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Wage and Hour Division (WHD)

FMLA Survey - Appendix B-1: Standard Errors for Tables Displayed in Text

1995
Survey

SE
(N)

2000
Survey
SE
(N)

Number of employees taking leave (for a
covered reason) in the previous 18 months

657,248.17
(1,172)

876,388.45
(1,229)

Percent of employee population

0.75
(1,172)

0.63
(1,229)

Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table 2.2SE. Standard Errors for Table 2.2: Length of Second Longest Leave:
2000 Survey

Length of Second Longest Leave

Those Taking More
Than One Leave

SE
(N)

1 – 3 days

4.81
(101)

4 – 5 days

3.35
(76)

6 – 10 days

2.07
(48)

11 – 20 days

1.12
(23)

More than 20 days

1.63
(31)

Number of Leave-Takers Taking
More Than One Leave

525,052.51
(288)

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table 2.3SE. Standard Errors for Table 2.3: Reasons for Taking Leave
Across All Leaves Taken in Previous 18 Months: 2000 Survey

Reason for Leave

Leave-Takers
SE
(N)

Own health

2.40
(630)

Maternity-disability

1.10
(98)

Care for a newborn, newly adopted, or
newly placed foster child

1.99
(203)

Care for ill child

1.35
(135)

Care for ill spouse

0.61
(93)

Care for ill parent

1.33
(172)

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table 2.4SE. Standard Errors for Table 2.4: Reasons for Taking Leave
Across All Leaves Taken, Based on Total Employee Population:

2000 Survey

Reason for Leave

All Employees
SE (N)

Own health

0.52(630)

Maternity-disability

0.18
(98)

Care for a newborn, newly adopted, or newly placed foster child

0.37
(203)

Care for ill child

0.24
(135)

Care for ill spouse

0.10
(93)

Care for ill parent

0.22
(172)

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table 2.5SE. Standard Errors for Table 2.5: Employees’ Reasons for Taking
Longest Leave: 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Leave-Takers

Reason for Longest Leave

1995
Survey
SE
(N)

2000
Survey
SE
(N)

Own health

1.92
(704)

1.88
(582)

Maternity-disability

0.61
(62)

1.10
(95)

Care for a newborn, newly adopted, or newly placed foster child

1.26
(176)

2.04
(194)

Care for ill child

1.15
(95)

1.30
(112)

Care for ill spouse

0.45
(46)

0.56
(84)

Care for ill parent

0.94
(89)

1.19
(152)

Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table 2.6SE. Standard Errors for Table 2.6: Employees’ Reasons for Second
Longest Leave: 2000 Survey

Reason for Second Longest Leave

Persons Taking More
Than One Leave
SE
(N)

Own health

4.82
(140)

Maternity-disability

0.73
(6)

Care for a newborn, newly adopted,
or newly placed foster child

1.43
(13)

Care for ill child

4.18
(48)

Care for ill spouse

1.20
(15)

Care for ill parent

2.29
(45)

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table 2.7SE. Standard Errors for Table 2.7: Length of Longest Leave by Reason for Leave: 2000 Survey

Leave-Takers for Each Reason

Length of
Longest Leave
(in work days)

Own
Health
SE
(N)

Maternity-
Disability
SE
(N)

Care for
Newborn,
Newly
Adopted or
Foster Child
SE
(N)

Care for
Ill Child
SE
(N)

Care for
Ill Spouse
SE
(N)

Care for
Ill Parent
SE
(N)

1 – 3 days

1.58
(44)

1.10
(1)

2.53
(22)

3.69
(37)

5.28
(19)

3.52
(26)

4 – 5 days

1.55
(83)

2.50
(5)

6.16
(34)

5.09
(32)

6.28
(30)

4.51
(51)

6 – 10 days

2.26
(103)

2.42
(8)

4.27
(29)

8.41
(24)

4.31
(17)

5.22
(42)

11 – 30 days

2.08
(159)

4.39
(20)

2.70
(31)

6.40
(11)

3.30
(8)

2.91
(19)

31 – 60 days

2.34
(108)

6.20
(40)

3.42
(54)

1.72
(6)

2.11
(2)

1.65
(7)

More than 60 days

1.20
(72)

9.22
(20)

1.51
(23)

0.33
(1)

2.35
(5)

1.47
(4)

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table 2.8SE. Standard Errors for Table 2.8: Use of Intermittent
Leave: 2000 Survey

Leave-Takers Who:

Leave-Takers
SE
(N)

Took intermittent leave at least once in previous 18 months

1.72
(329)

Did not take intermittent leave

1.72
(898)

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table 2.9SE. Standard Errors for Table 2.9: Percent of Leave that
was Intermittent: 2000 Survey

Leave-Takers Taking Intermittent Leave
SE
(N)

Less than half

3.99
(164)

About half

3.37
(62)

More than half

2.84
(96)

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table 2.10SE. Standard Errors for Table 2.10: Intermittent Use of
Longest Leave: 2000 Survey

Leave-Takers’ Longest Leave Was:

Leave-Takers
SE
(N)

Intermittent

1.63
(254)

Not intermittent

1.63
(970)

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table 2.11SE. Standard Errors for Table 2.11: Use of Longest
Intermittent Leave on a Routine or As-Needed Basis: 2000 Survey

Intermittent Leave was Taken as:

Those Whose (Longest)
Leave was Intermittent
SE
(N)

Regular routine

5.20
(15)

As-needed

5.20
(155)

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table 2.12SE. Standard Errors for Table 2.12: Intermittent Use of Longest Leave by Reason
for Leave: 2000 Survey

Reason for Longest Leave

Leave-Takers
Whose Leave
was Intermittent
SE
(N)

Leave-Takers
Whose Leave
was Not Intermittent
SE
(N)

Own health

3.81
(94)

2.13
(486)

Maternity-disability

1.46
(13)

1.25
(82)

Care for a newborn, newly adopted, or newly placed foster child

3.73
(25)

2.20
(168)

Care for ill child

3.87
(40)

