List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor

The Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) maintains a list of goods and their source countries which it has reason to believe are produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards, as required under the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA) of 2005 and subsequent reauthorizations. The List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor comprises 159 goods from 78 countries and areas, as of September 28, 2022.

ILAB maintains the List primarily to raise public awareness about forced labor and child labor around the world and to promote efforts to combat them; it is not intended to be punitive, but rather to serve as a catalyst for more strategic and focused coordination and collaboration among those working to address these problems.

Publication of the List has resulted in new opportunities for ILAB to engage with foreign governments to combat forced labor and child labor. It is also a valuable resource for researchers, advocacy organizations and companies wishing to carry out risk assessments and engage in due diligence on labor rights in their supply chains.

The countries on the List span every region of the world. The most common agricultural goods listed are sugarcane, cotton, coffee, tobacco, cattle, rice, and fish. In the manufacturing sector, bricks, garments, textiles, footwear, carpets, and fireworks appear most frequently. In mined or quarried goods, gold, coal and diamonds are most common.

ILAB published the initial TVPRA List in 2009 and updated it annually through 2014, following a set of procedural guidelines that were the product of an intensive public consultation process. ILAB now updates and publishes the List every other year, pursuant to changes in the law.

Procedural Guidelines

 

On May 15, 2020, ILAB's Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking published Procedural Guidelines for the development and maintenance of the List of Goods from countries produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards.

Filters

Display
Country/Area Good Sort descending Exploitation Type
Vietnam
  Footwear

There is evidence that children ages 5 to 17 in Vietnam manufacture footwear. Based on the Government of Vietnam’s National Child Labor Survey 2012, the results of which were published in 2014, an estimated 9,756 child laborers work in footwear manufacturing for over 42 hours per week. Approximately 2.2 percent, or 215, of the total number of child laborers who manufacture footwear for over 42 hours per week are 12-14 years old, while 97.8 percent, or 9,541, are 15-17 years old. The survey considers a child to be engaged in child labor if the child is working an excessive number of hours per week for his or her age, or if the child is engaged in work that is prohibited for underage employees according to national legislation. 

Child Labor
Indonesia
  Footwear (sandals)
Child Labor
Colombia
  Fruits (pome and stone)

There is evidence that children between the ages of 5 and 14 work in the harvesting and production of pome and stone fruits in Colombia.  Based on an analysis of the Colombia Great Household Survey – Child Labor Module, an estimated 10,679 children under the minimum age for work are involved in child labor in pome and stone fruits.  The release of this survey demonstrates the Government of Colombia’s commitment to addressing child labor and its acknowledgment that data collection is vital to the design and implementation of sound policies and programs.

Child Labor
Pakistan
  Furniture

There is evidence that children under the age of 14 work in the production of furniture in Pakistan. Based on an analysis of Pakistan’s Labor Force Survey 2017–2018, an estimated 25,789 children perform tasks related to the creation of furniture, including gathering the raw materials needed to assemble traditional sofas and chairs. Children who work in the production of furniture may be at risk of hazards, including harvesting raw materials such as bamboo, reeds, and straw by hand, in addition to potential exposure to agricultural pesticides. The release of the Labor Force Survey demonstrates the Government of Pakistan’s commitment to addressing child labor and its acknowledgement that data analysis is critical to the design and implementation of strong policies and programs.

Urdu Translation

Child Labor
Turkey
  Furniture
Child Labor
Vietnam
  Furniture

There is evidence that children ages 5 to17 produce furniture in Vietnam. According to the Government of Vietnam’s National Child Labor Survey 2012, the results of which were published in 2014, an estimated 24,377 child laborers work in the production of furniture, including beds, wardrobes, chairs, and tables. Nearly three-quarters of child laborers involved in this activity are boys. Of the 24,377 child laborers engaged in the production of furniture, 13,670 children worked in furniture production for more than 42 hours per week. In addition, 21,873 of the total number of child laborers working in the production of furniture were involved in work that could be considered hazardous according to national legislation. The survey considers a child to be engaged in child labor if the child is working an excessive number of hours per week for his or her age, or if the child is engaged in work that is prohibited for underage employees according to national legislation. 

Vietnamese Translation

Child Labor
Bangladesh
  Furniture (steel)
Child Labor
Argentina
  Garlic
Child Labor
Argentina
  Garments

There are reports that children from Bolivia are forced to produce garments in informal workshops in the city of Buenos Aires and its surrounding municipalities. According to media outlets, NGOs, and government officials, some children from Bolivia are victims of deceptive recruitment and trafficking with false promises of decent working conditions and fair wages. Once in Argentina, these children have restricted freedom of movement, their identity documents are confiscated, they live and work within locked factories, and they are too fearful to leave due to threats of imprisonment. Some end up in conditions of bonded labor, in debt for fees that were charged for transport to Argentina, and are prohibited from leaving their workplaces for years until the debt is paid through wage deductions. These children suffer physical and verbal abuse from their employers, and are only given one meal per day. Some children are forced to work excessive hours, up to 20 hours per day.

Spanish translation

Child Labor, Forced Labor
Bangladesh
  Garments

There are reports that adults are working under forced labor conditions to produce garments in Bangladesh. Multiple surveys have reported that workers in the Ready-Made Garment (RMG) industry are subjected to excessive working hours beyond what is legally allowed, forced overtime, and withholding compensation. Furthermore, workers are subjected to physical and verbal abuse for not meeting targets. Women are often victims of physical and sexual abuse, including as punishment for not meeting targets.

Bengali Translation

Child Labor, Forced Labor
Showing 191 - 200 of 468 results
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Public Comments & Submissions

ILAB accepts public submissions for the TVPRA List on an ongoing basis, and reviews them as they are received. Submissions will continue to be taken into account as ILAB works to release periodic updates to the List. To submit information, please send an email to ILAB-TVPRA@dol.gov; fax to 202-693-4830; or mail to ILAB, U.S. Department of Labor, c/o OCFT Research and Policy Unit, 200 Constitution Ave NW, S-5315, Washington, DC 20210. View the list of submissions.


The List in Numbers

The List in Numbers

What You Can Do

What Can You Do to Help Address Child Labor and Forced Labor?