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Veteran Workforce Investment Program (VWIP) — Glossary

Adequate Employment — See Unsubsidized Employment.

Administrative Costs — All direct and indirect costs associated with the supervision and management of the program. These costs shall include the administrative costs, both direct and indirect, of recipients and sub-recipients of the grant funds.

Adult Basic Education — Education for adults whose inability to speak, read or write the English language or to effectively reason mathematically, constitutes a substantial impairment of their ability to get or retain employment commensurate with their real ability, which is designed to help eliminate such inability and raise the level, of education of such individuals with a view to making them less likely to become dependent on others, to improve their ability to benefit from occupational training and otherwise increase their opportunities for more productive and profitable employment, and to make them better able to meet their adult responsibilities.

Ancillary Services — Employment and training related activities other than core training which may enhance a participant's employability.

Apprenticeship Training — A formal occupational training program which combines on-the-job training and related instruction and in which workers learn the practical and conceptual skills required for a skilled occupation, craft, or trade. It may be registered or unregistered.

Assurances and Certifications — The act of certifying compliance with applicable federal and state laws and regulations regarding the receipt and expenditures of grant monies.

ASVET — Assistant Secretary for Veterans' Employment and Training (USDOL)

Average Wage at Placement — This is an average of the wages earned by participants upon entering employment.

Barriers to Employment — Characteristics that may hinder an individual's hiring, promotion or participation in the labor force. Some examples of individuals who may face barriers to employment include: single parents, displaced homemakers, youth, public assistance recipients, older workers, substance abusers, teenage parents, veterans, ethnic minorities, and those with limited English speaking ability or a criminal record or with a lack of education, work experience, credentials, child care arrangements, transportation or alternative working patterns.

Case Management — A client centered approach in the delivery of services, designed to prepare and coordinate comprehensive employment plans for participants, to assure access to the necessary training and supportive services, and to provide support during program participation and after job placement. In accordance with this definition, the case manager acts as a facilitator in assisting the participant toward a successful completion of training.

Classroom Training — Any training of the type normally conducted in an institutional setting, including vocational education, which is designed to provide individuals with the technical skills and information required to perform a specific job or group of jobs. It may also include training designed to enhance the employability of individuals by upgrading basic skills, throughout the provision of courses such as remedial education, training in the primary language of persons with limited English language proficiency, or English-as-language training.

Cognizant Federal Agency — The federal agency that is assigned audit or indirect cost rate approval responsibility for a particular recipient organization by the Office of Management and Budget. (OMB Circulars A-87, A-102)

Community-based organization (CBO) — means a private nonprofit organization that is representative of a community or a significant segment of a community and that has demonstrated expertise and effectiveness in the field of workforce investment.

Core Training — Core training activities are employment focused interventions which address basic vocational skills deficiencies that prevent the participant from accessing appropriate jobs and/or occupations.

Counseling — Counseling in this sense can be any form of assistance which (1) provides guidance in the development of a participant's vocational goals and the means to achieve those goals; and/or (2) assist a participant with the solution to a variety of individual problems which may pose a barrier(s) to the participant in achieving vocational goals, e.g., PTSD counseling, substance abuse counseling, job counseling, etc.

Customized Training — A training program designed to meet the special requirements of an employer who has entered into an agreement with a Service Delivery Area to hire individuals who are trained to the employer's specifications. The training may occur at the employer's site or may be provided by a training vendor able to meet the employer's requirements. Such training usually requires a commitment from the employer to hire a specified number of trainees who satisfactorily complete the training.

Disabled Veteran — A veteran who is entitled to compensation under laws administered by the Veterans Administration; or an individual who was discharged or released from active duty because of service-connected disability.

