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2012 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

In 2012, Uganda made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government approved and launched the National Action Plan for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2012/2013-2016/2017) (NAP) and created a Counter Trafficking in Persons (CTIP) Office and an inter-ministerial Task Force to coordinate anti-trafficking efforts. However, gaps remain in legislation and enforcement efforts. The legal framework lacks protection for boys from prostitution. In addition, there is a gap between the age to which education is compulsory and the minimum age for work. Labor inspections are not carried out in rural areas. Children continue to engage in the worst forms of child labor, primarily in hazardous forms of agriculture and in domestic service.

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Prevalence and Sectoral Distribution of the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Children in Uganda are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, primarily in hazardous forms of agriculture and in domestic service.(3-8) It is estimated that the majority of children who work in Uganda are found working in agriculture to produce tobacco, coffee, and tea.(6, 8-11) Children are involved in hazardous activities in the production of rice and sugarcane, and vanilla.(8, 12, 13) Although information is limited, there are reports that children are also found in hazardous activities in the production of corn.(12) Children who work on tobacco farms in Uganda are exposed to health hazards and risk developmental defects and respiratory diseases due to long working hours and exposure to tobacco fumes.(3, 6, 9) Children working in agriculture may use dangerous tools, carry heavy loads, and be exposed to harmful pesticides.(7, 14)

Many children in Uganda are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor as domestic servants.(3, 8, 9, 15) Child domestic servants in Uganda commonly lack clear terms of service, work long hours with little or no pay, lack opportunities for education, are given insufficient food, and risk sexual exploitation and physical abusefromtheir employers.(11, 16-19)

Children in Uganda work in fishing.(8, 11) These children receive little or no pay, work long hours processing and smoking fish, and risk injuries from burns and fatigue.(3, 11, 12, 20, 21)

In the Karamoja region of Uganda, children herd cattle and may fall victim to involvement in cattle rustling.(8, 13) These children risk attacks by armed men, isolation, exposure to extreme weather conditions, and denial of access to schooling.(9) Children in Uganda work in hazardous activities related to the production of bricks.(8, 22, 23) Children in Uganda also burn and carry charcoal.(8, 22, 24) Although evidence is limited, there are reports that children work in hazardous activities in the production of stone.(8, 23, 25)

Children in Uganda engage in cross-border trading.(8, 26) Many children who live at border crossing towns and villages drop out of school to carry heavy loads such as merchandise on their heads to and from Ugandan border points.(26)

Children work as street vendors selling small items.(3, 8) Some of these children end up being forced to beg on the streets.(8, 27)

Children risk involvement in the worst forms of child labor, including commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor, while working in bars and restaurants.(3, 9, 17) Some children as young as age 10 are victims of commercial sexual exploitation.(17) Children in the custody of pimps and brothel owners are used to produce pornographic materials. These children are also exposed to sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS.(3, 12, 28)

Uganda is a source and destination country for the trafficking of children.(27, 28) Children are trafficked internally for sexual exploitation and forced labor in fishing, agriculture, and domestic service.(27) In some cases, Ugandan children have been trafficked to Central, East, and North Africa for commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor.(29, 30) Children from Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Rwanda, and Tanzania are also trafficked to Uganda for commercial sexual exploitation and agricultural work.(27)

As of 2011, there had been no reports that the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) had abducted and conscripted children within Uganda for six years; however, about 5,000 Ugandan children previously abducted by the LRA were still missing.(31)



