Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - North Macedonia

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

North Macedonia (formerly called Macedonia)

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2017, Macedonia made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government adopted the National Strategy and Action Plan to Combat Trafficking and Illegal Migration, which aims to increase efforts to combat forced labor, including forced child begging. The government also helped three new local anti-trafficking commissions in Prilep, Gevgelija, and Veles to design their first ever local action plans on human trafficking. In addition, the government opened a new hotline to register complaints of child labor, street children, and child abuse. However, children in Macedonia engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced begging and commercial sexual exploitation. The law’s minimum age protections do not apply to children who are self-employed or working outside formal employment relationships. In addition, the National Commission for the Protection of the Rights of Children and the National Coordination Body for the Protection of Children from Abuse and Neglect did not carry out activities during the reporting period.

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Children in Macedonia engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced begging and commercial sexual exploitation. (1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Macedonia.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

18.3 (44,161)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

86.8

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

19.5

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

91.3

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (9)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4, 2011. (10)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, activities unknown (7)

Services

Street work, including vending small items, cleaning vehicle windshields, scavenging, and begging (2; 3; 4; 5)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1; 5; 6; 11; 12; 13; 7; 8)

Forced begging, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1; 3; 5; 6; 7; 8)

Domestic work as a result of human trafficking (1; 11; 14; 15)

Forced labor as wait staff and dancers in restaurants, bars, and nightclubs (6; 15)

‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Most children involved in child labor in Macedonia engage in street work, including vending small items, cleaning vehicle windshields, and begging. (3; 4; 6; 7) Some children engage in begging to help support their families, while others are forced to beg. The majority of children involved in street work are of the Roma, Egyptian, and Ashkali ethnicities. (1; 3; 4; 7) Macedonia lacks recent, comprehensive data on the nature and extent of child labor in the country. (7)

The majority of victims of child trafficking in Macedonia are girls, between the ages of 14 to 17, who have been trafficked domestically for commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor in restaurants, bars, and nightclubs. (1; 11; 14) Girls in eastern and central Macedonia have been identified as being particularly vulnerable to human trafficking. (16) Roma girls, especially, are also trafficked for forced marriages in which they are subject to sexual and labor exploitation. (1; 11; 14; 17; 8; 18)

Afghani, Iraqi, Iranian, Syrian, and other unaccompanied children transiting through the country, either legally or illegally, are vulnerable to trafficking for labor and commercial sexual exploitation. (13; 8)  During the reporting period, 41 migrant children were identified as potential victims of commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor. (8)

The government was unable to fully meet Roma children’s need for teaching in Romani due to a shortage of qualified teachers. (19; 18) Birth certification is sometimes required for attending school in Macedonia, and some Roma children had difficulty accessing education due to a lack of birth registration and identity cards. (12; 20; 7; 18) Classes for children with intellectual disabilities have disproportionately high enrollment rates of Roma children due to discrimination based, in part, on faulty screening procedures for assessing intellectual disabilities. (21; 22) Increased government funding for programs to eliminate barriers to education has increased school attendance rates among Roma children. (21; 23) Barriers remain, however, and increase Roma children’s vulnerability to child labor.

Macedonia has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Macedonia’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor, including the minimum age for work.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

15

Article 42 of the Constitution; Section 7 of the Labor Relations Act (24; 25)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Sections 7, 63, and 66–67 of the Labor Relations Act (25)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Rulebook on the Minimum Occupational Safety and Health Requirements for Young Workers (26)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 11 of the Constitution; Articles 418, 418-c, and 418-d of the Criminal Code (24; 27)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 418-c and 418-d of the Criminal Code (27)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 190–193b of the Criminal Code (27)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 12 of the Law on Child Protection (28)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

Article 62 of the Law on Defense (29)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 62 of the Law on Defense (29)

Non-state

Yes

 

Articles 122, 322-a, and 404 of the Criminal Code (27)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Articles 4, 5, 47, and 172 of the Law on Primary Education; Article 3 of the Law on Secondary Education (30; 31)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 44 of the Constitution (24)

* No conscription (29)

 

The law’s minimum age protections do not apply to children who are self-employed or working outside formal employment relationships. (3; 25)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Labor and Social Policy (MLSP) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Social Policy (MLSP)

Work with the police to seek out street children in need of assistance and track cases of forced child labor through the Department of Social Inclusion. (16; 32) Register complaints about hazardous child labor and investigate children’s participation in street work through 30 Centers for Social Work (CSWs) and the Ombudsman’s Office, which includes a special unit for the investigation of violations of child rights and refers complaints to the State Labor Inspectorate. (3; 5; 33; 7) When child labor is detected, the child is removed, put under the care of the CSW, and interviewed by a social worker. The child is then either returned to their family or taken to a safe house. (5) CSWs serve to counsel, educate, and assist victims of trafficking in persons. (7)

