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Wage and Hour Division
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Wage and Hour Division (WHD)

APPENDIX A-1 TABLES DISPLAYED IN TEXT

CHAPTER 2 TABLES DISPLAYED IN TEXT

Table A1-2.1. Employees Taking Leave: 1995 and 2000 Surveys

1995
Survey

2000
Survey

Number of employees taking leave (for a covered reason) in the previous 18 months**

20,359,000

23,830,000

Percent of employee population

16.0%

16.5%

** Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.05.
Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-2.2. Length of Second Longest Leave: 2000 Survey

Length of Second Longest Leave

Percent of Those Taking More Than One Leave

1 – 3 days

42.9%

4 – 5 days

26.3%

6 – 10 days

14.1%

11 – 20 days

7.4%

More than 20 days

9.4%

Number of Leave-Takers Taking More Than One Leave

5,676,524

Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding.
Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-2.3. Reasons for Taking Leave Across All Leaves Taken in Previous 18 Months: 2000 Survey

Reason for Leave

Percent of
Leave-Takers

Own health

52.4%

Maternity-disability

7.9%

Care for a newborn, newly adopted, or newly placed foster child

18.5%

Care for ill child

11.5%

Care for ill spouse

6.4%

Care for ill parent

13.0%

Note: Percentages sum to more than 100% due to some persons taking more than one leave.
Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-2.4. Reasons for Taking Leave Across All Leaves Taken, Based on Total Employee Population: 2000 Survey

Reason for Leave

Percent of
All Employees

Own health

8.7%

Maternity-disability

1.3%

Care for a newborn, newly adopted, or newly placed foster child

3.1%

Care for ill child

1.9%

Care for ill spouse

1.1%

Care for ill parent

2.2%

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-2.5. Employees’ Reasons for Taking Longest Leave: 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Reason for Longest Leave

Percent of Leave-Takers

1995
Survey

2000
Survey

Own health**

61.4%

47.2%

Maternity-disability**

4.6%

7.8%

Care for a newborn, newly adopted,
or newly placed foster child

14.3%

17.9%

Care for ill child

8.5%

9.8%

Care for ill spouse**

3.6%

5.9%

Care for ill parent**

7.6%

11.4%

** Difference between 1995 and 2000 surveys is significant at p<.05.
Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding.
Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-2.6. Employees’ Reasons for Second Longest Leave: 2000 Survey

Reason for Second Longest Leave

Percent of Persons Taking More Than One Leave

Own health

55.8%

Maternity-disability

--

Care for a newborn, newly adopted, or newly
placed foster child

5.1%

Care for ill child

20.1%

Care for ill spouse

4.2%

Care for ill parent

13.0%

-- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases.
Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding.
Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-2.7. Length of Longest Leave by Reason for Leave: 2000 Survey

Percent of Leave-Takers for Each Reason

Length of Longest Leave** (in work days)

Own Health

Maternity-Disability

Care for Newborn, Newly Adopted or Foster Child

Care for Ill Child

Care for Ill Spouse

Care for Ill Parent

1 – 3 days

8.2%

--

10.0%

26.0%

24.0%

17.4%

4 – 5 days

17.1%

--

27.5%

23.7%

38.3%

32.2%

6 – 10 days

18.7%

--

17.6%

31.9%

19.9%

30.9%

11 – 30 days

25.1%

18.1%

13.5%

14.0%

--

13.1%

31 – 60 days

19.4%

39.7%

21.7%

--

--

--

More than 60 days

11.4%

28.7%

9.8%

--

--

--

** Difference among reasons for leave is significant at p<.05.
-- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases.
Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding.
Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-2.8. Use of Intermittent Leave: 2000 Survey

Leave-Takers Who:

Percent of
Leave-Takers

Took intermittent leave at least once in previous 18 months

27.8%

Did not take intermittent leave

72.2%

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-2.9. Amount of Leave that was Intermittent: 2000 Survey

Amount of Leave that was Intermittent

Percent of Leave-Takers Taking Intermittent Leave

Less than half

53.9%

About half

19.6%

More than half

26.4%

Notes: Column percents based on the 27.8% of leave-takers who reported taking intermittent leave.
Percents may not total to 100% due to rounding.
Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-2.10. Intermittent Use of Longest Leave: 2000 Survey

Leave-Takers’ Longest Leave Was:

Percent of
Leave-Takers

Intermittent

20.8%

Not intermittent

79.2%

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-2.11. Use of Longest Intermittent Leave on a Routine or As-Needed Basis: 2000 Survey

Intermittent Leave was Taken as:

Percent of Those
Whose (Longest)
Leave was Intermittent

Regular routine

13.4%

As-needed

86.6%

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-2.12. Intermittent Use of Longest Leave by Reason for Leave: 2000 Survey