1.33
(71)

Care for ill spouse

1.91
(25)

0.53
(58)

Care for ill parent

2.71
(53)

1.24
(99)

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table 2.13SE. Standard Errors for Table 2.13: Intermittent Use of Longest
Leave by Reason for Leave: 2000 Survey

Leave-Takers Within Each Reason
Whose Longest Leave Was:

Reason for Longest Leave

Intermittent
SE
(N)

Not Intermittent
SE
(N)

Own health

1.80
(94)

1.80
(486)

Maternity-disability

3.56
(13)

3.56
(82)

Care for a newborn, newly adopted,
or newly placed foster child

3.87
(25)

3.87
(168)

Care for ill child

7.56
(40)

7.56
(71)

Care for ill spouse

5.19
(25)

5.19
(58)

Care for ill parent

4.34
(53)

4.34
(99)

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table 2.14SE. Standard Errors for Table 2.14: Employees Needing But Not
Taking Leave: 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Not Taking Leave

1995
Survey
SE
(N)

2000
Survey
SE
(N)

Number of employees needing but not taking leave (for a covered reason) in the previous 18 months

294,462.50
(187)

279,270.38
(203)

Percent of employee population

0.24
(187)

0.20
(203)

Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table 2.15SE. Standard Errors for Table 2.15: Number of Leaves
Needed But Not Taken: 2000 Survey

Leave-Needers
SE
(N)

1 leave

4.18
(77)

2 leaves

3.24
(45)

3 – 4 leaves

3.09
(31)

5 or more leaves

2.22
(22)

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table 2.16SE. Standard Errors for Table 2.16: Reasons for Needing Leave:
1995 and 2000 Surveys

Leave-Needers

Reason for Needing Leave

1995
Survey
SE
(N)

2000
Survey
SE
(N)

Own health

4.28
(92)

3.92
(96)

Maternity-disability

0.51
(1)

0.89
(3)

Care for a newborn, newly adopted, or newly placed foster child

2.65
(17)

2.52
(19)

Care for ill child

3.32
(37)

3.24
(40)

Care for ill spouse

1.86
(19)

1.71
(19)

Care for ill parent

4.09
(33)

3.19
(47)

Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table 2.17SE. Standard Errors for Table 2.17: Reasons for Not Taking Leave:
1995 and 2000 Surveys

Leave-Needers

Reason for Not Taking Leave

1995
Survey

SE
(N)

2000
Survey
SE
(N)

Thought job might be lost

3.35
(58)

3.38
(62)

Thought job advancement might be hurt

3.71
(44)

3.27
(83)

Did not want to lose seniority

2.60
(30)

3.52
(56)

Not eligible—worked part-time

2.54
(28)

2.24
(22)

Not eligible—had not worked long enough for employer (1)

2.87
(33)

Employer denied request

2.23
(18)

2.94
(39)

Could not afford to take leave

4.13
(123)

3.35
(155)

Wanted to save leave time

3.44
(55)

3.41
(71)

Work is too important

3.68
(78)

4.07
(104)

Some other reason

NA

2.33
(28)

NA Indicates reason not asked about in 1995 survey.

Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table 2.18SE. Standard Errors for Table 2.18: Perceived Impact of Pay on
Leave-Needers: 2000 Survey

Perceived Impact of Pay

Leave-Needers Who Could
Not Afford to Take Leave
SE
(N)

Would have taken leave if some/additional
pay had been received

2.84
(132)

Would not have taken leave if some/additional
pay had been received

2.84
(19)

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table 2.19SE. Standard Errors for Table 2.19: How Leave-Needers Took
Care of Their Situation: 2000 Survey

Leave-Needers
SE
(N)

Just lived with it/Suffered through it

3.2
(92)

Got help from others (family, friends)

2.8
(62)

Altered Work (schedule, duties, etc.)

2.6
(24)

Took some time off

2.3
(28)

Did something else

1.6
(10)

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

STANDARD ERRORS
FOR CHAPTER 3 TABLES
DISPLAYED IN TEXT

Table 3.1SE. Standard Errors for Table 3.1: Coverage of Establishments and Employees
Under the Family and Medical Leave Act: 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Establishments

Employees

1995
Survey
SE
(N)

2000
Survey
SE
(N)

1995
Survey
SE
(N)

2000
Survey
SE
(N)

FMLA-covered establishments

1.18
(736)

1.30
(1070)

1.6
(736)

1.51
(1070)

Non-covered establishments

1.18
(470)

1.30
(731)

1.6
(470)

1.51
(731)

Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Establishments.

Table 3.2SE. Standard Error for Table 3.2: Characteristics of FMLA-Covered Establishments:
1995 and 2000 Surveys

Covered
Establishments

Employees in Covered Establishments

1995
Survey
SE
(N)

2000
Survey
SE
(N)

1995
Survey
SE
(N)

2000
Survey
SE
(N)

Eligibility Criteria

At least 50 employees at sampled location

4.45
(645)

5.64
(901)

1.40
(645)

1.03
(901)

At least 50 employees within 75 miles
of sampled location

4.45
(91)

5.64
(169)

1.40
(91)

1.03
(169)

Number of Employees at Worksites

Up to 250 employees

0.53
(447)

0.69
(757)

2.2
(447)

1.60
(757)

More than 250 employees

0.53
(289)

0.69
(313)

2.2
(289)

1.60
(313)

Standard Industrial Classification

Manufacturing

1.35
(200)

3.46
(241)

1.35
(200)

1.32
(241)

Retail

4.91
(130)

3.15
(202)

4.91
(130)

0.91
(202)

Services

5.11
(233)

3.59
(377)

5.11
(233)

1.67
(377)

All other industries

7.11
(173)

5.28
(250)

7.11
(173)

1.10
(250)

Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Establishments.