Laws and Regulations on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Employment Act sets the minimum age for work in Uganda at 14. The Act permits children ages 12 to 14 to perform light work under adult supervision if it does not interfere with the child’s education.(30, 32) In addition, no child younger than age 18 may be employed in hazardous work or between 7 p.m. and 7 a.m.(12, 32) During the reporting period, the Government enacted the Employment (Employment of Children) Regulations 2012. The Regulations contain restrictions on the employment of children, penalties for violations, a list of hazardous activities prohibited to children under 18, and a list of activities considered light work.(11, 23) The list of hazardous activities includes prohibitions by different age groups of tasks in a variety of areas including several agricultural sectors, construction, mining, and urban informal work.(23) The regulations also prohibit the use, procurement, or offering of a child for illicit activities, including the production and trafficking of drugs.(23) The Government also provides guidelines to serve as a tool for labor inspectors to identify incidences of hazardous child labor. The guidelines define hazardous work as exposure to dangerous machinery, carrying heavy loads, exposure to harassment, including physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, and work under strenuous conditions for long hours.(12) Domestic service by children younger than age 14 is included in the list of hazardous occupations.(12)

Primary education in Uganda is free and compulsory through age 12; however, fees for school supplies and operating costs are often prohibitive for families. The law leaves children ages 12 to 14 particularly vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor as they are not required to be in school nor are they legally permitted to work in areas other than light work.(4, 8, 33, 34)

The Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act of 2009(PTIP) prohibits child trafficking and outlines penalties for violators. The Act also provides for protection, assistance, and support for trafficking victims and reparation to victims of trafficking to and from Uganda.(33, 35, 36) The use of children to commit crimes is prohibited under the Act.(35).

The Ugandan Constitution prohibits slavery and forced labor. Procuring or attempting to procure a girl under the age of 21 for sexual intent or to become a prostitute is prohibited under the Penal Code.(37, 38) However, boys under age 18 are not protected .(38)

Prostitution, procurement, and pimping of a prostitute are illegal in Uganda. However, these laws only address female victims, leaving boys unprotected from prostitution.(38, 39) The Penal Code penalizes intermediaries but does not appear to penalize clients. In addition, the Penal Code penalizes those who engage in prostitution, which leaves room for children who are procured or offered for prostitution to be treated as offenders rather than victims.(38, 39) The production of pornography, regardless of the age of the subject, with the intent to distribute is illegal under the Penal Code and the Computer Misuse Act of 2011.(39, 40) There does not appear to be legislation specifically addressing the production or possession of child pornography.(39)

The minimum age for voluntary military service in Uganda is 18, and there is no conscription for the military.(33, 41)



Institutional Mechanisms for Coordination and Enforcement

The Government of Uganda has a child labor steering committee in place to coordinate child labor issues. The committee includes representatives from the Ministry of Gender, Labor, and Social Development (MGLSD), the Ministry of Education and Sports, the Ministry of Local Government, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Health, the National Organization of Trade Unions, the Confederation of Uganda Trade Unions, the Federation of Uganda Employers, the International Rescue Committee, ILO-IPEC, and other civil society stakeholders.(33, 42, 43) The committee convenes on a quarterly basis and last met in February 2013.(11, 33)

As outlined by the 2009 PTIP Act, the Government created a Counter Trafficking in Persons (CTIP) Office in February 2012 and an interministerial CTIP Task Force in March 2012.(35) The CTIP Office is charged with drafting policy, implementing public information campaigns, and establishing a database on trafficking cases. The CTIP Task Force is responsible for coordinating antitrafficking efforts among government ministries.(35, 44)

The MGLSD is the lead agency on labor issues and is in charge of enforcing all labor laws in Uganda.(8, 11, 33) Two units within MGLSD are responsible for children’s issues—the Child Labor Unit (CLU) and the Orphans and Vulnerable Children Unit (OVCU). The OVCU guides programming for orphans and other vulnerable children and integrates child labor information into an OVC database.(11, 42, 43, 45) The CLU, which had one full-time civil servant during 2012, is responsible for the development of the National Child Labor Action Plan. District labor inspectors are responsible for carrying out inspections throughout the country.(8, 11, 33, 46) In 2012, the MGLSD had 36 nonspecialized labor inspectors and 23 occupational health and safety inspectors.(11) Research did not find evidence of the amount of funding available for inspections during the reporting period nor did it specify if the number of inspectors was adequate to ensure an adequate number of inspections, including in rural areas. Inspectors did not receive any training during the year.