DVET — Director for Veterans' Employment and Training

DVOP — Disabled Veterans' Outreach Program specialist

Economically Disadvantaged — means an individual who (A) receives, or is a member of a family which receives, cash welfare payments under a Federal, State, or local welfare program; (B) has, or is a member of a family which has, received a total family income for the six-month period prior to application for the program involved (exclusive of unemployment compensation, child support payments, and welfare payments) which, in relation to family size, was not in excess of the higher of (i) the official poverty line (as defined by the Office of Management and Budget, and revised annually in accordance with section 673 (2) of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981 (42 U.S.C. 9902(2)), or (ii) 70 percent of the lower living standard income level; (C) is receiving (or has been determined within the 6-month period prior to the application for the program involved to be eligible to receive) food stamps pursuant to the Food Stamp Act of 1977; (D) qualified as a homeless individual under section 103 of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act; (E) is a foster child on behalf of whom State or local government payments are made or (F) in cases permitted by regulations of the Secretary, is an individual with a disability whose income meets the requirements of clause (A) or (B), but who is a member of a family whose income does not meet such requirements.

Employment Development Plan (EDP) — An individualized written plan or intervention strategy for serving an individual which, as a result of an assessment of the veteran's economic needs, vocational interests, aptitudes, work history, etc., defines a reasonable vocational or employment goal and the developmental services or steps required to reach the goal and which documents the accomplishments made by the individual.

Employment Service — the state level organization or public labor exchange system affiliated with DOL's United States Employment Service.

Entered Employment Rate — This is a method used to determine the percentage of participants who become employed. The percentage is calculated by dividing the number of total participants who were enrolled in the program by the number of participants who were placed or entered employment through the program.

ETA — The Employment and Training Administration

Enrolled Veteran — Shall be synonymous with the term participant. A veteran who has been determined eligible for services at intake and who is receiving or scheduled to receive core training.

Follow-up — The tracking of what happens to participants when they leave the program for a period of 180 days after initial placement. The reporting requirements are to include the following data/information employment status (number of Entered Employments/Placements at 180 days after program has ended), average hourly wage (earnings change at 180 days after program has ended), and job retention (of those enrolled in training, provide number of those still employed in trained occupation at 180 days after program has ended), these measures can be used to assess long-term program performance and activity strategies for clients with diverse characteristics.

FTE — Full-time Equivalent, a personnel charge to the grant equal to 2,080 hours per annum.

FY — Fiscal Year. For federal government purposes, any twelve month period beginning on October 1 and ending on September 30.

GED — General Equivalency Diploma. A high school equivalency diploma which is obtained by passing the General Educational Diploma Equivalency Test which measures the application of skills and knowledge generally associated with four years of traditional high school instruction.

In-kind services — Property or services which benefit a federally assisted project or program and which are contributed without charge to the grantee.

Indirect Cost — A cost that is incurred for a common or joint purpose benefitting more than one cost objective and that is not readily assignable to the cost objectives specifically benefitted.

Institutional Skills Training — Skills training conducted in an institutional setting and designed to ensure that individuals acquire the skills, knowledge and abilities necessary to perform a job or group of jobs in an occupation for which there is a demand.

Intake — A process for screening individual applicants for eligibility; making an initial determination whether the program can benefit the applicants; providing information about the program, its services and the availability of those services; and selecting individual applicants for participation in the program.

Job Club Activities — A form of job search assistance provided in a group setting. Usually job clubs provide instruction and assistance in completing job applications and developing resumes and focus on maximizing employment opportunities in the labor market and developing job leads. Many job clubs use telephone banks and provide group support to participants before and after they interview for openings.

Job Development — The process of marketing a program participant to employers, including informing employers about what the participant can do and soliciting a job interview for that individual with the employer.

Job Placement Services — Job placement services are geared towards placing participants in jobs and may involve activities such as job search assistance, training, or job development. These services are initiated to enhance and expedite participants' transition from training to employment.