Reason for Longest Leave**

Percent of Leave-Takers
Whose Leave was
Intermittent

Percent of Leave-Takers
Whose Leave was
Not Intermittent

Own health

35.1%

50.3%

Maternity-disability

4.9%

8.6%

Care for a newborn, newly adopted, or newly placed foster child


13.2%


19.1%

Care for ill child

19.1%

7.4%

Care for ill spouse

8.9%

5.1%

Care for ill parent

18.7%

9.6%

** Difference between "intermittent" and "not intermittent" categories is significant at p<.05.
Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding.
Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-2.13. Intermittent Use of Longest Leave Within Reasons for Leave: 2000 Survey

Percent of Leave-Takers Within Each Reason Whose Longest Leave Was:

Reason for Longest Leave**

Intermittent

Not Intermittent

Own health

15.0%

85.0%

Maternity-disability

12.7%

87.3%

Care for a newborn, newly adopted, or newly placed foster child

14.9%

85.1%

Care for ill child

39.5%

60.5%

Care for ill spouse

30.9%

69.1%

Care for ill parent

33.1%

66.9%

** Difference between reasons categories is significant at p<.05.
Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-2.14. Employees Needing But Not Taking Leave: 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Persons Not Taking Leave

1995
Survey

2000
Survey

Number of employees needing but not taking leave (for a covered reason) in the previous 18 months

3,925,056

3,520,177

Percent of employee population**

3.1%

2.4%

** Difference between 1995 and 2000 significant at p<.05.
Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-2.15. Number of Leaves Needed But Not Taken: 2000 Survey

Percent of Leave-Needers

1 leave

44.4%

2 leaves

25.0%

3 – 4 leaves

18.9%

5 or more leaves

11.8%

Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding.
Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-2.16. Reasons for Needing Leave: 1995 and 2000 Surveys


Reason for Needing Leave

Percent of Leave-Needers

1995
Survey

2000
Survey

Own health

47.7%

48.1%

Maternity-disability

--

--

Care for a newborn, newly adopted, or newly placed foster child

9.3%

9.3%

Care for ill child

18.6%

19.6%

Care for ill spouse

10.2%

9.0%

Care for ill parent

20.2%

22.6%

-- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases.
Note: Column percentages sum to more than 100% due to some persons needing leave for more than one reason.
Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-2.17. Reasons for Not Taking Leave: 1995 and 2000 Surveys


Reason for Not Taking Leave

Percent of Leave-Needers

1995
Survey

2000
Survey

Thought job might be lost

29.7%

31.9%

Thought job advancement might be hurt**

22.8%

42.6%

Did not want to lose seniority**

15.1%

27.8%

Not eligible—worked part-time

14.3%

12.3%

Not eligible—had not worked long
enough for employer

N/A

18.4%

Employer denied request**

9.9%

20.8%

Could not afford to take leave**

65.9%

77.6%

Wanted to save leave time

28.5%

34.3%

Work is too important**

40.8%

52.6%

Some other reason

N/A

13.2%

** Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.05.
NA Indicates reason not asked about in 1995 survey.
Note: Percentages sum to more than 100% due to some persons reporting multiple reasons for not taking leave.
Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-2.18. Perceived Impact of Pay on Leave-Needers: 2000 Survey

Perceived Impact of Pay

Percent of Leave-Needers Who Could Not Afford to Take Leave

Would have taken leave if some/additional pay had been received


87.8%

Would not have taken leave if some/additional pay had been received


12.2%

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-2.19. How Leave-Needers Took Care of Their Situation: 2000 Survey

Percent of Leave-Needers

Just lived with it/Suffered through it

44.1%

Got help from others (family, friends)

25.0%

Altered work (schedule, duties, etc.)

12.2%

Took some time off

13.1%

Did something else

5.7%

Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding.
Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

CHAPTER 3 TABLES DISPLAYED IN TEXT

Table A1-3.1. Coverage of Establishments and Employees Under the Family and Medical Leave Act: 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Percent of
Establishments

Percent of
Employees

1995
Survey

2000
Survey

1995
Survey

2000
Survey

FMLA-covered establishments

10.8%

10.8%

59.5%

58.3%

Non-covered establishments

89.2%

89.2%

40.5%

41.7%

Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding.
Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Establishments.

Table A1-3.2. Characteristics of FMLA-Covered Establishments: 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Percent of
Covered Establishments

Percent of Employees in Covered Establishments

1995
Survey

2000
Survey

1995
Survey

2000
Survey

Coverage Due to 75 Mile Rule

At least 50 employees at sampled location

39.1%

44.2%

90.2%

91.1%

At least 50 employees within 75 miles
of sampled location


60.9%


55.8%


9.8%


8.9%

Number of Employees at Worksites

Up to 250 employees

95.4%

94.7%

53.9%

55.7%

More than 250 employees

4.6%

5.3%

46.1%

44.3%

Standard Industrial Classification

Manufacturing

9.4%

13.0%

24.5%

23.1%

Retail

27.7%

19.6%

15.7%

14.6%

Services

26.2%

29.1%

34.1%

35.3%

All other industries

36.8%

38.2%

25.7%

27.0%

Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding.
Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Establishments.