The Ministry conducted 300 routine workplace inspections in 2012. There were no penalties or citations issued for child labor violations during the reporting period.(47) During the year, the Government carried out a child labor mapping exercise in several districts within the country to collect information on the worst forms of child labor and assess levels of awareness about child labor and compliance with relevant laws. The report of the findings has not yet been made public.(47)

The Uganda Police Force (UPF) within the Ministry of Internal Affairs has a Child and Family Protection Unit (CFPU) responsible for enforcing child labor laws. At lower-level police posts, staff members are designated as CFPU liaison officers to manage a child-related complaint system and respond to complaints.(11, 33) By the end of November 2012, the CFPU had recorded 61 cases of child labor. Eighteen cases are reported to be under investigation while two are awaiting trial. Research did not find information about the investigation of the remaining cases.(11) The Uganda Police employs 450 CFPU officers countrywide.(47)

The UPF is the lead agency for enforcing antitrafficking laws and investigating cases related to trafficking in persons. Along with its work on children’s issues in general, the CFPU also provides trainings to local police regarding measures to identify and prevent trafficking.(44) All incoming police officers are required to participate in a 1-day trafficking response course provided by the CFPU. Additionally, the Ministry of Justice and the Directorate for Public Prosecutions is charged with prosecuting trafficking cases.(44) Research did not find evidence of the number of prosecutions and convictions for child labor violations during the reporting period.



Government Policies on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

During the reporting period, the Government approved and launched the National Action Plan (NAP) for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2012/2013-2016/2017).(13) The NAP operationalizes the 2006 National Child Labor Policy with the aim of reducing all worst forms of child labor in Uganda by 2016/2017.(11, 48) The NAP will strengthen the legal framework and establish enforcement mechanisms to protect children from exploitation.(33, 49)

Child labor concerns have also been mainstreamed into the Millennium Development Goals (2015) and the National Education Development Plan (2004‑2015).(50-52) In addition, Uganda’s National Development Plan (2010/2011-2014/2015) aims to train mining communities on child labor issues and enhance monitoring of child labor in the mining industry.(53)

The Government ratified the African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa (Kampala Convention), which entered into force on December 6, 2012.(54) The Convention prohibits armed groups from recruiting children, otherwise permitting them to participate in conflict, and engaging in sexual slavery and trafficking, especially of women and children.(55)



Social Programs to Eliminate or Prevent the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government has participated in the implementation of programs to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. During the reporting period, the Government participated in a 4-year, $4.79 million Project of Support for the Preparatory Phase of the Uganda National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor funded by USDOL.(56) The project, which ended in September 2012, withdrew and prevented 8,733 children from exploitative child labor.(56)

In 2012, the Government also participated in the USDOL-funded, 4-year Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues Project which is active in approximately 40 countries. In Uganda, the project aims to improve the evidence base on child labor and forced labor through data collection and research.(57)

The Governments of Uganda, the Central African Republic, the DRC, and South Sudan continued to cooperate to rescue abductees of the LRA. During the year, the Government of Uganda also took steps to protect and support demobilized LRA child trafficking victims by providing services, such as shelter and food.(58)

At a regional and policy level, the Government participates in the East African Police Chiefs Cooperation Organization to strengthen regional cooperation and capacities among East African law enforcement authorities.(59) The Regional Program for East Africa (2009-2012) covers 13 countries and is funded with $38 million from the UNODC and other funding partners.The Program includes activities that support increased coordination in combating human trafficking.(35, 59)

From January 2010 to June 2012, the Government participated in the $1.1 million Community Empowerment for the Elimination of Child Labor in Tobacco Growing (COMEECA) project in Masindi and Kiryandongo districts. The work of this project and a predecessor project led to the establishment of the Uganda Technical College – Kyema, a vocational campus now run by the Ministry of Education and Sports.(60) The Government reserves 20 percent of the spaces for vocational training of children withdrawn from child labor. The Government of Uganda also supported the project by mainstreaming child labor issues into government community structures, such as district and subcounty assemblies.(60)