Job Search Assistance (JSA) — An activity which focuses on building practical skills and knowledge to identify and initiate employer contacts and conduct successful interviews with employers. Various approaches may be used to include participation in a job club, receive instruction in identifying personal strengths and goals, resume and application preparation, learn interview techniques, and receive labor market information. Job search assistance is often a self-service activity in which individuals can obtain information about specific job openings or general job or occupational information.

Labor Exchange — Refers to the services provided to job seekers and employers by the State Employment Service Agencies, WIA Service-Delivery Areas, or other entities. Services to job seekers may include assessment, testing, counseling, provision of labor market information and referral to prospective employers. Employer service may include accepting job orders, screening applicants, referring qualified applicants and providing follow-up.

Labor Force — The sum of all civilians classified as employed and unemployed and members of the Armed Forces stationed in the United States. (Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin 2175)

Labor market area — an economically integrated geographic area within which individuals can reside and find employment within a reasonable distance or can readily change employment without changing their place of residence.

Literacy and Bilingual Training — See Adult Basic Education.

LVER — Local Veterans' Employment Representative

Minimum Economic Need — The level of wages paid to a program participant that will enable that participant to become economically self-sufficient.

Minority Veterans — For the purposes of this SGA, veterans who are IV-C eligible and are members of the following ethnic categories: African American, Hispanic, American Indian or Alaskan Native, Asian or Pacific Islander.

Occupational Skills Training — Includes both (1) vocational education which is designed to provide individuals with the technical skills and information required to perform a specific job or group of jobs, and (2) on-the-job training.

Offender — Any adult or juvenile who has been subject to any stage of the criminal justice process for whom services under this Act may be beneficial or who requires assistance in overcoming artificial barriers to employment resulting from a record of arrest or conviction.

OASVET — Office of the Assistant Secretary for Veterans' Employment and Training (ASVET)

On-the-job training (OJT) — means training by an employer that is provided to a paid participant while engaged in productive work in a job that — (A) provides knowledge or skills essential to the full and adequate performance of the job; (B) provides reimbursement to the employer of up to 50 percent of the wage rate of the participant, for the extraordinary costs of providing the training and additional supervision related to the training; and (C) is limited in duration as appropriate to the occupation for which the participant is being trained, taking into account the content of the training, the prior work experience of the participant, and the service strategy of the participant, as appropriate. Usually in the OJT agreement, this is a promise on the part of the employer to hire the trainee upon successful completion of the training.

On-site Industry-specific Training — This is training which is specifically tailored to the needs of a particular employer and/or industry. Participants may be trained according to specifications developed by an employer for an occupation or group of occupations at a job site. Such training is usually presented to a group of participants in an environment or job site representative of the actual job/occupation, and there is often an obligation on the part of the employer to hire a certain number of participants who successfully complete the training.

Outreach — An active effort by program staff to encourage individuals in the designated service delivery area to avail themselves of program services.

Outside Funds — Resources pledged to the grant program which have a quantified dollar value. Such resources may include training funds from programs such as WIA Title I that are put aside for the exclusive use by participants enrolled in a program. Outside funds do not include in-kind services.

Participant — means an individual who has been determined to be eligible to participate in and who is receiving services (except follow-up services authorized under this title) under a program authorized by this title. Participation shall be deemed to commence on the first day, following determination of eligibility, on which the individual began receiving subsidized employment, training, or other services provided under this title. An individual who receives only outreach and/or intake and assessment services does not meet this definition.

Placement — The act of securing unsubsidized employment for or by a participant.

Pre-apprenticeship Training — Any training designed to increase or upgrade specific academic, or cognitive, or physical skills required as a prerequisite for entry into a specific trade or occupation.

Pre-enrollment Assessment — The process of determining the employability and training needs of individuals before enrolling them into the program. Individual factors usually addressed during pre-enrollment assessment include: an evaluation and/or measurement of vocational interests and aptitudes, present abilities, previous education and work experience, income requirements, and personal circumstances.

Program Resources — Includes the total of both program or grant and outside funds.