State Labor Inspectorate (SLI)

Enforce child labor laws and transmit cases of suspected criminal law violations to the Public Prosecutor. Inspectors conduct a minimum of 60 target and compliant-based cases per month. (32; 33)

Ministry of Interior (MOI)

Enforce laws related to hazardous child labor. Investigate cases of child trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, and the use of children in illicit activities through its special police unit for organized crime, corruption, and human trafficking. (33) With MLSP, formed mobile teams in previous years to identify street children and remove them from hazardous situations. Mobile teams increased their activities in mid-2017. (1; 3; 13; 19)

Public Prosecutor’s Office

Prosecute criminal law violations, including those involving the worst forms of child labor. (34) Has an Organized Crime and Corruption Unit with four prosecutors dedicated to cases of child abuse and the worst forms of child labor. The Skopje Basic Prosecutor’s Office has eight prosecutors for child abuse cases. (15; 35)

Office of the National Referral Mechanism

Refer potential cases of child victims of human trafficking to law enforcement authorities for investigation, and refer potential victims to social services. (16; 35)

 

When children are found in child labor, they are removed from the worksite and referred to the Centers for Social Work (CSWs). A functional referral mechanism exists, which enables authorities and social services to reciprocally refer children found in child labor. (7) During the reporting period and in early 2018, the MLSP and the Ministry of Interior (MOI) reestablished mobile teams for early detection and identification of vulnerable groups, including victims of trafficking, in Skopje, Bitola, Kumanovo, and Gevgelija. (8)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Macedonia took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the MLSP that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including referral mechanisms.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (36)

Unknown* (7)

Number of Labor Inspectors

74 (36)

74 (7)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (5)

Yes (7)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (5)

Yes (7)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

No (5)

Yes (7)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (5)

Yes (7)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

16,671 (36)

16, 459 (19)

Number Conducted at Worksites

16,671 (37)

16, 459 (19)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

0 (36)

0 (7)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties were Imposed

N/A

N/A

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

N/A

Unknown* (7)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (5)

Yes (7)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (5)

Yes (7)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (5)

Yes (7)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (5)

Yes (7)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (5)

Yes (7)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (5)

Yes (7)

* The government does not publish this information.

 

Macedonia’s State Labor Inspectorate (SLI) is responsible for enforcing all labor laws, including laws on child labor, in all sectors of the formal economy and can assess fines at any point of the inspection. (7) However, the inspectors are distributed disproportionately across the country, which causes uneven business inspections, with some being inspected more than others. While the SLI does not have a specific strategy for conducting inspections, unannounced inspections in all sectors are permitted, including legally-registered private farms. (7) Inspectors can also inspect private homes and farms with a valid warrant. (7)

During the reporting period, all labor inspectors received trainings on labor laws, including on child labor. The MLSP also trained 25 social workers and labor inspectors in trafficking among migrants and 50 labor inspectors were trained on trafficking for labor exploitation. (8) The MLSP reported that resources were adequate in 2017. (7) However, the capacity of all the institutions that enforce child labor remained weak. (7)

As in previous years, inspection results conducted by the MLSP were not shared among offices due to lack of a central database. (33) As a result, inspectors write reports without knowledge of findings in previous inspections. Labor inspection reports were not always shared within the SLI and between the SLI and the MLSP. (33; 7)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Macedonia took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including investigation planning.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (37)

Yes (7)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (37)

N/A (23)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (13)

Yes (7)

Number of Investigations

13 (36)

Unknown (23)

Number of Violations Found

6 (36)

2 (7)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

13 (36)

3 (8)

Number of Convictions

0 (36)

0 (7)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (5)

Yes (7)

 

In Macedonia, legal requirements mandate that public prosecutors receive a 30-month training on criminal deeds, including child labor. (9) Police investigators receive trainings yearly and when new legislation is passed. In 2017, investigators received training on child trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, recruitment and use of children as child soldiers, and use of children in illicit activities. (7) In addition, 718 police officers received training on human trafficking within migrant situations, and 265 police officers received training on unaccompanied minors and potential foreign victims of human trafficking. (8)

In 2017, criminal investigators reported sufficient resources to adequately perform their investigations. (7) However, the Prosecutor’s Office remains underfunded. Sources reported that for the first half of 2017, border agents were unable to properly identify victims of human trafficking and proper coordination was lacking. (19; 8) Nevertheless, coordination improved as of June, when the government appointed a new National Anti-Trafficking in Persons Coordinator. (19)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including coordination among government ministries and committees.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

