List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor
The Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) maintains a list of goods and their source countries which it has reason to believe are produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards, as required under the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA) of 2005 and subsequent reauthorizations. The List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor comprises 155 goods from 77 countries, as of September 30, 2020.
ILAB maintains the List primarily to raise public awareness about forced labor and child labor around the world and to promote efforts to combat them; it is not intended to be punitive, but rather to serve as a catalyst for more strategic and focused coordination and collaboration among those working to address these problems.
Publication of the List has resulted in new opportunities for ILAB to engage with foreign governments to combat forced labor and child labor. It is also a valuable resource for researchers, advocacy organizations and companies wishing to carry out risk assessments and engage in due diligence on labor rights in their supply chains.
The countries on the List span every region of the world. The most common agricultural goods listed are sugarcane, cotton, coffee, tobacco, cattle, rice, and fish. In the manufacturing sector, bricks, garments, textiles, footwear, carpets, and fireworks appear most frequently. In mined or quarried goods, gold, coal and diamonds are most common.
ILAB published the initial TVPRA List in 2009 and updated it annually through 2014, following a set of procedural guidelines that were the product of an intensive public consultation process. ILAB now updates and publishes the List every other year, pursuant to changes in the law.
On December 27, 2007, ILAB's Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking published Procedural Guidelines for the development and maintenance of the List of Goods from countries produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards.
|Country||Good Sort descending||Exploitation Type|
There are reports that children ages 12 to 17, mainly girls, produce garments in Burma. According to international organizations and NGOs, child labor in the garment industry is concentrated in Yangon State. For example, research has found at least eight garment factories in Yangon State with incidents of child labor, and reports indicate that child labor remains present in the industry. Though the government has placed legal restrictions on working hours and types of work for children under age 18, there are reports that children work the same hours as adults with higher risks of abuse. There are reports of supervisors or shift leaders physically punishing children if they make mistakes in their work. Some children carry heavy bags and boxes and work long hours, sometimes up to 15-16 hours per day or 60 hours per week, and late into the night. Factories are often poorly ventilated, with temperatures, at times, rising above 100 degrees Fahrenheit.
There are reports that children, most between the ages of 8-17, are forced to produce garments in India. Based on the most recently available data from NGOs, up to 100,000 children throughout the country are being forced to produce garments. Recent reports suggest that forced child labor has shifted from factories to home-based production and from urban to suburban areas, particularly in southern India. Dalit and scheduled caste children, a socially disadvantaged class in India, are particularly vulnerable to forced labor in this industry. Many children are trafficked into garment production, recruited under deceptive terms, moved between employers without consent, and paid little or nothing for their work. Some children, as young as age five, are recruited for work through an advance payment to their parents, creating a situation of debt bondage which the child must work to repay. The children are isolated, often live at the worksite, and face restricted freedom of movement. Some children are exposed to dye and toxic chemicals without protective equipment; and some are forced to work overtime, even when they are sick. Some children are punished and threatened with verbal and physical abuse, financial penalty, and some are routinely deprived of food, water, and sleep. The children are forced to perform tasks including stitching, dyeing, cutting, sewing buttons, and embellishing garments.
|Child Labor, Forced Labor|
There is evidence that children between the ages of 5 and 14 work in garment manufacturing in Mexico. Based on an analysis of Mexico’s National Survey of Occupation and Employment – Child Labor Module 2017, an estimated 17,826 children work in garment production. The survey indicates that the majority of children and adolescents working in garment manufacturing are in Puebla and Guanajuato states. Other sources report that cases of child labor in garment manufacturing have been found in Puebla. The release of this survey demonstrates the Government of Mexico’s commitment to addressing child labor and its acknowledgment that data collection is vital to the design and implementation of sound policies and programs.
There are reports that mostly girls as young as 11 are forced to produce garments in Thailand. Migrant children from Laos and Burma are particularly vulnerable. The ILO, media, trade unions, government raids, and NGOs report forced child labor in garment factories in Bangkok and along the Burma border in Mae Sai and Mae Sot. Many children live at the worksite, and their freedom of movement is sometimes restricted through confiscation of identity documents and threats of arrest. Children are often forced to work long hours and overtime, and are paid little, if at all. Some are not provided sufficient food and are physically abused. Mistakes made during the course of work are sometimes penalized with wage deductions.
|Child Labor, Forced Labor|
There are reports that children as young as 10 produce garments in Turkey. Both boys and girls, including many in the Syrian refugee community, are engaged in work activities in this sector. According to international organizations, NGOs, and media sources, there is credible evidence of the use of child labor in small and medium-sized garment manufacturers in various cities nationwide, including Gaziantep, Istanbul, Ankara, and Izmir. Children work long hours, with some reporting working up to 15 hours per day, 6 days per week, and earn exceptionally low wages. Due to the long hours worked, many child laborers in this sector are unable to attend school. Reports indicate that conditions of work in the garment industry are often poor, with crowded, informal workshops often lacking proper ventilation and reaching high temperatures in the summer.
There are reports of children ages 10-18 and some as young as 6 who work under conditions of forced labor producing garments in Vietnam. The most recently available information from government raids, NGOs and media reports indicates that groups of children are found in small privately-owned factories and informal workshops. These workplaces are located primarily in and around Ho Chi Minh City; however, many of these children have migrated, or have been trafficked, from the countryside and from central or northern provinces. Many of the children live in the factories; employers prevent the children from leaving through force and/or by withholding their wages. In some cases, employers pay the children only after a full year of work or at the completion of a multi-year contract. Employers refuse to pay the children who leave before the end of the contract; some withhold a portion of the wages dues under the contract in order to force the children to remain an additional year. The children are forced to work long hours, up to 18 hours per day, sometimes late into the night, and with few breaks. Reports indicate that these children are beaten or threatened with physical violence by their employers. In addition, there are reports of children as young as 12 years old found to be working while confined in government-run detention centers. These children are forced to sew garments under threat of physical or other punishments and without pay.
|Child Labor, Forced Labor|