Table A1-3.3. Demographic Characteristics of Leave-Takers by Eligibility Status: 2000 Survey

Percent of Covered and Eligible
Leave-Takers


Percent of
All Other Employees

Gender

Male

42.3%

41.2%

Female

57.7%

58.8%

Age**

18 – 24

8.2%

13.2%

25 – 34

25.7%

31.6%

35 – 49

40.6%

38.0%

50 – 64

23.6%

14.4%

65 or over

1.8%

2.7%

Race/Ethnicity**

White non-Hispanic

73.6%

81.1%

Black non-Hispanic

13.6%

5.1%

Hispanic

7.9%

8.7%

Asian

2.4%

--

All others

2.5%

3.4%

Marital Status

Married/Living with partner

74.5%

75.8%

Separated/Divorced/Widowed

13.0%

12.1%

Never been married

12.4%

12.1%

Children Under 18 in Household

None

41.4%

38.6%

One or more

58.6%

61.4%

Education

Less than high school

5.2%

7.2%

High school graduate

28.9%

26.1%

Some college

33.3%

31.7%

College graduate

21.3%

23.9%

Graduate school

11.3%

11.0%

Annual Family Income**

Less than $20,000

10.4%

23.3%

$20,000 to less than $30,000

12.4%

12.3%

$30,000 to less than $50,000

26.7%

23.2%

$50,000 to less than $75,000

28.5%

20.5%

$75,000 to less than $100,000

13.9%

6.5%

$100,000 or more

8.0%

14.1%

Compensation Type**

Salaried

39.1%

31.5%

Hourly

55.1%

53.3%

Other

5.8%

15.1%

** Difference between covered and eligible leave-takers and all other employees is significant at p<.05.
-- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases.
Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-3.4. Awareness of FMLA Among Covered and Non-covered Employees: 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Percent of Employees

Covered

Non-covered

All Employees

1995
Survey

2000
Survey

1995
Survey

2000
Survey

1995
Survey

2000
Survey

Employees who have heard about FMLA

59.0%

59.3%

50.2%*

58.2%

56.0%

59.1%

Employees who have not heard about FMLA

41.0%

40.7%

49.8%*

41.8%

44.0%

40.9%

* Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.10.
Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-3.5. Employees Taking Their Longest Leave Under FMLA:(1) 1995 and 2000 Surveys


Taking Longest Leave Under FMLA

Percent

1995
Survey

2000
Survey

Percent of all employees**

1.2%

1.9%

Percent of all leave-takers**

7.2%

11.7%

Percent of all covered and eligible leave-takers**

11.6%

18.3%

(1) Estimate derived from employees who were covered and eligible at time of longest leave.
** Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.05.
Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-3.6. Establishment Size and Industry Differences in Ratio of FMLA Leave-Takers:(1) 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Ratio of Employees Taking Leave Under FMLA per 100 Employees

1995
Survey

2000
Survey

Establishment Size

Up to 250 employees**

2.4

5.5

More than 250 employees**

5.3

8.9

Industry

Manufacturing**

4.4

9.3

Retail**

2.0

5.9

Services**

3.7

6.2

All other industries**

3.6

6.3

All Covered Establishments

3.6

6.5

(1) Per 100 employees.
** Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.05.
Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Establishments.

Table A1-3.7. Intermittent Use of Longest Leave Taken Under FMLA:(1) 2000 Survey


Longest Leave Was:

Percent of Leave-Takers
Under FMLA

Intermittent

19.1%

Not intermittent

80.9%

(1) Estimate derived from employees who were covered and eligible at time of longest leave.
Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-3.8. Reasons for Longest Leave Taken Under FMLA:(1) 1995 and 2000 Surveys


Reason for Longest Leave

Percent of Leave-Takers
Under FMLA

1995
Survey

2000
Survey

Own health

48.1%

37.8%

Maternity-disability

11.3%

10.9%

Care for a newborn, newly adopted, or newly placed foster child

21.2%

24.4%

Care for ill child

--

13.5%

Care for ill spouse

--

--

Care for ill parent

--

10.6%

(1) Estimate derived from employees who were covered and eligible at time of longest leave.
-- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases.
Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-3.9. Employees Choosing Not to Return to Work After Taking Longest Leave Under FMLA: 1995 and 2000 Surveys



Percent of Leave-Takers Under FMLA

1995
Survey

2000
Survey

Returned to work for the same employer

97.8%

98.0%

Chose not to return after their leave(1)

--

--

(1) Estimate derived from employees who were covered and eligible at time of longest leave. Includes employees who went to work for another employer as well as those who chose to not return to work at all.
-- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases.
Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

CHAPTER 4 TABLES DISPLAYED IN TEXT

Table A1-4.1. Leave-Taker Worries About Taking Leave: 2000 Survey

Worries About Taking Leave:

Percent of
Leave-Takers

Worried job might be lost

26.9%

Worried leave might hurt job advancement

26.2%

Worried seniority would be lost

12.9%

Worried about not having enough money for bills

53.8%

Worried for some other reason

13.2%

Note: Percentages do not sum to 100% because respondents could report more than one effect on health.
Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-4.2. Ease of Getting Time Off: 1995 and 2000 Surveys


How easy or difficult was it for you to get your employer to let you take time off?