Since 2010, the MGLSD has implemented a cash-transfer welfare program, in partnership with UNICEF, that gives cash to vulnerable households in three districts in Uganda.(33) During 2012, the program gave funds to 32,545 households through cash transfers that benefited 172,725 individuals. The MGLSD and the ILO reported that families are putting the funds toward school fees and materials.(33, 47)

The Government continued to provide trafficking victims with short-term shelter, medical care, and food at police stations. For longer-term care, victims were sometimes referred to NGOs.(27) In Kampala, police continued to take street children to an MGLSD juvenile detention center for food, medical treatment, counseling, basic education, and to reconnect them with their families. The center was underresourced, however, and many children returned to the streets after a period of time.(27) Antitrafficking campaigns were carried out by the Government through radio programs and community discussions.(27)

Although there are a number of donor-funded projects in Uganda, Government supported efforts still fall short of reaching the large numbers of children engaged in the worst forms of child labor in Uganda, particularly in the agriculture and domestic service sectors.(39)



Based on the reporting above, the following actions would advance the elimination of the worst forms of child labor in Uganda:

Area

Suggested Actions

Year(s) Action Recommended

Laws and Regulations

Adopt legislation that increases the age of compulsory education to 14 so that it is commensurate with the minimum age for work.

2009, 2010, 2011, 2012

Amend legislation to protect boys from prostitution.

2009, 2010, 2011, 2012

Amend the Penal Code to protect children who are procured or offered for prostitution from being treated as offenders.

2012

Adopt legislation to prohibit the use, procuring, or offering of both boys and girls for the production of pornography and to prohibit possession of child pornography.

2011, 2012

Coordination and Enforcement

Increase the number of child labor inspectors and trainings and ensure an adequate number of inspections are carried out, including in rural areas.

2009, 2010, 2011, 2012

Provide information about the amount of funding for inspections during the reporting period.

2012

Investigate all child labor complaints and provide information on the outcome of those investigations, including the number of prosecutions and convictions of violators.

2012

Social Programs

Take additional steps to ensure that all children are able to attend school regardless of their ability to pay for school fees and other related costs.

2012

Expand social programs to target children involved in the worst forms of child labor, particularly in agriculture and domestic service.

2009, 2010, 2011, 2012



1. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total.; accessed February 4, 2013; http://www.uis.unesco.org/Pages/default.aspx?SPSLanguage=EN. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

2. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. February 5, 2013 Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

3. Uganda Bureau of Statistics. The 2009 Child Labor Baseline Survey; October 2009.

4. UNESCO. World Data on Education. 2010-2011. www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/.../WDE/.../Uganda.pdf.

5. Uganda Bureau of Statistics. Understanding Children's Work in Uganda: Country Report. Kampala; August 2008. http://www.ubos.org/nada3/index.php/ddibrowser/10.

6. COMEECA. Community Empowerment for Elimination of Child Labor in Tobacco: Revised Project Document. Kampala; October 2010. [hardcopy on file].

7. International Labour Office. Children in hazardous work: What we know, What we need to do. Geneva, International Labour Organization; 2011. While country-specific information on the dangers children face in agriculture is not available, research studies and other reports have documented the dangerous nature of tasks in agriculture and their accompanying occupational exposures, injuries and potential health consequences to children working in the sector.

8. U.S. Department of State. "Uganda," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2012. Washington, DC; April 19, 2013; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper.

9. Ministry of Gender, Labor and Social Development. National Action Plan for the Elimination of Worst Forms of Child Labor in Uganda 2011-2015. Kampala,; November 2010.

10. Kibukamusoke, M. A Critical Analysis of Child Labour and Human Resource Development in Uganda [Ph.D]. Port Elizabeth: Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University; January 2010.