Table 3.3SE. Standard Errors for Table 3.3: Demographic Characteristics
of Leave-Takers by Eligibility Status: 2000 Survey

Covered and Eligible

Leave-Takers
SE
(N)


All Other
Leave-Takers
SE
(N)

Gender

Male

2.44

3.98

(316)

(145)

Female

2.44

3.98

(489)

(279)

Age

18 – 24

1.46

3.29

(46)

(41)

25 – 34

1.78

4.11

(199)

(127)

35 – 49

2.33

3.34

(334)

(167)

50 – 64

1.61

1.48

(201)

(74)

65 or over

0.40

0.69

(17)

(12)

Race/Ethnicity

White non-Hispanic

2.37

2.59

(595)

(344)

Black non-Hispanic

2.20

0.94

(97)

(27)

Hispanic

1.35

2.54

(58)

(27)

Asian

0.54

0.62

(22)

(8)

All others

0.62

0.95

(23)

(15)

Marital Status

Married/Living with partner

2.18

2.87

(602)

(317)

Separated/Divorced/Widowed

1.43

1.70

(113)

(58)

Never been married

1.80

2.59

(85)

(47)

Children Under 18 in Household

None

2.05

2.77

(339)

(179)

One or more

2.05

2.77

(465)

(245)

Table 3.3SE. Standard Errors for Table 3.3: Demographic Characteristics
of Leave-Takers by Eligibility Status: 2000 Survey (continued)

Covered and Eligible

Leave-Takers
SE
(N)


All Other Employees
SE
(N)

Education

Less than high school

1.01

2.56

(38)

(24)

High school graduate

2.19

2.57

(228)

(116)

Some college

2.59

2.83

(247)

(137)

College graduate

1.53

3.48

(190)

(104)

Graduate school

1.39

3.05

(100)

(43)

Annual Family Income

Less than $20,000

1.51

3.55

(74)

(74)

$20,000 to less than $30,000

1.67

2.23

(86)

(49)

$30,000 to less than $50,000

2.37

2.70

(180)

(91)

$50,000 to less than $75,000

2.20

2.40

(206)

(87)

$75,000 to less than $100,000

1.74

1.14

(106)

(30)

$100,000 or more

1.38

4.19

(72)

(41)

Compensation Type

Salaried

2.16

3.79

(318)

(128)

Hourly

2.42

3.54

(437)

(220)

Other

1.00

1.95

(49)

(73)

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table 3.4SE. Standard Errors for Table 3.4: Awareness of FMLA Among Covered and Non-covered Employees: 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Employees

Covered

Non-covered

All Employees

1995
Survey
SE
(N)

2000
Survey
SE
(N)

1995
Survey
SE
(N)

2000
Survey
SE
(N)

1995
Survey
SE
(N)

2000
Survey
SE
(N)

Employees who have heard about FMLA

1.91

1.72

3.04

2.85

1.60

1.43

(875)

(1244)

(327)

(328)

(1202)

(1572)

Employees who have not heard about FMLA

1.91

1.72

3.04

2.85

1.60

1.43

(663)

(713)

(346)

(255)

(1009)

(968)

Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

 

Table 3.5SE. Standard Errors for Table 3.5: Employees Taking Their Longest Leave Under FMLA(1): 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Taking Longest Leave Under FMLA

1995
Survey
SE
(N)

2000
Survey
SE
(N)

Percent of all employees

0.16
(85)

0.19
(153)

Percent of all leave-takers

0.94
(85)

1.02
(153)

Percent of all covered and eligible leave-takers

1.49
(85)

1.53
(153)

(1) Estimate derived from employees who were covered and eligible at time of longest leave.

Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

 

Table 3.6SE. Standard Errors for Table 3.6: Establishment Size and Industry Differences in Ratio of FMLA Leave-Takers:(1) 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Ratio of Employees Taking Leave Under FMLA per 100 Employees

1995
Survey
SE
(N)

2000
Survey
SE
(N)

Establishment Size

Up to 250 employees

0.30

0.55

(359)

(573)

More than 250 employees

0.50

0.68

(229)

(249)

Industry

Manufacturing

0.90

1.39

(170)

(211)

Retail

0.40

0.82

(92)

(136)

Services

0.50

0.52

(194)

(292)

All other industries

0.50

0.99

(132)

(183)

All Covered Establishments

0.30

0.44

(588)

(1015)

(1) Per 100 employees.

Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Establishments.

 

 

Table 3.7SE. Standard Errors for Table 3.7: Intermittent Use of Longest Leave Taken Under FMLA:(1) 2000 Survey

Longest Leave Was:

Leave-Takers
Under FMLA

SE
(N)

Intermittent

5.39

(25)

Not intermittent

5.39

(128)

(1) Estimate derived from employees who were covered and eligible at time of longest leave.

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

 

Table 3.8SE. Standard Errors for Table 3.8: Reasons for Longest Leave Taken Under FMLA:(1) 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Reason for Longest Leave

Leave-Takers
Under FMLA

1995
Survey
SE
(N)

2000
Survey
SE
(N)

Own health

7.62

4.64

(36)

(57)

Maternity-disability

3.46

2.76

(11)

(19)

Care for a newborn, newly adopted,
or newly placed foster child

4.59

3.86

(20)

(37)

Care for ill child

2.75

4.86

(7)

(14)

Care for ill spouse

2.36

1.17

(4)

(7)

Care for ill parent

2.74

2.91

(7)

(19)

(1) Estimate derived from employees who were covered and eligible at time of longest leave.

Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

 

Table 3.9SE. Standard Errors for Table 3.9: Employees Choosing Not to Return to Work After Taking Longest Leave Under FMLA: 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Leave-Takers
Under FMLA

1995
Survey
SE
(N)

2000
Survey
SE
(N)

Returned to work for the same employer

1.49

1.22

(72)

(124)

Chose not to return after their leave(1)

1.49

1.22

(2)

(4)

(1) Estimate derived from employees who were covered and eligible at time of longest leave. Includes employees who went to work for another employer as well as those who chose to not return to work at all.

Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

STANDARD ERRORS
FOR CHAPTER 4 TABLES
DISPLAYED IN TEXT

Table 4.1SE. Standard Errors for Table 4.1: Leave-Taker Worries About Taking Leave: 2000 Survey

Worries About Taking Leave:

Leave-Takers
SE
(N)

Worried job might be lost

1.85

(324)

Worried leave might hurt job advancement

1.62

(328)

Worried seniority would be lost

0.97

(167)

Worried about not having enough money for bills

2.04

(655)

Worried for some other reason

0.91

(192)

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

 

Table 4.2SE. Standard Errors for Table 4.2: Ease of Getting Time Off:
1995 and 2000 Surveys

How easy or difficult was it for you to get your employer to let you take time off?

Leave-Takers

1995
Survey
SE
(N)

2000
Survey
SE
(N)

Very easy

1.55

2.12

(742)

(752)

Somewhat easy

1.16

1.51

(192)

(218)

Neither easy nor difficult

0.68

1.12

(84)

(94)

Somewhat difficult

0.93

1.52

(78)

(95)

Very difficult

0.92

0.72

(58)

(62)

Source: 1995 and 2000 Surveys of Employees.

 

Table 4.3SE. Standard Errors for Table 4.3: Benefits Lost During Longest Leave: 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Leave-Takers

1995
Survey
SE
(N)

2000
Survey
SE
(N)

Health Insurance

0.53

0.39

(37)

(27)

Life insurance

0.28

0.21

(12)

(9)

Disability insurance

0.26

0.15

(10)

(5)

Pension contributions

0.33

0.24

(14)

(13)

Other

0.80

0.83

(76)

(63)

Source: 1995 and 2000 Surveys of Employees.

 

Table 4.4SE. Standard Errors for Table 4.4: Receipt of Pay During Longest Leave:(1) 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Leave-Takers

1995
Survey
SE
(N)

2000
Survey
SE
(N)

Received at least some pay during their
longest leave

1.91

1.73

(776)

(803)

Received no pay during longest leave

1.91

1.73

(387)

(421)

(1) The data in this table is based on different question wordings used in the 1995 and 2000 surveys. In 1995, the question asked was: "Was the leave fully paid, unpaid, or partially paid?" In 2000, the question was: "Did you receive pay for any part of your (longest) leave?".

Source: 1995 and 2000 Surveys of Employees.

Table 4.5SE. Standard Errors for Table 4.5: Source of Pay During Longest Leave: 2000 Survey

Leave-Takers
Receiving Pay During Longest Leave
SE
(N)

Sick leave

2.82

(505)

Vacation leave

2.78

(314)

Personal leave

1.75

(223)

Parental leave

1.63

(59)

Temporary disability insurance

1.55

(151)

Other benefits

1.56

(89)

Number of Leave-Takers Receiving Pay

679,728.46

(803)

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

 

Table 4.6SE. Standard Errors for Table 4.6: Full versus Partial Pay Across the Leave Period: 2000 Survey

Leave-Takers
Receiving Pay During Longest Leave
SE
(N)

Paid for entire leave period at full pay

2.46

(560)

Paid for entire leave period at partial pay

2.24

(172)

Paid for part of the leave period at full pay

0.45

(24)

Paid for part of the leave period at partial pay

0.58

(33)

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

 

Table 4.7SE. Standard Errors for Table 4.7: Proportion of Usual Pay Received by Leave-Takers Receiving Only Partial Pay: 2000 Survey

Proportion of Usual Pay Received
While on Leave

Leave-Takers
Receiving Partial Pay
During Longest Leave
SE
(N)

Less than half

3.55

(78)

About half

2.99

(60)

More than half

4.12

(97)

Number of Leave-Takers Receiving Partial Pay

374,492.53

(237)

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table 4.8SE. Standard Errors for Table 4.8: How Lost Wages were Covered During Leave: 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Leave-Takers Receiving Less
Than Full Pay

1995
Survey
SE
(N)

2000
Survey
SE
(N)

Use savings earmarked for this situation

2.48

2.74

(279)

(304)

Use savings earmarked for something else

2.16

2.24

(259)

(251)

Borrow money

1.87

2.10

(161)

(187)

Go on public assistance

1.08

1.39

(62)

(61)

Limit extras

2.19

2.27

(471)

(487)

Put off paying bills

2.31

2.26

(233)

(240)

Cut leave time short

2.76

2.61

(224)

(241)

Did something else

1.52

1.44

(80)

(63)

Source: 1995 and 2000 Surveys of Employees.

Table 4.9SE. Standard Errors for Table 4.9: Perceived Impact of Pay on Length of Leave: 2000 Survey

Perceived Impact of Pay

Leave-Takers Receiving Less Than Full Pay
During Longest Leave

SE
(N)

Would have taken leave for a longer period if some/additional pay had been received

2.26

(312)

Would not have taken leave for a longer period if some/additional pay had been received

2.26

(326)

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table 4.10SE. Standard Errors for Table 4.10: Effects of Using Family and Medical Leave: 2000 Survey

 

Leave-Takers
SE
(N)

Ability to Care for Family Members(1)

 

Positive effect

2.46

 

(456)

No effect

2.46

 

(119)

Ability to Select a Satisfactory Childcare Provider(2)

 

Positive effect

4.47

 

(101)

No effect

4.47

 

(119)

Ability to Select a Satisfactory Caretaker for Sick Family Member(3)

 

Positive effect

3.29

 

(167)

No effect

3.29

 

(170)

Leave-Taker’s or Family Member’s Physical Health

 

Positive effect

2.10

 

(774)

No effect

2.10

 

(420)

Leave-Taker’s or Family Member’s Emotional Well-Being

 

Positive effect

1.59

 

(832)

No effect

1.59

 

(354)

(1) Percentages based on persons taking leave to care for newborn, newly adopted or new foster child, or an ill family member (either a child, spouse, or parent).

(2) Percentages based on persons taking leave for a newborn, or a newly adopted or new foster child.

(3) Percentages based on persons taking leave to care for an ill family member (either child, spouse, or parent).