Percent of Leave-Takers

1995
Survey

2000
Survey

Very easy**

65.0%

59.6%

Somewhat easy

16.3%

18.2%

Neither easy nor difficult

6.7%

8.2%

Somewhat difficult

6.7%

9.2%

Very difficult

5.4%

4.8%

** Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.05.
Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding.
Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-4.3. Benefits Lost During Longest Leave: 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Percent of Leave-Takers

1995
Survey

2000
Survey

Health Insurance

2.9%

2.0%

Life insurance

1.0%

--

Disability insurance

0.8%

--

Pension contributions

1.1%

0.8%

Other

5.9%

5.1%

-- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases.
Note: Respondents could report more than one benefit was lost.
Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-4.4. Receipt of Pay During Longest Leave: 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Percent of Leave-Takers

1995
Survey

2000
Survey

Received at least some pay during their longest leave


66.4%


65.8%

Received no pay during longest leave

33.6%

34.2%

Note: The data in this table are based on differently worded questions used in the 1995 and 2000 surveys. In 1995, the question asked was: "Was the leave fully paid, unpaid, or partially paid?" In 2000, the question was: "Did you receive pay for any part of your (longest) leave?"
Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-4.5. Source of Pay During Longest Leave: 2000 Survey

Percent of Leave-Takers Receiving Pay During Longest Leave

Sick leave

61.4%

Vacation leave

39.4%

Personal leave

25.7%

Parental leave

7.7%

Temporary disability insurance

18.0%

Other benefits

11.4%

Number of Leave-Takers Receiving Pay

15,620,658

Note: Percentages do not sum to 100% because respondents could report more than one source of pay.
Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-4.6. Full versus Partial Pay Across the Leave Period: 2000 Survey

Percent of Leave-Takers Receiving Pay During Longest Leave

Paid for entire leave period at full pay

72.2%

Paid for entire leave period at partial pay

21.6%

Paid for part of the leave period at full pay

2.6%

Paid for part of the leave period at partial pay

3.6%

Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding.
Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-4.7. Proportion of Usual Pay Received by Leave-Takers Receiving Only Partial Pay: 2000 Survey



Proportion of Usual Pay Received
While on Leave

Percent of Leave-Takers Receiving Partial Pay During Longest Leave

Less than half

31.1%

About half

25.0%

More than half

43.9%

Number of Leave-Takers Receiving Partial Pay

4,401,295

Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding.
Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-4.8. How Lost Wages were Covered During Leave: 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Percent of Leave-Takers Receiving Less Than Full Pay During Longest Leave

1995
Survey

2000
Survey

Use savings earmarked for this situation

43.7%

47.0%

Use savings earmarked for something else

40.6%

35.6%

Borrow money

25.1%

29.0%

Go on public assistance

8.9%

8.7%

Limit extras*

75.4%

70.1%

Put off paying bills

38.7%

38.5%

Cut leave time short

40.3%

37.0%

Did something else

13.0%

9.7%

Note: Percentages do not sum to 100% because respondents could report more than one method of covering lost wages.
* Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.10.
Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-4.9. Perceived Impact of Pay on Length of Leave: 2000 Survey




Perceived Impact of Pay

Percent of Leave-Takers Receiving Less Than
Full Pay During
Longest Leave

Would have taken leave for a longer period if some/additional pay had been received

50.9%

Would not have taken leave for a longer period if some/additional pay had been received

49.1%

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-4.10. Effects of Using Family and Medical Leave: 2000 Survey

Percent of
Leave-Takers

Ability to Care for Family Members(1)

 

Positive effect

78.7%

No effect

21.3%

Ability to Select a Satisfactory Childcare Provider(2)

 

Positive effect

40.4%

No effect

59.6%

Ability to Select a Satisfactory Caretaker for Sick Family Member(3)

 

Positive effect

47.9%

No effect

52.1%

Leave-Taker’s or Family Member’s Physical Health

 

Positive effect

63.0%

No effect

37.0%

Leave-Taker’s or Family Member’s Emotional Well-Being

 

Positive effect

70.1%

No effect

29.9%

(1) Percentages based on persons taking leave to care for newborn, newly adopted or new foster child, or an ill family member (either a child, spouse, or parent).
(2) Percentages based on persons taking leave for a newborn, or a newly adopted or new foster child.
(3) Percentages based on persons taking leave to care for an ill family member (either child, spouse, or parent).
Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-4.11. Positive Outcomes of Effects of Using Family and Medical Leave: 2000 Survey

Effect on Employee’s or Family
Member’s Physical Health

Percent of Leave-Takers Stating that Leave Had
a Positive Effect on Physical Health

