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Ukraine

2014 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Moderate Advancement

In 2014, Ukraine made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. During the year, Ukraine experienced the election of a new government, armed conflict with Russian-backed separatists in the south and east of the country, and the illegal attempted annexation of Crimea by Russia, which may impact the Government's ability to address the worst forms of child labor. The Government partnered with the IOM, the OSCE, and the anti-trafficking NGO La Strada to carry out several awareness-raising campaigns to combat human trafficking. These campaigns were targeted at youth displaced by the conflict in eastern Ukraine and the occupation of Crimea, who are at increased risk of becoming human trafficking victims. The Government also published a report on the efforts made in 2013 to implement the National Program for Combating Human Trafficking Until 2015. However, children in Ukraine are engaged in child labor, including in street work and in the worst forms of child labor, including in pornography. There are no laws or regulations that prohibit possessing child pornography or benefitting from its proceeds, and the age of consent for sexual relationships is not clearly defined. The National Action Plan for Child Protection and the National Program for Combating Human Trafficking remained underfunded in 2014. Furthermore, shelter and rehabilitation centers for children, including street children and victims of human trafficking, are insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem.

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I. Prevalence and Sectoral Distribution of Child Labor

Children in Ukraine are engaged in child labor, including in street work. Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor in commercial sexual exploitation, including pornography.(1) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Ukraine.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

4.4 (182,714)

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

96.5

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

5.0

Primary completion rate (%):

102.8

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2012, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(2)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4, 2012.(3)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Harvesting of onions,* other activities unknown (1, 4)

Industry

Construction, * activities unknown (1, 4, 5)

Mining,† including loading, transporting, and sorting of coal (6, 7)

Services

Street work,* including distributing advertising leaflets,* washing cars,* sales activities in kiosks,* and begging* (1, 4)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Used in the production of pornography (1, 8)

Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking (4, 5, 9, 10)

Used by militants in armed conflict (11, 12)

Forced begging sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (4, 5, 8-10)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3 (d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a) — (c) of ILO C.182.

In 2014, Ukraine experienced the election of a new government, armed conflict with Russian-backed separatists in the south and east of the country, and the occupation and attempted illegal annexation of Crimea by Russia, which may impact the Government's ability to address the worst forms of child labor.

Children from Ukraine are trafficked transnationally as well as domestically.(9, 10) Homeless, orphaned, and poor children are at high risk of being trafficked and are targeted by recruiters for child pornography.(9, 10) Commercial sexual exploitation of children, including for pornography, remains a serious problem in Ukraine.(4, 13)

During the reporting period, the conflict in eastern Ukraine created over 460,000 Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), over a third of whom are children.(14, 15) The inability of many IDP families to access adequate shelter and available social benefits puts children at increased risk of exploitation in the worst forms of child labor, including human trafficking.(16) The Ministry of Social Policy (MSP) has noted an increased vulnerability to both domestic and international human trafficking among the IDP community, and there have been reports of kidnapping of girls from conflict-affected areas for commercial sexual exploitation and labor exploitation.(5, 16) In addition, authorities have in some cases refused to grant Roma IDPs the same level of assistance as other IDPs, putting Roma children at an even greater risk of exploitation.(17)

There are media reports, to date unconfirmed by UN Personnel, of over a dozen cases of the use of children in conflict by combined Russian-separatist forces in the contested regions of Ukraine.(11, 12) An independent fact-finding mission by civil society organizations and staff of the Ukrainian Parliament's Human Rights Commissioner's Office reported evidence of children being used by separatists as guards at checkpoints and detention facilities. In addition, separatist leader Aleksandr Zakharchenko has allegedly stated that children as young as 14 are fighting in his rebel unit.(18) In addition, although the Government of Ukraine has proactively enforced prohibitions against the use of children under 18 in the conflict, credible media sources have reported 1-2 isolated incidents of children as young as 16 fighting with Ukrainian forces not under direct control of the Government.(12)

Although Ukraine's Constitution and Law on General Secondary Education guarantee free universal education, a reduction of educational facilities associated with the decreasing population of school-age children is limiting education access for children living in rural areas, Roma children, and children with disabilities.(13) Roma children are also sometimes denied access to education due to discrimination.(4)