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table 4.11SE. Standard Errors for Table 4.11: Positive Outcomes of Effects of Using Family and Medical Leave: 2000 Survey

Effect on Employee’s or Family Member’s Physical Health

Leave-Takers Stating that Leave had a Positive Effect on Physical Health
SE
(N)

Quicker recovery time

1.24

(604)

Easier to comply with doctor’s instructions

1.49

(723)

Delayed/avoided need to enter nursing home or other long-term care facility

2.20

(246)

Other effects

2.27

(126)

Number of Leave-Takers Stating that Leave
Had a Positive Effect on Physical Health


632,521.10

(774)

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

 

Table 4.12SE. Standard Errors for Table 4.12: Returning to Work after Longest
Leave: 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Leave-Takers

1995
Survey
SE
(N)

2000
Survey
SE
(N)

Returned to work for the same employer

0.78

0.73

(967)

(1006)

Went to work for a new employer

0.48

0.41

(37)

(23)

Did not return to work at all

0.52

0.60

(36)

(46)

Number of Leave-Takers

634,960.82

836,863.59

(1,040)

(1,075)

Source: 1995 and 2000 Surveys of Employees.

Table 4.13SE. Standard Errors for Table 4.13: Position Returned to After Leave: 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Leave-Takers Returning to
Same Employer

1995
Survey
SE
(N)

2000
Survey
SE
(N)

Same or equal position

0.51

0.50

(931)

(971)

Higher position

0.30

0.30

(15)

(14)

Lower position

0.48

0.39

(20)

(20)

Number of Leave-Takers Returning to
Same Employer


631,924.63


804,220.02

(967)

(1,006)

Source: 1995 and 2000 Surveys of Employees.

 

Table 4.14SE. Standard Errors for Table 4.14: Reasons for Leave-Takers’ Return to Work: 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Leave-Takers Returning to
Same Employer

1995
Survey
SE
(N)

2000
Survey
SE
(N)

No longer needed to be on leave

2.13

1.75

(728)

(759)

Could not afford to take more time off

2.12

2.37

(440)

(496)

Just wanted to get back to work

1.94

1.92

(535)

(683)

Used up all the leave time allowed

1.31

2.28

(224)

(334)

Felt pressure by boss/co-workers to return

2.05

2.12

(208)

(226)

Had too much work to do

1.72

2.02

(309)

(304)

Someone else took over care

NA

1.97

(230)

NA Indicates item not asked in 1995 survey.

Source: 1995 and 2000 Surveys of Employees.

Table 4.15SE. Standard Errors for Table 4.15: Leave-Takers Denied Leave: 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Leave-Takers

1995
Survey
SE
(N)

2000
Survey
SE
(N)

Denied leave

0.98

0.76

(78)

(77)

Not denied leave

0.98

0.76

(1093)

(1147)

Number of Leave-Takers

657,248.17

876,388.45

(1,172)

(1,229)

Source: 1995 and 2000 Surveys of Employees.

 

Table 4.16SE. Standard Errors for Table 4.16: Coverage and Eligibility Among Female and Male
Employees with Young Children: 2000 Survey



Females
SE
(N)



Males
SE
(N)

All
Employees
with Children
SE
(N)

Number of Employees with Young Children

446,658.91
(193)

706,619.86
(139)

844,594.86
(332)

Employees at FMLA-covered worksites

5.57

7.28

3.93

(149)

(105)

(254)

Eligible employees at FMLA-covered worksites

5.18

7.71

3.93

(113)

(93)

(206)

Employees at worksites not covered by FMLA

5.57

7.28

3.93

(44)

(34)

(78)

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table 4.17SE. Standard Errors for Table 4.17: Leaves Taken and Needed Among Female and Male Employees with Young Children: 2000 Survey

Females
SE
(N)

Males
SE
(N)

All
Employees
with Children
SE
(N)

Percent taking leave (for a covered reason)
since January 1, 1999

6.12

6.28

3.89

(173)

(99)

(272)

Percent needing, but not taking, leave (for a
covered reason) since January 1, 1999

0.75

1.22

0.72

(5)

(12)

(17)

Percent not taking or needing leave

6.12

6.28

4.01

(15)

(28)

(43)

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

 

Table 4.18SE. Standard Errors for Table 4.18: Reasons for Taking Leave, Across All Leaves Taken, by Females and Males with Young Children: 2000 Survey

Leave-Takers with Young Children

Reason for Leave

Females
SE
(N)

Males
SE
(N)

All
SE
(N)

Own health

5.96

7.19

4.94

(28)

(19)

(47)

Maternity-disability

5.81

.

4.43

(66)

(0)

(66)

Care for a newborn, newly adopted or newly placed foster child

5.73
(87)

7.50
(75)

5.53
(162)

Care for ill child

1.21

1.84

1.01

(6)

(5)

(11)

Care for ill spouse

.

2.33

0.97

(0)

(7)

(7)

Care for ill parent

0.72

1.06

0.61

(1)

(2)

(3)

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table 4.19SE. Standard Errors for Table 4.19: Reasons for Taking Leave, Across All Leaves Taken, Based on Total Population of Female and Male Employees with Young Children: 2000 Survey

All Employees with Young Children



Reason for Leave

Females
SE
(N)

Males
SE
(N)

All
SE
(N)

Own health

4.79

3.31

2.87

(28)

(19)

(47)

Maternity-disability

5.20

.

2.41

(66)

(0)

(66)

Care for a newborn, newly adopted, or newly placed foster child

5.17
(87)

6.26
(75)

4.59
(162)

Care for ill child

0.92

0.83

0.60

(6)

(5)

(11)

Care for ill spouse

.

1.04

0.57

(0)

(7)

(7)

Care for ill parent

0.55

0.47

0.34

(1)

(2)

(3)

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

 

Table 4.20SE. Standard Errors for Table 4.20: Employees’ Opinions Toward FMLA:
1995 and 2000 Surveys

Opinion Measure

1995
Survey
SE
(N)

2000
Survey
SE
(N)

Every person should be able to have up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave in a year from work for family and medical problems.