Quicker recovery time

83.7%

Easier to comply with doctor’s instructions

93.5%

Delayed/avoided need to enter nursing home or other long-term care facility


32.0%

Other effects

17.0%

Number of Leave-Takers Stating that Leave had a Positive Effect on Physical Health


14,513,291

Note: Percentages do not sum to 100% because respondents could report more than one effect on health.
Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-4.12. Returning to Work after Longest Leave: 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Percent of Leave-Takers

1995
Survey

2000
Survey

Returned to work for the same employer

93.8%

94.4%

Went to work for a new employer*

3.1%

1.9%

Did not return to work at all

3.0%

3.8%

Number of Leave-Takers (1)

18,288,293

21,043,859

* Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.10.
Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding.
(1) This number excludes leave-takers who were on leave at the time of their
interview (approximately 10 percent of leave-takers in 1995 and 12% in 2000).
Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-4.13. Position Returned to After Longest Leave: 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Percent of Leave-Takers Returning to Same Employer

1995
Survey

2000
Survey

Same or equal position

96.8%

97.1%

Higher position

1.3%

1.1%

Lower position

1.8%

1.8%

Number of Leave-Takers Returning
to Same Employer

17,156,285

19,859,091

Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding.
Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

 

Table A1-4.14. Reasons for Leave-takers’ Return to Work: 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Percent of Leave-Takers Returning to Same Employer

1995
Survey

2000
Survey

No longer needed to be on leave

74.1%

77.1%

Could not afford to take more time off

46.7%

50.4%

Just wanted to get back to work**

55.3%

66.1%

Used up all the leave time allowed**

21.8%

33.7%

Felt pressure by boss/co-workers to return

22.7%

24.2%

Had too much work to do

32.5%

30.1%

Someone else took over care

NA

23.6%

** Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.05.
NA Indicates item not asked in 1995 survey.
Note: Percentages do not sum to 100% because respondents could report more than one reason for returning to work.
Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-4.15. Leave-Takers Denied Leave: 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Percent of Leave-Takers

1995
Survey

2000
Survey

Denied leave

6.6%

6.2%

Not denied leave

93.4%

93.8%

Number of Leave-Takers

20,359,640

23,830,305

Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-4.16. Coverage and Eligibility Among Female and Male Employees with Young Children: 2000 Survey

Percent of Females

Percent of Males

Percent of All Employees with Children

Number of Employees with Young Children

4,146,171

5,524,516

9,670,687

Employees at FMLA-covered worksites

74.5%

75.0%

74.8%

Eligible employees at FMLA-covered worksites

56.3%

66.7%

62.2%

Employees at worksites not covered by FMLA

25.5%

25.0%

25.2%

Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-4.17. Leaves Taken and Needed Among Female and Male Employees with Young Children: 2000 Survey

Percent of Females**

Percent of Males

Percent of All Employees with Children

Percent taking leave (for a covered reason) since January 1, 1999


75.8%


45.1%


58.2%

Percent needing, but not taking, leave (for a covered reason) since January 1, 1999


--


3.8%


3.1%

Percent not taking or needing leave

22.0%

51.1%

38.6%

** Difference between males and females is significant at p<.05.
-- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases.
Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-4.18. Reasons for Taking Leave, Across All Leaves Taken, by Females and Males with Young Children: 2000 Survey


Reason for Leave

Percent of Leave-Takers
with Young Children

Percent
Females

Percent
Males

Percent
All

Own health

20.2%

20.2%

20.2%

Maternity-disability

42.8%

&

23.9%

Care for a newborn, newly adopted
or newly placed foster child **


47.2%


75.6%

59.7%

Care for ill child

--

--

3.5%

Care for ill spouse

&

--

--

Care for ill parent

--

--

--

** Difference between males and females is significant at p<.05.
-- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases.
& Indicates that no significance test was conducted because of zero cell.
Note: Percentages sum to more than 100% due to some persons taking more than one leave.
Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-4.19. Reasons for Taking Leave, Across All Leaves Taken, Based on Total Population of Female and Male Employees with Young Children: 2000 Survey


Reason for Leave

Percent of All Employees
with Young Children

Percent
Females

Percent
Males

Percent
All

Own health

15.3%

9.1%

11.8%

Maternity-disability

32.4%

&

13.9%

Care for a newborn, newly adopted,
or newly placed foster child


35.8%


34.1%

34.8%

Care for ill child

--

--

2.0%

Care for ill spouse

&

--

--

Care for ill parent

--

--

--

-- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases.
& Indicates that no significance test was conducted because of zero cell.
Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-4.20. Employees’ Opinions Toward FMLA: 1995 and 2000 Surveys


Opinion Measure

1995
Survey

2000
Survey

Every person should be able to have up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave in a year from work for family and medical problems.

Agree**

72.3%

81.4%

Disagree**

27.7%

18.6%

Having to provide employees with up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave in a year for family and medical problems is an unfair burden to employees’ co-workers.