II. Legal Framework for the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Ukraine has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 188 of the Labor Code; Article 150 of the Criminal Code; Article 21 of the Law of Ukraine on the Protection of Childhood (1, 19-21)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 190 of the Labor Code; Article 21 of the Law of Ukraine on the Protection of Childhood (20, 21)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Order No. 46 on the approval of the list of heavy work and work with dangerous and harmful working conditions, in which the employment of minors is prohibited; Article 150-1 of the Criminal Code (5, 7, 19)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 43 of the Constitution of Ukraine; Article 1 of the Law of Ukraine on Employment; Articles 172 and 173 of the Criminal Code (19, 22, 23)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 149 of the Criminal Code (19)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 301 — 303 of the Criminal Code; Articles 10 and 21 of the Law of Ukraine on the Protection of Childhood; the Law of Ukraine on Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of Ukraine on Combating the Distribution of Child Pornography; Articles 1 and 6 — 7 of the Law of Ukraine on the Protection of Public Morality (19, 21, 24, 25)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 304 of the Criminal Code; Articles 10 and 21 of the Law of Ukraine on the Protection of Childhood (19, 21)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Article 15 of the Law of Ukraine on Military Duty and Military Service; Decree No. 447 On Measures to Improve the Defense Capabilities of the State (26, 27)

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Article 15 of The Law of Ukraine on Military Duty and Military Service (27)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

17

Articles 12 and 20 of the Law on General Secondary Education (28)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 53 of the Constitution of Ukraine; Article 2 of the Law on General Secondary Education (22, 28)

In Ukraine, the minimum age for work is 16. However the Labor Code allows children to be employed at age 15 with parental consent.(20) Additionally, in secondary or vocational schools, students may perform light work at age 14 with parental consent, provided that the work does not interfere with their education and is not harmful to their health.(20) Research found that minors in vocational training programs for hazardous occupations are permitted to perform hazardous work for less than 4 hours a day beginning at age 14, as long as occupational health and safety standards are met.(1, 29) Moreover, the CEACR noted that the minimum age for such work is 2 years below the international minimum age of 16 for entering hazardous vocational training.(29)

Existing criminal laws in Ukraine continue to have gaps in fully protecting children from the worst forms of child labor. While the Criminal Code prohibits commercial exploitation of children, it does not specifically define an age of consent for sexual relations, which has contributed to the prosecution of children ages 16 to 17 as offenders rather than as victims of sexual exploitation.(1) In addition, there is no law that prohibits the possession of child pornography or benefitting from its proceeds.(1)

In October 2014, the Parliament adopted the Law of Ukraine on Ensuring the Rights and Freedoms of Internally Displaced Persons, which developed a registration process for IDPs and instituted monthly benefit payments to displaced families.(30) However, many IDPs may be unaware of the resources made available by the new law, or may lack the identification papers required to access these resources.(17)



III. Enforcement of Laws on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

State Labor Inspectorate (SLI) within the Ministry of Social Policy (MSP)

Enforce labor laws, including laws on child labor, by conducting inspections.(1) Inspections related to child labor laws are coordinated by the Child Labor Division of the SLI, but are carried out by regular SLI inspectors.(1, 4, 31)

Department on Adoption and Children's Rights Protection within the MSP

Identify children involved in the worst forms of child labor, most of whom are in the informal sector.(1, 4)

Criminal Police for Children's Affairs (CPCA) within the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MOI)

Identify and investigate the involvement of children in the worst forms of child labor.(1, 4) Refer children determined to be in need of assistance during criminal investigations to social services offered by the MSP.(32)

Criminal Juvenile Police within the MOI

Address crimes committed by minors and against minors.(1)

Department for Combating Crimes Related to Human Trafficking (CTD) within the MOI

Enforce laws against child trafficking and cybercrimes.(1)

State Migration Service

Assist refugees and migrants in need in the country, including victims of human trafficking.(1, 32)

State Border Guards Services

Protect the country's borders and identify cases of human trafficking.(32)

Office of the Ombudsman for Children's Rights

Monitor the rights of children, including regarding the issue of child labor, and ensure that Ukraine abides by international obligations regarding children's rights. Coordinate the development of laws on child protection.(33) Inform the public of children's rights.(33)

National Referral Mechanism

Identify victims of human trafficking, including children, and refer victims to appropriate government agencies for assistance and the provision of services. Led by the MSP.(5)