Agree

1.15

1.06

(1684)

(2052)

Disagree

1.15

1.06

(519)

(423)

Having to provide employees with up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave in a year for family and medical problems is an unfair burden to employees’ co-workers.

Agree

1.57

1.24

(848)

(859)

Disagree

1.57

1.24

(1321)

(1542)

Source: 1995 and 2000 Surveys of Employees.

Table 4.21SE. Standard Errors for Table 4.21: Co-workers Taking Leave for Family or Medical Reasons: 2000 Survey

Employees
SE
(N)

Co-workers had taken leave for family or medical reasons since January 1, 1999

1.34

(1670)

Did not have co-workers take leave for family or medical reasons since January 1, 1999

1.34

(705)

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

 

Table 4.22SE. Standard Errors for Table 4.22: Effects of Co-workers Taking Leave on Employees: 2000 Survey

Effect:

Employees Having Co-workers Take Leave
SE
(N)

Worked more hours than usual

1.53

(601)

Worked a shift not normally worked

1.70

(410)

Took on additional duties

1.68

(854)

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

 

Table 4.23SE. Standard Errors for Table 4.23: Perceived Impact of Co-workers Taking Leave on Employees: 2000 Survey

Perceived Impact

Employees Reporting that Co-workers’ Leave Had an Effect
SE
(N)

Employees who felt that co-workers taking leave
had a positive impact on them

2.08

(179)

Employees who felt that co-workers taking leave
had a negative impact on them

2.08

(149)

Employees who felt that co-workers taking leave
had neither a positive or negative impact on them

2.54

(677)

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

 

STANDARD ERRORS
FOR CHAPTER 5 TABLES
DISPLAYED IN TEXT

 

Table 5.1SE. Standard Errors for Table 5.1: Family and Medical Leave Policies by FMLA Coverage Status: Reasons for Which Up to 12 Weeks of Leave is Provided: 2000 Survey

Covered Establishments

SE

(N)

Non-covered Establishments

SE

(N)

All
Establishments

SE

(N)

Employee’s Own Serious Health Condition

Yes

3.38

3.62

3.33

(1016)

(521)

(1537)

No

1.15

2.94

2.62

(17)

(116)

(133)

Depends on circumstances

3.26

2.44

2.23

(31)

(85)

(116)

Mother’s Maternity-Related Reasons

Yes

1.49

3.39

3.07

(1011)

(513)

(1524)

No

1.30

3.27

2.92

(23)

(130)

(153)

Depends on circumstances

0.73

2.17

1.97

(32)

(76)

(108)

Parents to Care for Newborn

Yes

3.76

3.48

3.36

(973)

(414)

(1387)

No

1.65

3.07

2.78

(39)

(197)

(236)

Depends on circumstances

3.29

2.59

2.32

(50)

(107)

(157)

Parents for Adoption or Foster
Care Placement

Yes

4.03

3.69

3.55

(937)

(357)

(1294)

No

2.00

3.62

3.28

(57)

(216)

(273)

Depends on circumstances

3.32

2.33

2.14

(51)

(128)

(179)

Care of Child, Spouse, or Parent
for Serious Health Condition

Yes

3.72

3.62

3.37

(977)

(436)

(1413)

No

1.50

3.29

2.99

(35)

(166)

(201)

Depends on circumstances

3.33

2.51

2.26

(47)

(113)

(160)

All FMLA Reasons

Yes

4.16

3.27

3.25

(889)

(285)

(1174)

No or Depends on Circumstances

4.16

3.27

3.25

(146)

(395)

(541)

Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

Table 5.2SE. Standard Errors for Table 5.2: FMLA Coverage Status Differences in Family
and Medical Leave Policies: Continuation of Health Benefits: 2000 Survey

Covered Establishments
SE
(N)

Non-covered Establishments
SE
(N)

All
Establishments
SE
(N)

Employee’s Own Serious Health Condition

Yes

4.12

3.32

2.82

(955)

(416)

(1371)

No

0.27

1.86

1.56

(12)

(27)

(39)

Depends on circumstances

4.22

3.02

2.60

(68)

(68)

(136)

Mother’s Maternity-Related Reasons

Yes

3.11

2.47

2.19

(969)

(430)

(1399)

No

0.24

1.02

0.85

(9)

(23)

(32)

Depends on circumstances

3.17

2.32

2.12

(55)

(51)

(106)

Parents to Care for Newborn

Yes

3.18

4.14

3.35

(933)

(352)

(1285)

No

0.42

2.42

1.98

(18)

(33)

(51)

Depends on circumstances

3.31

3.67

3.05

(61)

(60)

(121)

Parents for Adoption or Foster
Care Placement

Yes

3.76

3.44

2.83

(909)

(332)

(1241)

No

0.43

2.56

2.09

(16)

(26)

(42)

Depends on circumstances

3.74

3.11

2.56

(66)

(65)

(131)

Care of Child, Spouse, or Parent
for Serious Health Condition

Yes

4.10

3.94

3.27

(926)

(356)

(1282)

No

0.66

1.80

1.51

(12)

(23)

(35)

Depends on circumstances

4.23

3.54

2.97

(73)

(81)

(154)

Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

Table 5.3SE. Standard Errors for Table 5.3: Family and Medical Leave Policies by FMLA Coverage
Status: Reasons for Which Job Return is Guaranteed: 2000 Survey

Covered Establishments
SE
(N)

Non-covered Establishments
SE
(N)

All
Establishments
SE
(N)

Employee’s Own Serious Health Condition

Yes

3.33

2.78

2.42

(1005)

(528)

(1533)

No

0.17

1.00

0.87

(6)

(19)

(25)

Depends on circumstances

3.34

2.64

2.31

(39)

(63)

(102)

Mother’s Maternity-Related Reasons

Yes

0.34

1.96

1.70

(1012)

(549)

(1561)

No

0.12

1.01

0.88

(5)

(12)

(17)

Depends on circumstances

0.32

1.77

1.53

(28)

(36)

(64)

Parents to Care for Newborn

Yes

0.97

2.13

1.82

(988)