Agree**

43.8%

36.1%

Disagree**

56.2%

63.9%

** Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.05.
Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-4.21. Co-workers Taking Leave for Family or Medical Reasons: 2000 Survey

Percent of Employees

Co-workers had taken leave for family or medical reasons since January 1, 1999


63.0%

Did not have co-workers take leave for family or medical reasons since January 1, 1999


37.0%

Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-4.22. Effects of Co-workers Taking Leave on Employees: 2000 Survey

Effect:

Percent of Employees Having Co-workers Take Leave

Worked more hours than usual

32.1%

Worked a shift not normally worked

22.9%

Took on additional duties

46.2%

Note: Percentages do not sum to 100% because respondents could report more than one effect.
Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-4.23. Perceived Impact of Co-workers Taking Leave on Employees: 2000 Survey

Perceived Impact

Percent of Employees Reporting that
Co-workers’ Leave Had an Effect

Employees who felt that co-workers taking leave had a positive impact on them

17.4%

Employees who felt that co-workers taking leave had a negative impact on them

15.1%

Employees who felt that co-workers taking leave had neither a positive or negative impact on them

67.4%

Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding.
Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

CHAPTER 5 TABLES DISPLAYED IN TEXT

Table A1-5.1. Family and Medical Leave Policies by FMLA Coverage Status: Reasons for Which Up to 12 Weeks of Leave is Provided: 2000 Survey


Establishment Provides
Leave For: (1)

Percent of Covered Establishments

Percent of
Non-covered Establishments

Percent of
All Establishments

Employee’s Own Serious Health Condition**

Yes

91.9%

66.4%

69.2%

No

2.8%

21.3%

19.3%

Depends on circumstances

5.3%

12.2%

11.5%

Mother’s Maternity-Related Reasons**

Yes

94.1%

65.7%

68.8%

No

3.4%

23.2%

21.0%

Depends on circumstances

2.5%

11.1%

10.1%

Parents to Care for Newborn**

Yes

87.8%

50.5%

54.5%

No

5.1%

33.5%

30.4%

Depends on circumstances

7.2%

16.1%

15.1%

Parents for Adoption or Foster
Care Placement**

Yes

85.7%

43.5%

48.1%

No

6.6%

35.9%

32.7%

Depends on circumstances

7.7%

20.6%

19.2%

Care of Child, Spouse, or Parent
for Serious Health Condition**

Yes

88.6%

57.1%

60.6%

No

4.6%

29.3%

26.6%

Depends on circumstances

6.8%

13.6%

12.9%

All of Above FMLA Reasons**

Yes

83.7%

33.5%

39.1%

No or Depends on circumstances

16.3%

66.5%

60.9%

(1) Order of items was changed in the 2000 survey.
** Difference between covered and non-covered establishments is significant at p<.05.
Notes: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding.
Includes establishments that provide up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave.
Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

Table A1-5.2. Family and Medical Leave Policies by FMLA Coverage Status: Continuation of Health Care Benefits: 2000 Survey


Establishment Continues
Health Care Benefits For: (1)

Percent of Covered Establishments

Percent of
Non-covered Establishments

Percent of
All Establishments

Employee’s Own Serious Health Condition

Yes

87.0%

84.0%

84.5%

No

0.8%

4.4%

3.8%

Depends on circumstances

12.2%

11.6%

11.7%

Mother’s Maternity-Related Reasons

Yes

91.0%

89.0%

89.3%

No

--

2.4%

2.1%

Depends on circumstances

8.4%

8.6%

8.6%

Parents to Care for Newborn**

Yes

89.4%

78.0%

80.1%

No

1.2%

7.1%

6.0%

Depends on circumstances

9.4%

14.9%

13.9%

Parents for Adoption or Foster
Care Placement**

Yes

89.4%

76.2%

78.7%

No

1.3%

6.6%

5.6%

Depends on circumstances

9.3%

17.2%

15.7%

Care of Child, Spouse, or Parent
for Serious Health Condition

Yes

85.1%

81.7%

82.3%

No

1.4%

4.0%

3.5%

Depends on circumstances

13.5%

14.4%

14.2%

(1) Order of items was changed in the 2000 survey.
** Difference between covered and non-covered establishments is significant at p<.05.
-- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases.
Notes: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding.
Includes establishments that provide up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave.
Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

Table A1-5.3. Family and Medical Leave Policies by FMLA Coverage Status: Reasons for Which Job Return is Guaranteed: 2000 Survey


Establishment Guarantees
Job For: (1)