Law enforcement agencies in Ukraine took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2014, the number of labor inspectors employed by the State Labor Inspectorate (SLI) dropped from 572 to 437.(18) According to the SLI, the number of inspectors is inadequate compared to the number of registered employers in Ukraine.(1)

Funding for inspections is limited; inspectors lack sufficient office space, means of transportation, and travel budgets.(1, 34) Furthermore, a 70 percent cut to the SLI's budget enacted during 2014 resulted in forced furlough days and increased resignations among inspectors, many of whom worked less than one week a month.(18) Article 31 of the August 2014 Law of Ukraine On Amendments to the Law of Ukraine on the State Budget of Ukraine for 2014 stipulates that labor inspections can only occur at a company's own request or with the consent of the Cabinet of Ministers, unless there is a criminal investigation against the company. Because the Cabinet of Ministers publishes its decisions, including on whether to allow labor inspections, it is effectively impossible to conduct an unannounced inspection.(18) Due to these substantial bureaucratic barriers, inspections almost ceased in the second half of the year. Given the cutbacks in authorized inspections and resources due to the overall deteriorating budget situation in Ukraine, the SLI has described its ability to inspect for child labor violations as inadequate.(18)

The results of inspections conducted by the SLI are made publicly available on the SLI's website, which is updated quarterly.(1) During the first 10 months of 2014, the SLI conducted 5,038 child labor inspections. The SLI identified 202 employers using child labor.(18) The most common child labor law violations were for overly long working hours, failure to maintain work records, and lack of training. The SLI issued 197 citations, filed 101 administrative cases against employers in courts, and referred 19 cases to law enforcement bodies.(18) The SLI referred children found working in an unsafe work environment to social services, according to the MSP's policy.(1) According to SLI, fines assessed against employers for administrative violations and certain criminal violations are too low to serve as effective deterrents. Fines range from $35-$115.(1, 18)

Criminal Law Enforcement

Under the administrative reform undertaken by the Government over the last few years, the Criminal Police for Children's Affairs (CPCA) was reorganized into a unit under the Criminal Police Department of the Ministry of Interior, and the Department for Combating Crimes Related to Human Trafficking (CTD) was reorganized as the Counter Trafficking Division under the Criminal Investigation Department and Cyber-Crime Division.(35) The reform resulted in the departure of specially trained detectives and a reduction in the time spent on trafficking investigations.(32) However, during 2013, the CTD was elevated back to the level of Department, allowing the CTD to increase the number of officers it employs from 270 to over 500. In 2014, the restoration of the Department continued to yield positive developments in the form of active cooperation on human trafficking cases with U.S. law enforcement, including initiating a joint investigation in cooperation with the Federal Bureau of Investigation.(5)

During 2014, the CPCA employed approximately 3,000 officers throughout the country, while the CTD had more than 500 officers.(1, 18, 32) During the year, the IOM provided training on trafficking in persons to more than 277 judges, prosecutors, and law enforcement officers.(5) Since the passage of the Criminal Procedure Code of 2012, Ukraine has instituted a system of juvenile judges and police investigators to ensure the protection of children's rights and appropriate prosecution of minor offenders.(1, 35) Despite this, concerns have been raised that the training of judges is more focused on punishing offenders, even if they are under age 18, than on treating children as witnesses or victims.(1)

Children who are discovered to be in dangerous situations during the course of criminal investigations are referred to the MSP system of Shelters and Centers for Socio-Psychological Rehabilitation of Children.(1) In 2014, the Ministry of Interior recorded two victims of child trafficking, seven victims of child prostitution, and six cases related to child pornography.(5, 18) Two child victims of trafficking for labor exploitation in construction received official victim status.(5) Although the National Referral Mechanism (NRM) for victims of trafficking continued to be expanded in 2014, the MSP lacked sufficient authority and financial resources to establish and run the NRM efficiently.(5)

Data on child trafficking and other crimes related to labor exploitation of children are not disaggregated from law enforcement statistics.(9) Research did not find information on the number of investigations, prosecutions, convictions, or implemented penalties related to violations of criminal laws on the worst forms of child labor.



IV. Coordination of Government Efforts on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Ministry of Social Policy (MSP)

Lead the Government's efforts to combat child labor and human trafficking, including by drafting legislation and government regulations on these issues.(1, 9)

Interagency Council on Family, Gender Equality, Demographic Development, Prevention of Violence in the Family, and Counter Trafficking Issues

Coordinate efforts to address the worst forms of child labor, including trafficking of children. Chaired by the MSP; members include representatives from the Ministries of Justice, Education, Security, Health, Foreign Affairs, and from international and nongovernmental organizations.(1, 36)

Interagency Working Group to Protect the Rights of Civilians, Including Women and Children, during the Anti-Terrorist Operation in the Eastern Regions of Ukraine*

Protect IDPs and other civilians from negative consequences of the ongoing military operations in Ukraine, including the increased rates of domestic and transnational human trafficking. Established by the MSP; members include representatives from the Secretariat of the Verkhovna Rada Commissioner for Human Rights, the Authorized Representative of the President of Ukraine for Children's Rights, and other government agencies and NGOs.(16) The Interagency Group held its first meeting in June 2014.(16)

* Mechanism to coordinate efforts to address child labor was created during the reporting period.

Although the Interagency Council's requirements call for a meeting every 3 months, research found no evidence that the Council met in 2014. Ukrainian authorities report that a meeting was scheduled for July 2014, but was canceled due to events related to the crisis in Ukraine.(16)



V. Government Policies on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government of Ukraine has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).

Table 7. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan to Implement the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child through 2016 (NAP)

Aims to protect children, including from economic exploitation, through awareness raising, rehabilitation of victims found in the worst forms of child labor, access to education, and creation of a child labor monitoring system.(1, 32, 37) In November 2014, Parliament passed a National Action Plan for the implementation of the NAP in 2014. The 2014 National Action Plan specified that the worst forms of child labor must be captured in statistical reporting, beginning in February 2015.(38, 39)

National Program for Combating Human Trafficking (Until 2015)

Guides the work of the National Coordinator on Combating Human Trafficking and contains specific actions and timetables in regard to preventing, protecting, and prosecuting trafficking crimes.(40) Goals for 2014 include establishing a procedure to monitor local and central authorities' treatment of issues related to trafficking in persons; strengthening cooperation between local and central authorities; conducting a public information campaign on risk factors for human trafficking and the dangers of illegal migration; and fulfilling obligations to assist victims, including the provision of financial assistance.(41)

USAID Country Development Cooperation Strategy (CDCS) (2012 — 2016)

Aims to support democratic processes, advance economic growth and prosperity, and achieve greater integration into European structures. Includes a special objective on countering trafficking in persons that involves piloting a NRM for victims of human trafficking and improving methods for rehabilitation and reintegration of victims, including children.(42)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.

In March 2014, the MSP published a full-year report on actions taken under the National Program for Combating Human Trafficking Until 2015 in 2013 and included the Program's goals for 2014.(41) Research did not find evidence of any actions taken in 2014 to meet those goals. In addition, research found no evidence of actions under the NAP during the reporting period. A lack of sufficient funding hampers the ability of the Ministries to implement actions called for under the NAP, including implementing the mandated child labor monitoring system, and the National Program for Combatting Human Trafficking.(1, 5)



VI. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

In 2014, the Government of Ukraine funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues Project

USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016 established by the Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to improve the evidence base on child labor and forced labor through data collection and research in Ukraine.(43)

Shelters and Centers for Socio-Psychological Rehabilitation of Children‡

MSP-operated program to provide protection in 14 short-term shelters and 76 long-term rehabilitation centers for children in need, including street children. Short-term shelters provide accommodation for up to 90 days, and rehabilitation centers offer accommodation for up to 12 months, and regular social, medical, psychological, and other types of services for non-residents.(1, 5, 9, 16)

Centers for Social Services for Family, Youth, and Children‡

Government-run program to provide services for victims of human trafficking, among other populations in need. As of 2014, 687 shelters were available to assess victims' needs and draft rehabilitation plans.(1, 5)

Anti-Trafficking Awareness-Raising Programs†‡

Joint effort by MSP and the IOM entitled "Safely to Success" that targeted youth through social media, TV, and on-the-ground events in areas of Ukraine with high levels of migration and high levels of IDPs from the conflict in Eastern Ukraine.(5, 9, 44) The MSP also partnered with the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the OSCE Project Coordinator in Ukraine, and the anti-trafficking NGO La Strada to design and print stickers for distribution in the IDP community with rules of safe behavior to avoid becoming a victim of human trafficking.(16) An additional program was initiated by regional governments at the urging of the MSP to distribute leaflets, posters, and other media with information about the risks of human trafficking to IDPs.(5, 16)

Multiplication of the Anti-Trafficking National Referral Mechanism in Ukraine‡

Joint program by MSP and OSCE to train officials in several regions of Ukraine to identify and provide services to trafficking victims. Involves collaborative work between local agencies and nongovernmental partners.(9)

Countering Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Project
(2004 — 2018)

USAID-funded project implemented by the IOM to reduce trafficking in persons by building the capacity of Ukrainian institutions to address the problem by strengthening the NRM and increasing government funding for counter-trafficking efforts.(45)

Free School Lunches*‡

Government-sponsored program that provides free school lunches to certain categories of children including those from families with many children, families of Chernobyl victims, low-income families, and families in some rural areas.(46)

The Decent Work Country Program (2012 — 2015)

Government and ILO 3-year joint program that includes a social protection component to improve the social status of migrant workers, develop and implement a national occupational safety and health program, and strengthen the labor inspection system.(47)

Strengthening and Protecting Children's Rights in Ukraine (2013 — 2015)

$670,000 project funded by the Government of Norway and implemented by the Council of Europe in partnership with the Government of Ukraine. Aims to strengthen the protection of human rights in Ukraine through the prevention of violence against children.(48, 49) In 2014, conducted training for government officials on interview and data collection techniques to use with children who are victims of violence, such as human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation.(48, 49)

UNICEF Country Program (2012 — 2016)

Aims to decrease social exclusion and disparities affecting children and ensure that socially excluded children benefit from quality health care and social services.(50)

* The impact of this program on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
† Program was launched during the reporting period.
‡ Program is funded by the Government of Ukraine.

There are a variety of service providers for victims of human trafficking in Ukraine. However, the MSP's delay in conveying the status of "victim of trafficking" to all children who have been trafficked prevents children without this status from accessing free government services. Research found that this delay may often result from the insufficient provision of documentation to the MSP.(5, 9)

Although the MSP provides services for children in shelters and social-psychological rehabilitation centers, the current availability of shelters and trained personnel is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem.(35) The Centers for Social Services for Family, Youth, and Children have experienced a large turnover of staff due to an excessive workload and low pay.(40) In addition, budget cuts enacted in 2014 due to the overall budget crisis in Ukraine resulted in the layoff of 12,000 social workers.(51) This may restrict the Centers in their ability to efficiently address the main needs of trafficking victims. Likewise, high turnover in the regions, where local agencies are responsible for identifying trafficking victims under the NRM, has hampered the provision of services to victims.(9)



VII. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Ukraine (Table 9).

Table 9. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that laws prohibit all children under age 16 from working in hazardous occupations in vocational training.

2011 — 2014

Ensure that laws treat children ages 16 to 17 as victims of sexual exploitation rather than as offenders.

2012 — 2014

Ensure that laws prohibit possessing child pornography and benefitting from its proceeds.

2012 — 2014

Enforcement

 

 

Increase the budget of the SLI, in order to increase the number of inspectors, provide labor inspectors with appropriate resources to carry out inspections, and increase the number of inspections.

2011 — 2014

Address the provisions of the Law on Amendments to the Law of Ukraine on the State Budget of Ukraine for 2014 that created obstacles to conducting labor inspections. Ensure that inspectors have sufficient ability to conduct both complaint-based and targeted inspections as needed, including unannounced inspections.

2014

Ensure that the fines for administrative and criminal violations of child labor laws are sufficient to effectively deter employers from violating child labor laws.

2013-2014

Ensure that judges treat children who are victims of commercial sexual exploitation and other worst forms of child labor as victims and not offenders.

2013-2014

Ensure that the MSP has the necessary funding and authority to effectively establish and operate the National Referral Mechanism.

2014

Make data on the number of investigations, convictions, and implemented penalties related to violations of all criminal laws on the worst forms of child labor publicly available.

2014

Coordination

Ensure that the Interagency Council on Family, Gender Equality, Demographic Development, Prevention of Violence in the Family, and Counter Trafficking Issues carries out its mandate to coordinate the Government's efforts on all child labor issues, through regular meetings and other activities as appropriate.

2009 — 2014

Government Policies

Provide sufficient funds to implement the National Program for Combatting Trafficking and the NAP, including implementing the mandated child labor monitoring system.