(479)

(1467)

No

0.22

1.24

1.06

(7)

(13)

(20)

Depends on circumstances

0.84

1.66

1.42

(33)

(36)

(69)

Parents for Adoption or Foster
Care Placement

Yes

3.44

2.67

2.29

(967)

(450)

(1417)

No

0.27

1.16

0.98

(7)

(8)

(15)

Depends on circumstances

3.45

2.49

2.14

(34)

(47)

(81)

Care of Child, Spouse, or Parent
for Serious Health Condition

Yes

3.47

2.45

2.11

(987)

(474)

(1461)

No

0.62

1.08

0.93

(5)

(12)

(17)

Depends on circumstances

3.45

2.35

2.01

(37)

(68)

(105)

Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

Table 5.4SE. Standard Errors for Table 5.4: Provision of Leave Beyond that Guaranteed by
FMLA by Coverage Status: 2000 Survey

Covered Establishments
SE
(N)

Non-covered Establishments
SE
(N)

All
Establishments
SE
(N)

More Than 12 Weeks Per Year

Yes

6.37

3.37

3.02

(248)

(101)

(349)

No

5.45

4.23

3.62

(471)

(311)

(782)

Depends on circumstances

5.56

3.34

2.89

(287)

(162)

(449)

Employees Who Have Worked for Establishment Less Than 12 Months

Yes

6.51

3.71

3.50

(256)

(142)

(398)

No

5.45

4.31

3.75

(508)

(290)

(798)

Depends on circumstances

6.86

3.30

2.96

(230)

(147)

(377)

Employees Who Have Worked for Less
Than 1,250 Hours in the Past Year

Yes

6.79

3.44

3.06

(250)

(143)

(393)

No

6.33

4.00

3.38

(495)

(277)

(772)

Depends on circumstances

6.25

3.50

3.18

(236)

(146)

(382)

Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

Table 5.5SE. Standard Errors for Table 5.5: Continuation of Pay During Leave by FMLA Coverage Status: 2000 Survey

Establishment Provides:

Covered Establishments
SE
(N)

Non-covered Establishments
SE
(N)

All
Establishments
SE
(N)

Paid Sick Leave

Yes

4.60

3.79

3.35

(795)

(470)

(1265)

No

3.91

3.19

2.80

(178)

(199)

(377)

Depends on circumstances

1.65

2.28

2.04

(95)

(56)

(151)

Paid Disability Leave

Yes

4.05

3.79

3.40

(723)

(318)

(1041)

No

4.18

4.20

3.77

(202)

(313)

(515)

Depends on circumstances

2.14

2.44

2.11

(136)

(81)

(217)

Paid Vacation

Yes

1.12

3.26

2.92

(996)

(633)

(1629)

No

0.39

2.89

2.58

(12)

(58)

(70)

Depends on circumstances

1.03

1.67

1.48

(61)

(35)

(96)

Other Paid Time Off

Yes

4.50

3.26

2.94

(423)

(173)

(596)

No

4.42

3.33

3.00

(616)

(529)

(1145)

Depends on circumstances

0.37

1.05

0.95

(30)

(23)

(53)

Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

 

Table 5.6SE. Standard Errors for Table 5.6: Continuation of Pay During Leave by FMLA Coverage Status: Reasons for Which Pay is Continued: 2000 Survey

Establishment Continues Pay During Leave For:

Covered Establishments
SE
(N)

Non-covered Establishments
SE
(N)

All
Establishments
SE
(N)

Parents to Care for Newborn

Full pay

4.01

2.78

2.53

(216)

(173)

(389)

Partial pay

1.46

1.68

1.44

(86)

(44)

(130)

Depends on circumstances

5.29

2.88

2.51

(230)

(107)

(337)

No pay

4.91

3.78

3.22

(529)

(390)

(919)

Parents for Adoption or Foster
Care Placement

Full pay

4.01

2.77

2.48

(187)

(132)

(319)

Partial pay

0.57

1.15

1.02

(48)

(29)

(77)

Depends on circumstances

6.26

3.04

2.69

(196)

(110)

(306)

No pay

6.01

3.93

3.43

(617)

(441)

(1058)

Employee’s Own Serious Health Condition

Full pay

6.35

3.72

3.39

(396)

(242)

(638)

Partial pay

5.07

1.66

1.80

(149)

(60)

(209)

Depends on circumstances

3.54

2.15

1.97

(244)

(145)

(389)

No pay

4.00

3.67

3.28

(278)

(274)

(552)

Mother’s Maternity-Related Reasons

Full pay

6.31

4.00

3.54

(379)

(228)

(607)

Partial pay

4.93

1.97

1.91

(154)

(46)

(200)

Depends on circumstances

2.94

2.24

1.96

(209)

(115)

(324)

No pay

3.98

3.39

3.03

(322)

(326)

(648)

Table 5.6SE. Standard Errors for Table 5.6: Continuation of Pay During Leave by FMLA Coverage Status: Reasons for Which Pay is Continued: 2000 Survey (continued)

Establishment Continues Pay During Leave For:

Covered Establishments
SE
(N)

Non-covered Establishments
SE
(N)

All
Establishments
SE
(N)

Care of Child, Spouse, or
for Serious Health Condition

Full pay

4.08

3.65

3.29

(188)

(161)

(349)

Partial pay

0.87

2.00

1.75

(48)

(33)

(81)

Depends on circumstances

5.44

3.12

2.83

(222)

(149)

(371)

No pay

5.19

3.43

3.03

(604)

(373)

(977)

Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

 

STANDARD ERRORS
FOR CHAPTER 6 TABLES
DISPLAYED IN TEXT

 

Table 6.1SE. Standard Errors for Table 6.1: Covered Establishments’ Initial Source of Information About FMLA: 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Covered Establishments

1995
Survey
SE
(N)

2000
Survey
SE
(N)

U.S. Department of Labor

5.50

3.38

(355)

(754)

The media

8.10

8.25

(462)

(452)

A trade or business group

5.02

5.68

(426)

(670)

An attorney or consultant

4.92

3.31

(385)

(748)

A union

1.36

1.28

(26)

(48)

Employees

1.16

4.27

(38)

(89)

The Internet

NA

5.50

(490)

Existing company policies or practices

NA

2.83

(849)

Some other source

5.11

2.21

(128)

(177)

NA Indicates item not asked in 1995 survey.

Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Establishments.

Table 6.2SE. Standard Errors for Table 6.2: How Employees First Learned About the Family and Medical Leave Act: 2000 Survey

Employees Aware
of FMLA
SE
(N)

Media (TV, newspapers, etc.)

1.82

(601)

Co-workers

0.84

(71)

Employer gave out information

1.77

(613)

Posters

0.70

(67)

Internet

0.16

(5)

Family member

0.60

(56)

Union gave out information

0.41

(27)

Other way

0.82

(97)

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

 

Table 6.3SE. Standard Errors for Table 6.3: Methods Used to Cover Work When an Employee Takes Leave for a Week or Longer: 2000 Survey

Covered Establishments

Establishment Covers Leave By:

1995
Survey
SE
(N)

2000
Survey
SE
(N)

Assigning work temporarily to other employees

1.13

0.47

(712)

(1024)

Hiring an outside temporary replacement

4.70

6.22

(462)

(559)

Hiring a permanent replacement

4.00

0.97

(101)

(71)

Putting work on hold until the employee returns from leave

5.28

3.60

(108)

(196)

Having the employee perform some work while on leave

2.78

1.22

(158)

(143)

Some other method

0.77

5.86

(30)

(60)

Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Establishments.

Table 6.4SE. Standard Errors for Table 6.4: Effects of FMLA-Related Administrative Activities: 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Covered Establishments

1995
Survey
SE
(N)

2000
Survey
SE
(N)

Maintaining Additional Record-Keeping

Very/Somewhat easy

4.07

6.81

(365)

(483)

Very/Somewhat difficult

4.07

6.81

(297)

(439)

Determining Whether the Act Applies to the Organization

Very/Somewhat easy

4.32

4.59

(615)

(827)

Very/Somewhat difficult

4.32

4.59

(59)

(107)

Determining Whether Certain Employees are Eligible

Very/Somewhat easy

2.05

2.90

(531)

(740)

Very/Somewhat difficult

2.05

2.90

(138)

(198)

Coordinating State and Federal Leave Policies

Very/Somewhat easy

4.31

8.33

(468)

(553)

Very/Somewhat difficult

4.31

8.33

(150)

(345)

Coordinating the Act with Other Federal Laws (1)

Very/Somewhat easy

4.60

6.06

(399)

(454)

Very/Somewhat difficult

4.60

6.06

(236)

(463)

Coordinating the Act with Other Leave Policies

Very/Somewhat easy

5.99

5.48

(488)

(569)

Very/Somewhat difficult

5.99

5.48

(177)

(355)

Coordinating the Act with Employee Attendance Policies

Very/Somewhat easy

NA

7.07

(573)

Very/Somewhat difficult

NA

7.07

(356)

Table 6.4SE. Standard Errors for Table 6.4: Effects of FMLA-Related Administrative Activities: 1995 and 2000 Surveys (continued)

Covered Establishments

1995
Survey
SE
(N)

2000
Survey
SE
(N)

Administering FMLA’s Notification, Designation,
and Certification Requirements

Very/Somewhat easy

NA

5.58

(471)

Very/Somewhat difficult

NA

5.58

(452)

Determining if a Health Condition is a Serious
Health Condition Under FMLA

Very/Somewhat easy

NA

5.27

(517)

Very/Somewhat difficult

NA

5.27

(404)

Overall Ease of Complying with FMLA

Very/Somewhat easy

2.75

5.95

(459)

(584)

Very/Somewhat difficult

2.75

5.95

(215)

(357)

(1) In the 1995 survey, the wording was slightly different. "Pre-existing" was used instead of "Other."

NA Indicates item not asked in 1995 survey.

Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Establishments.

 

 

Table 6.5SE. Standard Errors for Table 6.5: Effects of Complying with FMLA on Business and Employee Performance: 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Covered Establishments

1995
Survey
SE
(N)

2000
Survey
SE
(N)

Business Effects

Productivity

Positive effect

3.08

1.45

(47)

(109)

Negative effect

1.71

6.62

(107)

(155)

No noticeable effect

3.42

6.67

(509)

(657)

Profitability

Positive effect

0.53

0.56

(19)

(44)

Negative effect

1.51

1.72

(87)

(156)

No noticeable effect

1.67

1.97

(523)

(690)

Growth

Positive effect

0.55

0.89

(16)

(32)

Negative effect

1.41

7.20

(20)

(46)

No noticeable effect

1.53

7.28

(607)

(817)

Employee Effects

Productivity

Positive effect

3.84

6.31

(90)

(124)

Negative effect

1.17

6.51

(82)

(169)

No noticeable effect

4.17

7.14

(483)

(617)

Absences

Positive effect

1.90

1.30

(46)

(82)

Negative effect

1.01

6.78

(105)

(192)

No noticeable effect

2.33

6.67

(504)

(640)

Table 6.5SE. Standard Errors for Table 6.5: Effects of Complying with FMLA on Business and Employee Performance: 1995 and 2000 Surveys (continued)

Covered Establishments

1995
Survey

SE

(N)

2000
Survey

SE

(N)

Turnover

Positive effect

1.65

1.66

(42)

(92)

Negative effect

0.26

7.21

(9)

(28)

No noticeable effect

1.68

6.88

(612)

(798)

Career Advancement

Positive effect

4.22

1.06

(33)

(58)

Negative effect

0.39

0.21

(7)

(8)

No noticeable effect

4.21

1.08

(629)

(856)

Morale

Positive effect

NA

2.98

(292)

Negative effect

NA

6.90

(87)

No noticeable effect

NA

5.40

(541)

NA Indicates item not asked in 1995 survey.

Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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