List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor
The Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) maintains a list of goods and their source countries which it has reason to believe are produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards, as required under the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA) of 2005 and subsequent reauthorizations. The List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor comprises 155 goods from 77 countries, as of September 30, 2020.
ILAB maintains the List primarily to raise public awareness about forced labor and child labor around the world and to promote efforts to combat them; it is not intended to be punitive, but rather to serve as a catalyst for more strategic and focused coordination and collaboration among those working to address these problems.
Publication of the List has resulted in new opportunities for ILAB to engage with foreign governments to combat forced labor and child labor. It is also a valuable resource for researchers, advocacy organizations and companies wishing to carry out risk assessments and engage in due diligence on labor rights in their supply chains.
The countries on the List span every region of the world. The most common agricultural goods listed are sugarcane, cotton, coffee, tobacco, cattle, rice, and fish. In the manufacturing sector, bricks, garments, textiles, footwear, carpets, and fireworks appear most frequently. In mined or quarried goods, gold, coal and diamonds are most common.
ILAB published the initial TVPRA List in 2009 and updated it annually through 2014, following a set of procedural guidelines that were the product of an intensive public consultation process. ILAB now updates and publishes the List every other year, pursuant to changes in the law.
On December 27, 2007, ILAB's Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking published Procedural Guidelines for the development and maintenance of the List of Goods from countries produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards.
|Country/Area Sort descending||Good||Exploitation Type|
There are reports that children as young as age four in Afghanistan are working in conditions of forced labor and in debt bondage at brick kilns. Based on the most recently available data from non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and media sources, up to 200 children were working at each of the 90 kilns in the Surkhrod District and more than 2,200 children were working as debt bonded laborers in 38 brick factories in Nangarhar Province in eastern Afghanistan. These children are bound by their parents' debt and work alongside their families making bricks. The bonded families are required to work under a contract between the families and the kiln owners; under the contracts, workers can be bought and sold among kiln owners. Some children are held at the kiln as collateral for their parents' debt, and will inherit their parents' outstanding debt.
|Child Labor, Forced Labor|
There are reports that children ages 8-17 produce salt in Afghanistan. According to media reports, hundreds of children work in salt mines, with one source confirming nearly 400 children found at the Taqcha Khana mine in the Namakab district of Takhar province. Some boys work up to 19-hour days. Children’s activities include extracting salt stones from underground tunnels as deep as 55 meters (180 feet), loading the stones onto donkeys, and carrying the stones distances over 1 mile. Child laborers are unable to attend school, work long days, and reportedly suffer from muscular and respiratory ailments.
|Angola||Child Labor, Forced Labor|