PY — Program Year. The 12-month period beginning July 1, and ending, on June 30, in the fiscal year for which the appropriation is made.

Recently Separated Veteran — refers to any veteran who applies for participation in a funded activity within 48 months after separation from military service.

Remedial Education — Educational instruction, particularly in basic skills, to raise an individual's general competency level in order to succeed in vocational education or skill training programs, or employment.

Service-Connected Disabled — refers to (1) a veteran who is entitled to compensation under laws administered by the Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA), or (2) an individual who was discharged or released from active duty because of a service-connected disability. (29 U.S.C., Chapter 19, section 1503(27)(B))

SGA — Solicitation for Grant Application

Subgrant — An award of financial assistance in the form of money, or property in lieu of money, made under a grant by a grantee to an eligible subgrantee.

Subgrantee — The government or other legal entity to which a subgrant is awarded and which is accountable to the grantee for the use of the funds provided.

Suitable Employment — See "Unsubsidized Employment"

Substance Abuser — An individual dependent on alcohol or drugs, especially narcotics, whose dependency constitutes or results in a substantial barrier to employment.

Supportive Services — means services which are necessary to enable an individual eligible for training, but who cannot afford to pay for such services, to participate in a training program funded under the grant. Such supportive services may include transportation, health care, financial assistance, (except as a post-termination service), drug and alcohol abuse counseling and referral, individual and family counseling, special services and materials for individuals with disabilities, job coaches, child care and dependent care, temporary shelter, financial counseling, and other reasonable expenses required for participation in the training program and may be provided in-kind or through cash assistance.

Unsubsidized Employment — Employment not financed from funds provided under the grant. In the grant program the term "adequate" or "suitable" employment is also used to mean placement in unsubsidized employment which pays an income adequate to accommodate the participant's minimum economic needs.

Upgrading and Retraining — Training given to an individual who needs such training to advance above an entry level or dead-end position. This training shall include assisting veterans in acquiring needed state certification to be employed in the same field as they were trained in the military (i.e., Commercial Truck Driving License (CDL), Emergency Medical Technician (EMT), Airframe & Powerplant (A&P), Teaching Certificate, etc.).

USDOL — United States Department of Labor

USDVA — United States Department of Veterans Affairs (Formerly the Veterans Administration).

Veteran — shall refer to an individual who served in the United States active military, naval, or air service, and who was discharged or released therefrom under conditions other than dishonorable.

Veterans' Workforce Investment Program (VWIP) — Reference made to the "VWIP Program" means all activity funded by VWIP and outside resources.

VWIP Resources — This term is synonymous with VWIP funds/funding.

Vocational Exploration Training — Through assessments such as interest inventories and/or counseling, a process of identifying occupations or occupational areas in which a person may find satisfaction and potential, and for which his or her aptitudes and other qualifications may be appropriate.

Welfare and/or Public Assistance recipient — An individual who, during the course of the program year, receives or is a member of a family who receives cash welfare or public assistance payments under a Federal, State, or local welfare program.

Workforce Investment Act (WIA) — The purpose of this Act is to establish programs to prepare youth and unskilled adults for entry into the labor force and to afford job training to those economically disadvantaged individuals and other individuals, including veterans, who face serious barriers to employment and who are in need of such training to obtain prospective employment. The Act requires the ASVET to consult with the Secretary of the DVA to ensure that programs funded under VWIP of this Act meet the employment and training needs of service-connected disabled, Campaign and recently separated veterans and are coordinated, to the maximum extent feasible, with-related programs and activities.

Work Experience — A temporary activity (six months or less) which provides an individual with the opportunity to acquire the skills and knowledge necessary to perform a job, including appropriate work habits and behaviors, and which may be combined with classroom or other training. When wages are paid to a participant on work experience and when such wages are wholly paid for under WIA, the participant may not receive this training under a private, for profit employer.

Youth — An individual, between the age of 20 and 24 years of age, who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces.