List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor

The Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) maintains a list of goods and their source countries which it has reason to believe are produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards, as required under the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA) of 2005 and subsequent reauthorizations. The List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor comprises 159 goods from 78 countries and areas, as of September 28, 2022.

ILAB maintains the List primarily to raise public awareness about forced labor and child labor around the world and to promote efforts to combat them; it is not intended to be punitive, but rather to serve as a catalyst for more strategic and focused coordination and collaboration among those working to address these problems.

Publication of the List has resulted in new opportunities for ILAB to engage with foreign governments to combat forced labor and child labor. It is also a valuable resource for researchers, advocacy organizations and companies wishing to carry out risk assessments and engage in due diligence on labor rights in their supply chains.

The countries on the List span every region of the world. The most common agricultural goods listed are sugarcane, cotton, coffee, tobacco, cattle, rice, and fish. In the manufacturing sector, bricks, garments, textiles, footwear, carpets, and fireworks appear most frequently. In mined or quarried goods, gold, coal and diamonds are most common.

ILAB published the initial TVPRA List in 2009 and updated it annually through 2014, following a set of procedural guidelines that were the product of an intensive public consultation process. ILAB now updates and publishes the List every other year, pursuant to changes in the law.

Procedural Guidelines

On January 25, 2024, ILAB's Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking published Procedural Guidelines for the development and maintenance of the List of Goods from countries produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards.

Filters

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Country/Area Sort ascending Good Exploitation Type
Zimbabwe
  Tobacco

There are reports that children produce tobacco in Zimbabwe.  According to Human Rights Watch and local media reports, there are numerous cases of children working on tobacco farms in Zimbabwe’s northeastern provinces, including Mashonaland West, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, and Manicaland.  There are reports of increasing numbers of children working on small, non-commercial farms.  In many cases, children drop out of school to work on tobacco farms.  Children perform hazardous forms of work, including mixing, handling, and spraying pesticides.  Children also experience adverse health effects related to exposure to nicotine, which enters their bodies through the skin during the handling of tobacco.

Child Labor
Zimbabwe
  Gold

There are reports that children as young as 8 are engaged in the production of gold in Zimbabwe. Child labor occurs at unregulated artisanal and small-scale gold mining sites, including riverbeds in Mudzi and Mazowe. Sources estimated that thousands of children are working at gold mining sites and doing various work activities, including panning and sieving gold around riverbeds, digging and drilling in pit areas, and collecting and carrying gold ore. Children engaged in gold production in Zimbabwe work in hot climate conditions, lack proper protective equipment, and face exposure to dangerous chemicals, such as mercury. According to NGO reports, at least two children died during a mine shaft collapse.

Child Labor
Zimbabwe
  Sugarcane

There are reports that children as young as age 9 produce sugarcane in Zimbabwe.  Multiple local media reports identify cases of children working on sugarcane farms, particularly on outgrower farms in Masvingo Province, which is the main area for sugarcane cultivation in Zimbabwe.  One source estimates that there are as many as 10,000 children working in the sector.  Children working on farms producing sugarcane perform tasks related to irrigation, the cutting of sugarcane, and guarding crops.  Children perform work at night and engage in hazardous activities, such as using machetes and chasing away wild animals.  Many child laborers working in sugarcane production do not attend school because of their work.

Child Labor
Zambia
  Cattle
Child Labor
Zambia
  Tobacco
Child Labor
Zambia
  Cotton
Child Labor
Zambia
  Gems
Child Labor
Zambia
  Stones
Child Labor
Yemen
  Fish
Child Labor
Vietnam
  Furniture

There is evidence that children ages 5 to17 produce furniture in Vietnam. According to the Government of Vietnam’s National Child Labor Survey 2012, the results of which were published in 2014, an estimated 24,377 child laborers work in the production of furniture, including beds, wardrobes, chairs, and tables. Nearly three-quarters of child laborers involved in this activity are boys. Of the 24,377 child laborers engaged in the production of furniture, 13,670 children worked in furniture production for more than 42 hours per week. In addition, 21,873 of the total number of child laborers working in the production of furniture were involved in work that could be considered hazardous according to national legislation. The survey considers a child to be engaged in child labor if the child is working an excessive number of hours per week for his or her age, or if the child is engaged in work that is prohibited for underage employees according to national legislation. 

Vietnamese Translation

Child Labor
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Public Comments & Submissions

ILAB accepts public submissions for the TVPRA List on an ongoing basis, and reviews them as they are received. Submissions will continue to be taken into account as ILAB works to release periodic updates to the List. To submit information, please send an email to ILAB-TVPRA@dol.gov; fax to 202-693-4830; or mail to ILAB, U.S. Department of Labor, c/o OCFT Research and Policy Unit, 200 Constitution Ave NW, S-5315, Washington, DC 20210. View the list of submissions.


The List in Numbers

The List in Numbers

What You Can Do

What Can You Do to Help Address Child Labor and Forced Labor?