National Commission for the Protection of the Rights of Children

Coordinate efforts to protect children’s rights, including by preventing and eliminating child labor and by providing social services. (33; 7) Led by the MLSP. (5) Continued to work on the establishment of a task force that will include border police. (19)

National Coordination Body for Protection of Children from Abuse and Neglect

Oversee implementation of the National Action Plan for Prevention and Countering Abuse and Neglect of Children. Comprises representatives from civil society, WHO, and UNICEF country offices. (38; 7) Re-elected new members in 2017. (7)

National Commission for Trafficking in Persons and Illegal Migration (National Trafficking in Persons Commission)

Coordinate the work of all institutions involved in combating human trafficking. Led by the National Anti-Trafficking in Persons Coordinator with 14 representatives from 9 governmental institutions. (33; 7) Includes the Sub-Committee for the Fight Against Trafficking in Children, which serves as an advisory body to the National Trafficking in Persons Commission on all forms of child trafficking. (1; 33; 39) Led by the MLSP. (5) Held four meetings in 2017. (8)

 

In 2017, intergovernmental coordination efforts related to child protection were put on hold due to political conflicts and government crisis. (7) Disagreements between the MLSP and the Deputy Minister, who was from a different political party, made it difficult for all of the coordinating bodies overseen by the MLSP to meet during the first half of 2017. (7) The National Trafficking in Persons Commission was reportedly underfunded and played a limited role in coordinating efforts among NGOs and local committees. (19) However, immediately after the government’s adoption of the 2017–2020 National Strategy and National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons and Illegal Migration in March 2017, the National Trafficking in Persons Commission helped local committees draft their first action plans, with a special focus on trafficking in persons for labor exploitation. (19)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including implementing a new national child labor action plan.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan against Trafficking in Persons and Illegal Migration (2017–2020)†

Focuses on preventing human trafficking by reducing the vulnerability of at-risk populations, improves victim identification, and increases efforts to combat human trafficking for forced labor, including forced child begging. (7; 40; 8)

National Strategy for the Fight Against Poverty and Social Exclusion (2010–2020)

Addresses social protection, social inclusion, health, education, and employment of children. (33) Aims to increase birth registration for Roma and other minorities, expand patrol services to identify and support street children, and improve the provision of social services for children involved in street work and begging. Implemented by the MLSP. (33; 41) The strategy was active in 2017 and the government adopted annual operational plans. (7)

National Action Plan for Education (2016–2020)

Aims to expand inclusive education and improve education for the Roma community. Seeks to increase the number of Roma students in preschools and elementary schools and decrease the number of Roma students in primary schools for children with special needs. (42) Active in 2017 and undertook activities, such as awarding scholarships to Roma students and hired 100 tutors to help Roma students in primary school. (19; 23)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

 

During the reporting period, the government adopted the National Strategy and National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons and Illegal Migration (2017–2020), but did not provide sufficient funding for its implementation. (8)

In addition, the Action Plan for Children on the Streets (2013–2015), the National Action Plan for Prevention and Countering Abuse and Neglect of Children (2013–2015), and the National Action Plan on the Rights of the Child (2012–2015) aimed to eliminate child labor and protect children. However, they all expired in 2015 and no new plans have been adopted to directly address child labor during the reporting period. (7)

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including funding and adequacy of programs to address the full scope of the problem.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

MLSP Day Centers, Shelter, and Social Worker Trainings†

Operates two day centers that can accommodate 60 children and partially funds two other centers, operated by NGOs, that can accommodate 80 children. (5; 43; 7) Supports a street children transit center. (43) In 2017, provided services to 17 children at the day centers. (7) Runs an ongoing program to instruct foster families on how to accommodate child trafficking victims. (5) Provides counseling, education, and assistance with registration documents to street children and child human trafficking victims at 30 CSW facilities. (14; 33)

Hotlines*

NGO Open Gate/La Strada operates a human trafficking hotline with seven operators. (36) NGO Megjashi runs an SOS hotline to report cases of child labor and abuse. (36) In 2017, two complaint lines† were opened, one by NGO Megjashi and another by the MLSP, which receives child labor, street children, human trafficking, and child abuse complaints. (7)

Center for Victims of Human Trafficking and Transit Center for Foreign Victims of Trafficking†

The MLSP operates the Center for Victims of Human Trafficking shelter, that provides housing, basic services, and reintegration services to victims. (1; 44; 7) The MOI supports the Transit Center for Foreign Victims of Trafficking, operated by NGOs. (44; 7) In 2017, one minor girl was referred to the Center. (19)

