

The List in Numbers: 148 goods from 76 countries for a total of 418 line items. Number of goods produced globally by production sector: Agriculture: 74, Manufacturing: 42, Mining/Quarrying: 31, Pornography: 1. Goods with Most Child Labor and Forced Labor Listings by number of countries and productions sector: Sugarcane: 18, Cotton: 17, Coffee: 17, Tobacco: 16, Cattle: 14, Fish: 12, Rice: 9, Bricks: 20, Garments: 10, Textiles: 7, Footwear: 7, Carpets: 5, Fireworks: 5, Gold: 22, Coal: 7, Diamonds: 6, Pornography: 7. Number of goods produced globally by child labor and forced forced labor by production sector: Agriculture, child labor: 66; Agriculture, forced labor: 29; Manufacturing, child labor: 38; Manufacturing, forced labor: 15; Mining/Quarrying, child labor: 31, Mining/Quarrying, forced labor: 12; Pornography, child labor: 1; Pornography, forced labor: 1. Goods with the Most Child Labor Listings by Number of Countries: Gold: 21, Bricks: 19, Sugarcane: 17, Coffee: 17, Tobacco: 16, Cotton: 15. Goods with the Most Forced Labor Listings by Number of Countries: Bricks: 8, Cotton: 8, Garments: 7, Cattle: 5, Sugarcane: 5.148 goods; 76 countries; 418 line items

What You Can Do

What Can You Do to Help Address Child Labor and Forced Labor?

 

  • What Can You Do to Help Address Child Labor and Forced Labor?
    • Ask Questions
      • Do workers have a voice to speak out against labor abuses where these goods are made?
      • What are the companies I buy from doing to fight child labor and forced labor in global supply chains?
      • What are governments doing to combat child labor and forced labor?
      • Could some of the goods I buy be made by child labor or forced labor?
    • Take Action
      • Empower yourself with knowledge about this problem: Download DOL's Sweat & Toil app.
      • Make your voice heard: spread the word among friends, family, and the companies you buy from and invest in.
      • Show your support for organizations that are working to end these abuses.
    • Demand Change. Advocate for a world in which:
      • Workers everywhere can raise their voices against child labor, forced labor, and other abuses.
      • Companies make serious commitments to addressing these issues.
      • Your investments have a positive social impact by promoting responsible labor practices in supply chains.
      • Governments work vigorously to adopt the country-specific Suggested Actions in DOL's Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor report.

To contact us, please email GlobalKids@dol.gov