11. U.S. Embassy- Kampala. reporting, March 22, 2013.

12. Ministry of Gender, Labor and Social Development. Guidelines for Labor Inspectors on the Identification of Hazardous Child Labor. Kampala; May 2010.

13. Ministry of Gender, Labor and Social Development. National Action Plan for the Elimination of Worst Forms of Child Labor in Uganda 2012/2013-2016/17. Kampala; May 2012. http://www.unicef.org/uganda/NAP_Uganda_June_2012.pdf.

14. International Labour Office. Farming, International Labour Organization, [online] January 31, 2012 [cited November 2, 2012]; http://www.ilo.org/ipec/areas/Agriculture/WCMS_172416/lang--en/index.htm.

15. Arojjo, S. The Platform for Labour Action: Hope for child Domestic workers in Uganda, [online] [cited January 19, 2012]; http://www.consultancyafrica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=534:the-platform-for-labour-action-hope-for-child-domestic-workers-in-uganda&catid=90:optimistic-africa&Itemid=295.

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17. UYDEL. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Uganda: A Critical Efforts to Address CSEC 2005-2011. Kampala; 2011.

18. Ministry of Gender, Labor and Social Development. The Simplified National Child Labor Policy. Kampala; May 2010.

19. ILO. Emerging Good Practices on Action to Combat Child Domestic Labor. Geneva; 2006.

20. Eddy J. Walakira, Jimrex Byamugisha. Child Labor in the Fishing Sector in Uganda. Kampala; January 2008.

21. ICF Macro. Child Labor in the Fishing Industry in Uganda. Calverton; October 2011. www.macrointernational.com.

22. Development Research and Training. Final Report: Children's Holiday Work in Gulu and Lira Districts. Kampala; May 2007. http://www.kuret.or.ug/Articles/reports/Final%20holiday%20activity%20report.pdf [hard copy on file].

23. Government of Uganda. The Employment (Employment of Children) Regulations, enacted April 20, 2012.

24. Elizabeth Stites, DA, Dyan Mazurana, Priscillar Ateyo. Angering Akujů: Survival and Suffering in Karamoja. Medford, Feinstein International Center; December 2007. http://sites.tufts.edu/feinstein/2007/angering-akuju.

25. Wamala, M. Uganda: Children Forced to Work as Poverty, HIV Bite. Kampala, Uganda Childrens Fund; 2008. http://www.ugandachildrensfund.org/child_labour.html.

26. Tusiime, C. "Kabale Children Catch Cross Border Trade Fever," Uganda Radio Network; January 19, 2011; July 16, 2013; http://ugandaradionetwork.com/a/story.php?s=34448.

27. U.S. Department of State. "Uganda," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2012. Washington, DC; June 19, 2012; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2012/index.htm.

28. UYDEL. Trafficking and Enslavement of Children in Uganda. Kampala; May 2009. www.uydel.org.

29. U.S. Department of State. "Uganda," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2011. Washington, DC; June 27, 2011; http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2011/164233.htm.

30. U.S. Embassy- Kampala. reporting, February 3, 2012.

31. U.S. Department of State. "Uganda," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2011. Washington, DC; May 24, 2012; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?dynamic_load_id=186254.

32. Government of Uganda. The Employment Act, enacted June 8, 2006. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/74416/76582/F1768664138/UGA74416.pdf.

33. U.S. Embassy- Kampala. reporting, March 2, 2012.

34. Government of Uganda. The Education (Pre-Primary, Primary and Post-Primary) Act, 2008. Act 13, enacted August 29, 2008. http://www.ugandaonlinelawlibrary.com/lawlib/2008_laws.asp?oColumn=year.

35. U.S. Embassy- Kampala official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 14, 2012.

36. UN. Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women. New York; August 31, 2010. http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/cedaw.htm.