2010 — 2014

Social Programs

Ensure that all IDPs are aware of the resources available to them and that internally displaced children are able to access adequate shelter and receive available social benefits, regardless of their ethnicity.

2014

Assess children's access to rural schools and develop programs to facilitate access to education for Roma children, disabled children, and children in rural areas.

2010 — 2014

Assess the impact that existing programs may have on child labor.

2011 — 2014

Ensure that all children who are victims of human trafficking are able to access government services available for victims. Ensure all reasonable efforts are made to obtain needed documentation when considering whether to grant trafficking victim status to children.

2013 — 2014

Increase the number of shelters and socio-psychological rehabilitation centers for children and the number of trained personnel staffing these shelters, in order to fully meet demand for their services. Provide sufficient funding to return the number of social workers to the level prior to budget cuts.

2013 — 2014

Take steps to reduce turnover in both the Centers for Social Services for Family, Youth, and Children and in local agencies that are part of the National Referral Mechanism to ensure that victims of human trafficking are provided the services they require.

2012 — 2014



1.U.S. Embassy- Kyiv. reporting, January 17, 2014.

2.UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed January 16, 2015]; http://www.uis.unesco.org/Pages/default.aspx?SPSLanguage=EN. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

3.UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4, 2012. Analysis received January 16, 2014. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

4.U.S. Department of State. "Ukraine," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper.

5.U.S. Embassy- Kyiv. reporting, February 24, 2015.

6.ILO. Ukraine: Child Labour in Mining [Video Clip]; 2005, July 22, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/multimedia/video/video-news-releases/WCMS_067902/lang--en/index.htm.

7.Government of Ukraine. Approval of the list of heavy work and work with dangerous and harmful working conditions, in which the employment of minors is prohibited, 46, enacted March 31, 1994. http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/z0176-94.

8.ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Ukraine (ratification: 2000) Published: 2012; accessed June 23, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/

9.U.S. Embassy- Kyiv. reporting, March 12, 2014.

10.U.S. Department of State. "Ukraine," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington, DC; June 20, 2014;
http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2013/?utm_source=Subscribers&utm_campaign=35f27bd04c-Trafficking_Bulletin_Issue_9_July_20137_22_2013&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_1002a3b355-35f27bd04c-92744149.

11.U.S. Department of State. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 27, 2015.

12.Vitaly Shevchenko. "Ukraine conflict: Child soldiers join the fight." bbc.com [online] 2014 [cited http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-30134421.

13.UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention: Concluding Observations: Ukraine. Geneva; April 21, 2011. Report No. CRC/C/UKR/CO/3-4. http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4dcb87f22.html

14.The Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre. Ukraine IDP Figures Analysis. Geneva; October 2014. http://www.internal-displacement.org/europe-the-caucasus-and-central-asia/ukraine/figures-analysis.

15.The UN High Commissioner for Refugees. Internal Displacement Map. [accessed November 17, 2014] http://unhcr.org.ua/en/2011-08-26-06-58-56/news-archive/1244-internal-displacement-map.

16.Group of Experts on Action Against Trafficking in Persons. GRETA Report concerning the implementation of the Council of Europe convention on Action against Trafficing in Human Beings by Ukraine. Strasbourg, Secretariat of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings; September 19, 2014. http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/trafficking/docs/Reports/GRETA_2014_20_FGR_UKR_w_cmnts_en.pdf.

17.The Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre. Time to act: Internal displacement on the rise in Ukraine. Geneva; October 22, 2014. http://www.internal-displacement.org/europe-the-caucasus-and-central-asia/ukraine/2014/time-to-act-internal-displacement-on-the-rise-in-ukraine.

18.U.S. Embassy- Kyiv. reporting, January 14, 2015.

19.Government of Ukraine. Criminal Code of Ukraine, enacted 2001. http://www.legislationline.org/documents/section/criminal-codes.

20.Government of Ukraine. Labor Code of Ukraine, enacted December 10, 1971. http://www.wipo.int/wipolex/en/details.jsp?id=6186.

21.Government of Ukraine. Law of Ukraine on the Protection of Childhood, enacted April 26, 2001. http://zakon4.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2402-14/print1415035498920514.

22.Government of Ukraine. Constitution of Ukraine, enacted June 28, 1996.
http://www.president.gov.ua/en/content/constitution.html.

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