UNICEF Projects

UNICEF projects partner with the government and NGOs to provide child protection, detection and referral of child victims of violence, and educational integration of vulnerable children, including Roma and migrant children. (5; 45; 46)  These projects include the Program for the Protection of Children Against Violence (2016–2020) and the UNICEF Country Program (2016–2020). (5; 45; 46)  

Inclusion of Roma Children in Preschool Education†

MLSP project implemented in cooperation with the Roma Education Fund and 19 government units. Part of the 2014–2020 Roma Strategy. (19; 47) Aims to support the integration of Roma children by increasing the number of Roma children in preschool. (5; 7) MLSP, MOI, and Ministry of Justice are all part of the project work plan. (36)

Educational Seminars for Roma Students and Teachers

Ministry of Education, social workers, and NGOs provided educational seminars in 2017 to several local Roma NGOs, students, and teachers. Children in the seminars were instructed on the risks associated with forced marriages of minors. (7)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Macedonia.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (7; 8)

 

The quality of services offered by the programs likely would improve if donors provided additional funding. (7) In addition, programs funded by donors typically were not continued by the government after funding expired. (1; 5; 13) A source reported that funding decreased for victim assistance in shelters, and the only shelter for human trafficking victims was not fully functional during the reporting period. (8) Also, day centers have not reduced the number of children on the streets, especially among Roma ethnicity, or child begging, suggesting that existing programs were insufficient in combating child labor. (5; 13; 36; 7; 23)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Macedonia (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that labor law protections apply to all children, including self-employed children and children working outside formal employment relationships.

2015 – 2017

Enforcement

Publish information on labor law enforcement, including SLI’s funding amount.

2015 – 2017

Ensure that labor inspections are conducted throughout the country to promote compliance with child labor laws in all geographical regions.

2017

Strengthen the capacity of institutions so that labor inspectors can conduct thorough child labor inspections.

2017

Provide labor inspectors with an electronic system to record and share data on inspections, including the number of inspections, the number of violations found, and the number of citations issued by the SLI and the MLSP, and the entity receiving the citation, and publish the information.

2009 – 2017

Provide sufficient funding to the Prosecutor’s Office.

2013 – 2017

Ensure law enforcement agencies proactively identify child trafficking victims and border agents coordinate to properly identify victims of human trafficking.

2015 – 2017

Coordination

Increase funding for the National Commission for Trafficking in Persons and Illegal Migration and ensure that it coordinates with NGOs.

2017

Government Policies

Provide sufficient funding to implement the National Action Plan against Trafficking in Persons and Illegal Migration.

2014 – 2017

 

Create and implement a National Action Plan on Child Labor.

2017

Social Programs

Conduct research to determine the activities carried out by children engaged in child labor, including those in street work and those subjected to commercial sexual exploitation.

2013 – 2017

Reduce barriers to education by increasing the number of teachers who can provide education in the Romani language and eliminate placing children in schools for children with intellectual disabilities on the basis of ethnicity. Make additional efforts to register Roma children at birth.

2014 – 2017

Increase funding dedicated to combating child trafficking, and ensure that child trafficking victims receive assistance that addresses their specific needs, including shelters.

2015 – 2017

1. U.S. Embassy- Skopje. Reporting, February 12, 2016.

2. Sinisa Jakov Marusic. Macedonia to Put Child Beggars Into Care. balkaninsight.com. March 7, 2014. http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/macedonia-steps-up-protection-of-children.

3. U.S. Embassy- Skopje. Reporting, January 22, 2016.

4. Zatana Vathi. Research Report: Children and Adolescents Engaged in Street Work in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Mobilities, Vulnerabilities, Resiliencies. Budapest, Mario Project. 2015. http://terredeshommes.hu/library/children-and-adolescents-engaged-in-street-work-in-the-former-yugoslav-republic-of-macedonia-mobilities-vulnerabilities-resiliences/7228.

5. U.S. Embassy- Skopje. Reporting, January 13, 2017.

6. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Macedonia. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2017/271232.htm.

7. U.S. Embassy- Skopje. Reporting, January 12, 2018.

8. —. Reporting, February 18, 2018.

9. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed January 4, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

10. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4, 2011. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

11. Group of Experts on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings. Report Concerning the Implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings by "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia." Strasbourg, Council of Europe. June 17, 2014. https://rm.coe.int/1680631ee1.

12. UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women. Concluding observations on the combined fourth and fifth periodic report of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, adopted by the Committee at its fifty-fourth session (11 February–1 March 2013). Geneva. March 22, 2013: Report No. CEDAW/C/MKD/CO/4-5. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CEDAW/C/MKD/CO/4-5&Lang=En.

13. U.S. Embassy- Skopje. Reporting, February 10, 2017.

14. —. Reporting, February 24, 2015.

15. U.S. Embassy- Skopje official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 2, 2016.

16. U.S. Embassy- Skopje. Reporting, February 18, 2014.

17. UN Commitee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. Periodic Reports of States Parties due in 2017: The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Prepared by Government of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. June 13, 2017. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CEDAW%2fC%2fMKD%2f6&Lang=en.

18. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2017: Macedonia. Washington, DC. April 20, 2018. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/277435.pdf.

19. U.S. Embassy- Skopje official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 2, 2018.

20. Coordinamento Delle Organizzazioni per Il Servizio Volontario. Inclusion of dropout and improvement of the equality of education of Roma children in primary school. 2015. http://www.cosv.org/inclusion-of-dropout-and-improvement-of-the-quality-of-education-of-roma-children-in-primary-school-2/?lang=en.

21. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016: Macedonia. Washington, DC. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265658.pdf.

22. European Roma Rights Centre. Macedonia. Budapest. September 23, 2013. http://www.osce.org/odihr/105348?download=true.

23. U.S. Embassy- Skopje official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 9, 2018.

24. Government of Macedonia. Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia. Enacted: September 8, 1991. https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/36714/70972/F511737559/MKD36714%20Eng.pdf.

25. —. Labour Relations Act, No. 80/93–2007. Enacted: 1993. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/47727/65084/E93MKD02.htm.

26. —. Rulebook on the minimum occupational safety and health requirements for young workers. Enacted: October 15, 2012. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/93806/109806/F-526659420/MKD-93806.pdf.

27. —. Republic of Macedonia Criminal Code. Enacted: November 1, 1996. http://www.pravdiko.mk/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Krivichen-zakonik-integralen-prechisten-tekst.pdf.

28. —. Child Protection Law. Enacted: July 2016. [Source on file].

29. —. Law on Defense. Enacted: 2001. http://morm.gov.mk/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/Zakon-za-odbrana-Precisten-tekst-fev-2017.pdf.

30. —. Law on Primary Education, No. 103/2008. Enacted: 2008. http://www.sonk.org.mk/documents/Zakon%20za%20osnovno%20obrazovanie.pdf.

31. —. Law on Secondary Education, No. 44/1995. Enacted: 1995. http://www.sonk.org.mk/documents/Sredno_obrazovanie_95.pdf.

32. U.S. Embassy- Skopje official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 9, 2015.

33. U.S. Embassy- Skopje. Reporting, January 15, 2015.

34. ILO–LABADMIN. Labour Inspection Sanctions: National Labour Inspection Systems. Geneva. 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_dialogue/---lab_admin/documents/publication/wcms_213143.pdf.

35. U.S. Embassy- Skopje. Reporting, February 5, 2014.

36. U.S. Embassy- Skopje official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 3, 2017.

37. —. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 23, 2017.

38. Child Rights International Network. Macedonia: Children's Rights Reference in the Universal Periodic Review. CIRN.org. January 30, 2014. https://www.crin.org/en/library/publications/macedonia-childrens-rights-references-universal-periodic-review-0.

39. U.S. Embassy- Skopje official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 14, 2015.

40. Government of Macedonia. 2017-2020 National Strategy for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings and Illegal Migration in the Republic of Macedonia. 2017. http://nacionalnakomisija.gov.mk/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Nacionalna-strategija-i-akciski-plan-za-borba-protiv-trgovija-so-lugje.pdf.

41. —. Strategy for the Fight Against Poverty and Social Inclusion. 2013. http://mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/revidirana_str_siromastija_eng.docx.

42. —. National Action Plan for Education 2016–2020. Minister of Labor and Social Policy. April 2016. [Source on file].

43. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014: Macedonia. Washington, DC. June 25, 2015. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/236762.pdf.

44. U.S. Embassy- Skopje. Reporting, February 25, 2013.

45. UNICEF. Prevention and protection from violence and abuse. 2016: Project Document. https://www.unicef.org/tfyrmacedonia/prevention.html.

46. —. UNICEF Annual Report 2016. 2017. https://www.unicef.org/about/annualreport/files/Macedonia_(The_former_Yugoslav_Republic_of)_2016_COAR.pdf.

47. Government of Macedonia. 2014-2020 Roma Strategy. 2014. http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/content/pdf/strategii/Strategija%20za%20Romite%20vo%20RM%202014-2020.pdf.

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