37. The Constitution of Uganda, enacted 1995. http://www.ulii.org/ug/legis/consol_act/cotrou19950364/.

38. Government of Uganda. Penal Code of Uganda, enacted 1950. http://www.ulii.org/ug/legislation/consolidated-act/120.

39. ILO Committee of Experts. Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Uganda (ratification: 2001) Submitted: 2012; accessed October 27, 2012; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:2700681:NO.

40. Government of Uganda. Computer Misuse Act No. 2, enacted February 14, 2011. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CFQQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ict.go.ug%2Findex.php%3Foption%3Dcom_docman%26task%3Ddoc_download%26gid%3D57%26Itemid%3D61&ei=NI_bT8igBIjA2gXZptWABg&usg=AFQjCNE4CodQBnYDlzX6OUUO3t4RP6p8Dw.

41. Child Soldiers International. "Appendix II: Data Summary Table on Recruitement Ages of National Armies," in Louder Than Words: An Agenda for Action to End State Use of Child Soldiers. London; 2012; http://www.child-soldiers.org/user_uploads/pdf/appendix2datasummarytableonrecruitmentagesofnationalarmies9687452.pdf.

42. U.S. Embassy- Kampala. reporting, February 22, 2011.

43. Westat. Evaluation of the Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking Technical Cooperation Program: Report on Site Visit to Uganda. Rockville; August 25, 2010.

44. U.S. Embassy- Kampala. reporting, February 25, 2010.

45. Cardoso, Isabel de Bruin. National Plan of Action for Orphans and Vulnerable Children: Establishing, Reviewing and Implementing National Plans of Actions for Orphans and Vulnerable in Southern and East Africa. Pretoria, Save the Children; April 20, 2010.

46. ILO Committee of Experts. Observation concerning Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81) Uganda (ratification: 1963) Submitted: 2012; accessed October 27, 2012; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:2698595:NO.

47. U.S. Embassy- Kampala official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 21, 2013.

48. ILO-IPEC. Emerging Good Practices from the Integrated Area Based Approach in Uganda. Geneva; September 2012. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/download.do?type=document&id=20675.

49. ILO-IPEC. Project of Support for the Preparatory Phase of the Uganda National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor. Technical Progress Report. Geneva, ILO; October 2011.

50. UN. Development Assistance Framework, 2006-2010. Kampala; 2005. http://www.undg.org/archive_docs/5913-Uganda_UNDAF_2006-2010_.pdf.

51. Millennium Development Goals Monitor. "MDG Profile: Uganda." mgdmonitor.org [online] 2007 [cited 2010]; http://www.mdgmonitor.org/factsheets_00.cfm?c=CIV.

52. Ministry of Education and Sports. Education Sector Strategic Plan, 2004-2015. Kampala; June 2004. http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Uganda/Uganda_ESSP_2004_2015.pdf.

53. IMF. Uganda: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. Washington, DC; May 2010. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2010/cr10141.pdf.

54. Integrated Regional Information Networks. "African convention on internally displaced persons comes into force." [online] December 7, 2012 [cited February 20, 2013]; http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/2012/dec/07/african-convention-internally-displaced-persons.

55. Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa (Kampala Convention), enacted 2012. http://au.int/en/content/african-union-convention-protection-and-assistance-internally-displaced-persons-africa.

56. ILO-IPEC. Project of Support for the Preparatory Phase of the Uganda National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labour (SNAP Uganda). Technical Progress Report. Geneva; September 2012.

57. ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; April 2013.

58. UN Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on the Situation of Children and Armed Conflict Affected by the Lord’s Resistance Army. New York; May 25, 2012. http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N12/348/12/PDF/N1234812.pdf?OpenElement.

59. UNODC. Promoting the Rule of Law and Human Security in Eastern Africa: Regional Programme 2009-12; December 2009. http://www.unodc.org/documents/easternafrica//regional-ministerial-meeting/Eastern_Africa_Regional_Programme_Final_Draft.pdf.

60. ECLT. Written Communication. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (November 26, 2012) "Request for Information and/or Comment on Reports issued by ILAB". Washington, DC; February 12, 2013. [hardcopy on file].