Routes of Exposure and Processes for Toxic Substances Linked to Parkinsonism  (Rev. 2)

Toxic Substance

Processes

Routes of Exposure

1018 Steel; Alumel; Aluminum 3S alloy; Galvanized steel; Hastelloy; Kovar; Tool steel; Uranium manganese alloy

  1. Heating, grinding or machining manganese or manganese alloys.
  2. Mining or crushing manganese ores.
  3. Producing manganese alloys.
  4. Welding or cutting manganese alloys.
  5. Welding or cutting mild steel. 
  • Inhalation

Manganese

  1. Heating, grinding or machining manganese or manganese alloys.
  2. Mining or crushing manganese ores.
  3. Producing manganese metal.
  4. Welding or cutting manganese alloys.
  5. Manufacturing dry cell batteries.
  6. Silk-screen and other printing activities using manganese-bearing pigments.
  7. Painting activities using manganese-bearing pigments.

·        Inhalation

·        Skin

Manganese II chloride; Potassium permanganate

  1. Photographic processing.
  2. Chemical laboratory activities.
  3. Production processes using chemicals containing manganese.
  4. Pouring chemical powders.
  5. Sewer and wastewater treatment.
  6. Using disinfectants.
  7. Sanitizing drinking water pipes and delivery systems.

·        Inhalation

·        Skin

 

Carbon monoxide

  1. Operating internal combustion engines with inadequate ventilation.
  2. Operating an incinerator; burning and combustion processes.
  3. Forging.
  4. Gas welding, brazing and cutting.
  5. Heat-treating steels.
  6. Metal preparation and pouring.
  7. Mining.
  8. Operating a furnace.
  9. Steam plant operations.
  10. Sewer and wastewater treatment.

·        Inhalation

 


 

Routes of Exposure and Processes for Toxic Substances Linked to Parkinsonism  (Rev. 2)

Toxic Substance

Processes

Routes of Exposure

Diesel exhaust

 

 

  1. Mining.
  2. Operating internal combustion engines with inadequate ventilation.
  3. Working or sleeping in fire stations where diesel fire trucks idle for extended periods of time.
  4. Operating emergency generators.

·        Inhalation

1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine  (MPTP)

  1. Animal handling and caretaking.

2.   Animal research.

·         Ingest

·         Inhale

·         Skin absorption