Percent of Covered Establishments

Percent of
Non-covered Establishments

Percent of
All Establishments

Employee’s Own Serious Health Condition

Yes

94.1%

88.5%

89.2%

No

--

1.5%

1.3%

Depends on circumstances

5.5%

10.0%

9.4%

Mother’s Maternity-Related Reasons*

Yes

98.2%

93.2%

93.9%

No

--

1.3%

1.2%

Depends on circumstances

1.6%

5.5%

5.0%

Parents to Care for Newborn

Yes

96.7%

93.8%

94.2%

No

--

1.9%

1.7%

Depends on circumstances

2.8%

4.3%

4.0%

Parents for Adoption or Foster
Care Placement

Yes

93.8%

89.7%

90.3%

No

--

--

1.3%

Depends on circumstances

5.6%

8.9%

8.4%

Care of Child, Spouse, or Parent
for Serious Health Condition

Yes

93.4%

87.7%

88.5%

No

--

1.4%

1.3%

Depends on circumstances

5.8%

10.9%

10.2%

(1) Order of items was changed in the 2000 survey.
* Difference between covered and non-covered establishments is significant at p<.10.
** Difference between covered and non-covered establishments is significant at p<.05.
-- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases.
Notes: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding.
Includes establishments that provide up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave.
Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

Table A1-5.4. Provision of Leave Beyond that Guaranteed by FMLA by Coverage Status: 2000 Survey

Percent of
Covered Establishments

Percent of
Non-covered Establishments

Percent of
All
Establishments

More Than 12 Weeks Per Year

Yes

22.9%

21.1%

21.4%

No

49.6%

52.7%

52.3%

Depends on circumstances

27.5%

26.1%

26.3%

Employees Who Have Worked for Establishment Less Than 12 Months

Yes

28.7%

28.0%

28.1%

No

43.6%

45.0%

44.8%

Depends on circumstances

27.7%

27.0%

27.1%

Employees Who Have Worked for Less Than 1,250 Hours in the Past Year

Yes

27.0%

26.8%

26.8%

No

45.9%

44.9%

45.0%

Depends on circumstances

27.0%

28.3%

28.2%

Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding.
Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

Table A1-5.5. Continuation of Pay During Leave by FMLA Coverage Status: 2000 Survey



Establishment Provides:

Percent of Covered Establishments

Percent of Non-covered Establishments

Percent of
All Establishments

Paid Sick Leave

Yes

74.3%

62.7%

63.9%

No

17.9%

26.7%

25.7%

Depends on circumstances

7.9%

10.7%

10.3%

Paid Disability Leave**

Yes

62.7%

39.4%

42.0%

No

24.6%

48.3%

45.7%

Depends on circumstances

12.7%

12.3%

12.3%

Paid Vacation**

Yes

94.7%

80.1%

81.7%

No

0.9%

13.1%

11.8%

Depends on circumstances

4.4%

6.8%

6.5%

Other Paid Time Off**

Yes

43.3%

18.5%

21.2%

No

54.8%

78.4%

75.8%

Depends on circumstances

1.9%

3.1%

2.9%

** Difference between covered and non-covered establishments is significant at p<.05.
Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding.
Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

Table A1-5.6. Continuation of Pay During Leave by FMLA Coverage Status: Reasons for Which Pay is Continued: 2000 Survey


Establishment Continues
Pay During Leave For:

Percent of Covered Establishments

Percent of Non-covered Establishments

Percent of
All Establishments

Parents to Care for Newborn

Full pay

17.3%

24.9%

24.0%

Partial pay

6.0%

7.2%

7.0%

Depends on circumstances

22.7%

17.6%

18.2%

No Pay

54.1%

50.4%

50.8%

Parents for Adoption or Foster Care Placement

Full pay

16.5%

20.1%

19.8%

Partial pay

2.7%

3.5%

3.5%

Depends on circumstances

20.5%

19.8%

19.9%

No Pay

60.3%

56.5%

56.9%

Employee’s Own Serious Health Condition*

Full pay

32.9%

39.3%

38.6%

Partial pay

17.0%

6.5%

7.6%

Depends on circumstances

20.3%

19.8%

19.8%

No Pay

29.8%

34.5%

33.9%

Mother’s Maternity-Related Reasons*

Full pay

30.7%

34.9%

34.4%

Partial pay

18.1%

6.3%

7.6%

Depends on circumstances

16.3%

15.2%

15.4%

No Pay

35.0%

43.6%

42.7%

Care of Child, Spouse, or Parent for Serious Health Condition*

Full pay

15.9%

27.8%

26.5%

Partial pay

3.6%

5.5%

5.3%

Depends on circumstances

21.1%

23.2%

23.0%

No Pay

59.4%

43.5%

45.3%

* Difference between covered and non-covered establishments is significant at p<.10.
Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding.
Source: 2000 Survey of Establishments.

CHAPTER 6 TABLES DISPLAYED IN TEXT

Table A1-6.1. Covered Establishments’ Sources of Information About FMLA: 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Percent of Covered Establishments

1995
Survey

2000
Survey

U.S. Department of Labor**

53.9%

83.1%

The media

66.4%

54.2%

A trade or business group

70.3%

68.3%

An attorney or consultant**

57.0%

77.9%

A union

3.0%

3.2%

Employees

3.3%

10.0%

The Internet

NA

48.8%

Existing company policies or practices

NA

89.4%

Some other source

20.5%

12.4%

** Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.05.
NA - Indicates item not asked in 1995 survey.
Notes: Percents do not total to 100% because a respondent could answer "yes" to more than one source.
1995 survey asked about initial sources of information on the FMLA.
Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Establishments.

Table A1-6.2. How Employees First Learned About the Family and Medical Leave Act: 2000 Survey

Percent of Employees Aware
of FMLA

Media (TV, newspapers, etc.)

42.5%

Co-workers

5.0%

Employer gave out information

38.4%

Posters

3.6%

Internet

--

Family member

2.7%

Union gave out information

1.4%

Other way

6.3%

-- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases.
Source: 2000 Survey of Employees.

Table A1-6.3. Methods Used to Cover Work When an Employee Takes Leave for a Week or Longer: 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Percent of Covered Establishments


Establishment Covers Leave By:

1995
Survey

2000
Survey

Assigning work temporarily to other employees

97.1%

98.3%

Hiring an outside temporary replacement**

60.5%

41.3%

Hiring a permanent replacement*

11.8%

4.4%

Putting work on hold until the employee returns from leave

19.2%

15.5%

Having the employee perform some work while on leave

13.9%

9.0%

Some other method

1.9%

10.6%

* Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.10.
** Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.05.
Note: Percents do not total to 100% because a respondent could answer "yes" to more than one source.
Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Establishments.

Table A1-6.4. Effects of FMLA-Related Administrative Activities: 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Percent of Covered Establishments

1995
Survey

2000
Survey

Maintaining Additional Record-Keeping

Very/Somewhat easy

76.0%*

62.0%

Very/Somewhat difficult

24.0%*

38.0%

Determining Whether the Act Applies to the Organization

Very/Somewhat easy

91.8%

86.0%

Very/Somewhat difficult

8.2%

14.0%

Determining Whether Certain Employees are Eligible

Very/Somewhat easy

92.0%**

83.4%

Very/Somewhat difficult

8.0%**

16.6%

Coordinating State and Federal Leave Policies

Very/Somewhat easy

81.1%**

57.1%

Very/Somewhat difficult

18.9%**

42.9%

Coordinating the Act with Other Federal Laws

Very/Somewhat easy

74.3%**

47.2%

Very/Somewhat difficult

25.7%**

52.8%

Coordinating the Act with Other Leave Policies(1)

Very/Somewhat easy

78.9%**

59.9%

Very/Somewhat difficult

21.1%**

40.1%

Coordinating the Act with Employee Attendance Policies

Very/Somewhat easy

NA

65.5%

Very/Somewhat difficult

NA

34.5%

Administering FMLA’s Notification, Designation,
and Certification Requirements

Very/Somewhat easy

NA

45.6%

Very/Somewhat difficult

NA

54.4%

Determining if a Health Condition is a Serious
Health Condition Under FMLA

Very/Somewhat easy

NA

57.7%

ery/Somewhat difficult

NA

42.3%

Overall Ease of Complying with FMLA

Very/Somewhat easy

85.1%**

63.6%

Very/Somewhat difficult

14.9%**

36.4%

(1) In the 1995 survey, item wording was "pre-existing" rather than "other."
* Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.10.
** Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.05.
NA Indicates item not asked in 1995 survey.
Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding.
Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Establishments.

Table A1-6.5. Effects of Complying with FMLA on Business and Employee Performance: 1995 and 2000 Surveys

Percent of Covered Establishments

1995
Survey

2000
Survey

Business Performance

Productivity

Positive effect

6.4%

7.1%

Negative effect

7.2%

16.3%

No noticeable effect

86.4%

76.5%

Profitability

Positive effect

1.2%*

2.6%

Negative effect

6.3%

9.8%

No noticeable effect

92.5%*

87.6%

Growth

Positive effect

1.1%

2.6%

Negative effect

3.1%

9.7%

No noticeable effect

95.8%

87.7%

Employee Performance

Productivity

Positive effect

12.6%

15.8%

Negative effect

4.7%*

17.2%

No noticeable effect

82.7%*

67.0%

Absences

Positive effect

5.9%

4.8%

Negative effect

4.6%**

18.9%

No noticeable effect

89.5%*

76.3%

Turnover

Positive effect

4.9%

5.7%

Negative effect

--

8.4%

No noticeable effect

94.7%

85.9%

Career Advancement

Positive effect

8.3%

3.9%

Negative effect

--

--

No noticeable effect

91.0%

95.6%

Morale

Positive effect

NA

24.2%

Negative effect

NA

11.1%

No noticeable effect

NA

64.7%

* Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.10.
** Difference between 1995 and 2000 is significant at p<.05.
-- Indicates less than 10 unweighted cases.
NA Indicates item not asked in 1995 survey.
Note: Column percents may not total to 100% due to rounding.

Source: 1995 and 2000 Survey of Establishments.

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