98.110 - Coverage.

(a) These regulations apply to all persons who have participated, are currently participating or may reasonably be expected to participate in transactions under Federal nonprocurement programs. For purposes of these regulations such transactions will be referred to as covered transactions.
(1) Covered transaction. For purposes of these regulations, a covered transaction is a primary covered transaction or a lower tier covered transaction. Covered transactions at any tier need not involve the transfer of Federal funds.
(i) Primary covered transaction. Except as noted in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, a primary covered transaction is any nonprocurement transaction between an agency and a person, regardless of type, including: grants, cooperative agreements, scholarships, fellowships, contracts of assistance, loans, loan guarantees, subsidies, insurance, payments for specified use, donation agreements and any other nonprocurement transactions between a Federal agency and a person. Primary covered transactions also include those transactions specially designated by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development in such agency's regulations governing debarment and suspension.
(ii) Lower tier covered transaction. A lower tier covered transaction is:
(A) Any transaction between a participant and a person other than a procurement contract for goods or services, regardless of type, under a primary covered transaction.
(B) Any procurement contract for goods or services between a participant and a person, regardless of type, expected to equal or exceed the Federal procurement small purchase threshold fixed at 10 U.S.C. 2304(g) and 41 U.S.C. 253(g) (currently $25,000) under a primary covered transaction.
(C) Any procurement contract for goods or services between a participant and a person under a covered transaction, regardless of amount, under which that person will have a critical influence on or substantive control over that covered transaction. Such persons are:
(1) Principal investigators.
(2) Providers of federally-required audit services.
(2) Exceptions. The following transactions are not covered:
(i) Statutory entitlements or mandatory awards (but not subtier awards thereunder which are not themselves mandatory), including deposited funds insured by the Federal Government;
(ii) Direct awards to foreign governments or public international organizations, or transactions with foreign governments or foreign governmental entities, public international organizations, foreign government owned (in whole or in part) or controlled entities, entities consisting wholly or partially of foreign governments or foreign governmental entities;
(iii) Benefits to an individual as a personal entitlement without regard to the individual's present responsibility (but benefits received in an individual's business capacity are not excepted);
(iv) Federal employment;
(v) Transactions pursuant to national or agency-recognized emergencies or disasters;
(vi) Incidental benefits derived from ordinary governmental operations; and
(vii) Other transactions where the application of these regulations would be prohibited by law.
(b) Relationship to other sections. This section describes the types of transactions to which a debarment or suspension under the regulations will apply. Subpart B, ``Effect of Action,'' 98.200, ``Debarment or suspension,'' sets forth the consequences of a debarment or suspension. Those consequences would obtain only with respect to participants and principals in the covered transactions and activities described in 98.110(a). Sections 98.325, ``Scope of debarment,'' and 98.420, ``Scope of suspension,'' govern the extent to which a specific participant or organizational elements of a participant would be automatically included within a debarment or suspension action, and the conditions under which affiliates or persons associated with a participant may also be brought within the scope of the action.
(c) Relationship to Federal procurement activities. Debarment and suspension of Federal procurement contractors and subcontractors under Federal procurement contracts are covered by the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR), 48 CFR subpart 9.4.