2013 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor
In 2013, Uganda made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government published the National Labor Force and Child Activities Survey 2011/12 during the year. The survey is the first comprehensive national survey on child labor in Uganda and includes detailed information on the activities of children in the country. The Government also trained 100 immigration officials to identify trafficking victims, registered 399 child victims of trafficking, and rescued 26 children who were being trained in Uganda to assist armed groups in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). In addition, Uganda began to participate in two new child labor projects. However, children from Uganda are reportedly recruited and forcibly abducted to join rebel militias operating in the DRC and Kenya. Within the country, children continue to engage in the worst forms of child labor in agriculture and in commercial sexual exploitation. Gaps in the legal framework persist, such as between compulsory education and minimum working ages, and enforcement information is not made available.
Children in Uganda are engaged in the worst forms of child labor in agriculture and in commercial sexual exploitation.(1-6) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Uganda.
|Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):||30.0 (3,034,126)|
|Working children by sector, ages 5 to 14 (%)|
|School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):||88.7|
|Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):||34.4|
|Primary completion rate (%):||53.1|
S ource for primary completion rate: Data from 2011, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2014. (7)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Labor Force Survey, 2010. (8)
Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.
|Agriculture||Picking coffee and tea† (6, 9-13)|
|Growing cocoa* and tobacco (2, 11, 12, 14)|
|Growing rice†and acting as scarecrows on rice fields (6, 11, 13, 15)|
|Production of vanilla (6, 14)|
|Cutting, collecting, and carrying sugarcane†(12, 16)|
|Production of palm oil* (6)|
|Herding cattle (1, 6, 12)|
|Fishing, including catching, smoking, and selling fish; loading boats with equipment and offloading fish; using spears and diving under water to catch fish; and scaling, cleaning, and cutting fish (3, 5, 9, 11, 12)|
|Industry||Making bricks (4, 6, 11, 14, 17)|
|Producing and carrying charcoal (6, 12, 18)|
|Mining†and stone quarrying*†(3, 6, 11, 19, 20)|
|Services||Domestic work (1, 6, 11, 21, 22)|
|Street vending†(1, 3, 6, 14)|
|Cross-border trading, including carrying heavy loads to and from Ugandan border points (3, 23, 24)|
|Food†and beverage workers,†including in restaurants and bars (1, 3, 11)|
|Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡||Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 3, 4, 25, 26)|
|Work in agriculture, bars, begging, cattle herding, and domestic service as a result of human trafficking (25, 26)|
|Forced labor in brick making,* mining, and stone quarrying* (4)|
|Used in the production of pornography by pimps and brothel owners (1, 3, 27)|
|Use of under age children in armed conflict, sometimes as a result of abduction and human trafficking (28, 29)|
*Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
†Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a) - (c) of ILO C. 182.
Uganda is a source and destination country for the trafficking of children.(27, 30) Children are trafficked internally for sexual exploitation and forced labor in fishing, agriculture, and domestic service.(30) In some cases, Ugandan children have been trafficked to Central, East, and North Africa for commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor.(25, 31) Children from Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and South Sudan are also trafficked to Uganda for commercial sexual exploitation and agricultural work.(30)
During the year, children from Uganda were recruited and forcibly abducted for service by the March 23 Movement (M23), an armed group based in the DRC, and the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) armed group.(28, 29) It is reported that young Muslim boys between the ages of 10 and 15 were recruited and brought to the DRC and Kenya to join rebel militias, though the perpetrators are unknown. In addition, Ugandan children were reported to be in training in Uganda for Allied Defense Force (ADF)/National Army for the Liberation of Uganda rebel activity in the DRC.(28) Children associated with armed groups may be forced to serve as combatants, porters, spies, guards, domestic servants, and sex slaves. Children also monitor military check points and are used during looting expeditions.(29)
During the year, there were no reports that the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) had abducted or conscripted children within Uganda for use in armed conflict. However, limited evidence suggests that the LRA used abductees from South Sudan, the DRC, and Central African Republic (CAR) as temporary porters.(32) The Uganda People's Defense Force (UPDF) assisted two children returning from LRA captivity during the reporting period; however, children abducted by the LRA continue to be unaccounted for and may be held by the LRA in the DRC, CAR, and South Sudan.(28)
Uganda has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).
|ILO C. 138, Minimum Age||✅|
|ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor||✅|
|UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict||✅|
|UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography||✅|
|Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons|
Uganda has not ratified the Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons.
Uganda has ratified the African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa (Kampala Convention).(33) The Convention prohibits armed groups from recruiting children or allowing them to participate in conflict in any manner.(34)
The Government has established relevant laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).
Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor
|Minimum Age for Work||Yes||14||Article 32 (2) of the Employment Act 2006; Article 3 of the Employment (Employment of Children) Regulations 2012 (3, 35)|
|Minimum Age for Hazardous Work||Yes||18||Article 32 (4) of the Employment Act 2006; Article 5 of the Employment (Employment of Children) Regulations 2012 (3, 35)|
|List of Hazardous Occupations Prohibited for Children||Yes||Article 6 and the First Schedule of the Employment (Employment of Children) Regulations 2012 (3, 9)|
|Prohibition of Forced Labor||Yes||Article 25 of the Constitution (36)|
|Prohibition of Child Trafficking||Yes||Articles 3 and 5 of the Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act 2009 (37-40)|
|Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children||Yes||Sections 131, 136-137, and 139 of the Penal Code; Article 5 of the Employment (Employment of Children) Regulations 2012 (3, 41)|
|Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities||Yes||Article 5 of the Employment (Employment of Children) Regulations 2012 (3)|
|Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment||N/A*|
|Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service||Yes||18||Section 52(2)(c) of the Uganda People's Defense Forces Act; Article 5(b) of the Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act 2009 (12, 42, 43)|
|Compulsory Education Age||Yes||12||Article 10(3)(a) of the Education (Pre-Primary, Primary, and Post-Primary) Act 2008 (38, 44, 45)|
|Free Public Education||Yes||Article 10(3)(a) of the Education (Pre-Primary, Primary, and Post-Primary) Act 2008 (12, 45)|
*No conscription or no standing military.
The use, procurement, or offering of any child for prostitution is illegal under Article 5 of Uganda's Employment (Employment of Children) Regulations 2012. (3) Despite these Regulations, Section 131 of the Penal Code only criminalizes those who procure or attempt to procure a girl for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation. The Penal Code does not protect boys from being procured for the same purpose.(41, 46) The Penal Code penalizes intermediaries, but it is not clear whether it penalizes clients. The Code does not protect children who are procured or offered for prostitution from being treated as offenders rather than victims.(41, 46)
During the reporting period, Uganda passed the Anti-Pornography Act, 2014. Section 14 of the Act prohibits child pornography.(47)
Article 10(3)(a) of the Education (Pre-Primary, Primary, and Post-Primary) Act 2008 calls for free and compulsory primary education through age 12, but fees for school supplies and operating costs are often prohibitive for families. The law leaves children ages 12 to 14 particularly vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor as they are not required to be in school nor are they legally permitted to work in areas other than light work.(12, 24, 45)
The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).
|Ministry of Gender, Labor, and Social Development (MGLSD)||Enforce labor laws.(6, 9, 38) District labor officers conduct labor inspections, including occupational safety and health inspections, throughout the country.(9, 24, 38, 48, 49) The Child Labor Unit (CLU) develops policies and programs on child labor; serves as a resource for MGLSD's non-specialized labor inspectors, and occupational health and safety inspectors; and works with partners to implement awareness raising campaigns.(9, 49)|
|Ministry of Internal Affairs(MIA)||Enforce criminal laws against forced labor, trafficking, commercial exploitation, and the use of children for illicit activities. Lead investigations related to trafficking in persons.(9) Within the MIA, the Uganda Police Force's (UPF) Special Investigations Unit manage trafficking cases while the Sexual Offenses Department manage cases of commercial sexual exploitation. The Child and Family Protection Unit (CFPU) process child abuse cases, including child labor.(49) MIA's Immigration Department assist in the identification of potential trafficking victims.(28)|
|CFPU liaison officers||Handle child labor complaints and overall child protection issues at police posts that do not have a CFPU officer.(9)|
|Ministry of Justice and Directorate for Public Prosecutions||Prosecute trafficking cases.(50)|
Law enforcement agencies in Uganda took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.
Labor Law Enforcement
Uganda's centralized labor inspection system was taken apart in the mid-1990s, following the decentralization of the country. The Local Governments Act, No. 1 of 1997 transferred labor issues from the central government to the districts.(48) The labor inspection function in the country has subsequently deteriorated.(48) Each of the 112 districts in the country is supposed to have a district labor officer responsible for addressing all labor issues, including child labor. There are conflicting estimates of the total number of district labor officers; however, the highest estimate is 49 officers countrywide.(49) Funding and logistical support for district labor officers is inadequate, and some officers are responsible for additional non-labor duties.(6, 49)
Comprehensive information on labor inspections is not available, but labor officials in some districts report conducting about 20 general inspections per year. This level of inspection is inadequate given the size of the country but lack of funding prohibits a sufficient number of inspections.(49) Information is unavailable on the number of child labor law violations and penalties issued. Labor officials participated in a two-day training on assisting women and child laborers to access justice.(49)
A source indicates that Uganda is in the process of developing a more comprehensive inspection program that involves all relevant public sector agencies.(51)
Criminal Law Enforcement
The Uganda Police Force's (UPF) Child and Family Protection Unit (CFPU) has about 500 officers throughout the country who handle child abuse, including child labor, complaints.(49)
Information was not available on the exact number of child labor complaints or investigations during the reporting period. The CFPU lacks sufficient resources to fully carry out its mandate.(49)
The Anti-Human Trafficking National Taskforce trained 100 immigration officers to identify potential trafficking victims during the reporting period. All 300 immigration officers have now received training on trafficking.(28) UNODC trained the Anti-Human Trafficking National Taskforce on investigation techniques. IOM and the National Coordinator of the Anti-Human Trafficking National Taskforce trained over 30 police, immigration, and Ministry of Gender, Labor, and Social Development (MGLSD) officials on providing assistance to child victims of trafficking.(28) In addition, IOM trained 15 officials from the Directorate of Public Prosecution, the National Taskforce, and the Police's Special Investigations Unit on investigations and prosecuting trafficking suspects. The Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act has yet to be integrated into the general police training curriculum.(28) Training on other worst forms of child labor appears to be insufficient.(49)
Uganda registered 236 male and 243 female child victims of trafficking.(52) Fifty-six defendants were taken to court for new cases during the year and four people were convicted of trafficking crimes. Two of the parties were convicted for attempting to take a baby out of the country illegally.(28) The parties each paid a fine of $485 in lieu of imprisonment. During the year, the government also arrested three people in eastern Uganda suspected of holding four girls for sexual exploitation.(28) The three defendants were on trial during the reporting period. In addition, the government arrested 56 suspected illegal labor recruiters.(28) A Chinese national accused of trafficking two girls for sexual exploitation was released on bail during the year and fled the country; an international warrant has been issued for his arrest.(28)
The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).
|Coordinating Body||Role & Description|
|National Steering Committee (NSC) on the Elimination of Child Labor||Coordinate child labor issues and implementation of the National Action Plan (NAP) for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2012/2013-2016/2017). Led by the MGLSD with representation from several ministries and trade unions, development agencies, civil society, and media houses.(12)|
|Stop Child Labor Partners Forum||Coordinate, monitor, and evaluate child-related program and policies in Uganda. Led by the National Council for Children (NCC), representatives come from several ministries, CPFU, and civil society groups.(12)|
|Anti-Human Trafficking National Taskforce||Coordinate anti-trafficking efforts among government ministries, draft policy, implement public information campaigns, and establish a database for trafficking cases. Led by MIA with 30-member representation from several ministries and government directorates, UPF, Interpol, and other security organizations.(12, 28) Standard Operating Procedures outline the responsibilities of various stakeholders.(12, 28)|
|National Child Protection Working Group||Address child protection issues. Led by MGLSD with participation from various ministries and civil society.(12)|
In 2013, all of Uganda's coordinating mechanisms for child labor met regularly. The Anti-Human Trafficking Taskforce met nearly every month, and the National Steering Committee (NSC) on the Elimination of Child Labor, Stop Child Labor Partners Forum, and National Child Protection Working Group met quarterly.(12)
In 2012, Uganda established a Coordination Office to Combat Trafficking in Persons (COCTIP) and Anti-Human Trafficking Taskforce.(28, 53) The COCTIP Office is supposed to draft policy, implement public information campaigns, and manage a database on trafficking cases; however, it is not yet operational and serves primarily as a coordinating center.(4, 28, 50, 53)
The Government of Uganda has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).
|NAP for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2012/2013-2016/2017)||Aims to reduce the worst forms of child labor in Uganda by 2017 by increasing enrollment and completion of primary education; increasing access to social protection and assistance by households; increasing public awareness; strengthening the legal and policy framework; withdrawing, rehabilitating, and integrating working children; and enhancing tripartite collaboration.(15)|
|National awareness strategy on trafficking†||Developed during the year as a result of a training conducted by IOM and the National Coordinator of the Anti-Human Trafficking National Taskforce for government officials from intelligence agencies and the Justice, Law, and Order sector.(28)|
|Decent Work Country Program (2013-2017)||Outlines strategies for promoting decent work in Uganda. Priorities include youth employment and improved social protection for both formal and informal workers.(54) Includes a focus on prevention and elimination of the worst forms of child labor.(54)|
|National Development Plan (2010/2011-2014/2015)||Outlines Uganda's development priorities and implementation strategies. Includes an objective to promote and empower artisanal and small scale miners, in part by training mining communities on child labor issues and enhancing monitoring of child labor in the mining industry. Addresses increasing household incomes and the availability and quality of gainful employment and access to social services.(55)|
|National Education Development Plan (2004‑2015)*||Supports expansion of the basic education system to include complementary programs for disadvantaged children and youth.(56)|
|Skilling Uganda (2011-2020)*||Strategic plan for business, technical, and vocational education and training. Aims include providing vocational training to youth who drop-out of school.(57)|
|UNDAF Uganda (2010-2014)*||Aims to improve the situation of vulnerable populations through sustainable livelihoods and access to quality social services.(58)|
|Implementation Plan for the Amnesty Act of 2000 (2013-2015) †||Published during the year, the plan continues activities to disarm, demobilize, and reintegrate former LRA rebels, including child soldiers. Implemented by the Uganda Amnesty Commission along with other government agencies, (28)|
*The impact of this policy on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
†Policy was launched during the reporting period.
The National Anti-Trafficking Taskforce has drafted a national action plan to combat trafficking; the plan is in the final stages of review. The plan aims to prevent trafficking, increase prosecutions, and improve coordination and services.(59)
In 2013, the Government of Uganda participated in and provided funding for programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).
|Skilling Uganda*||Ministry of Education and Sports (MOES) program that provides vocational training to youth who drop-out of school. During the reporting period, the World Bank contributed $75 million, OPEC contributed $25.5 million, and Saudi Arabia contributed $13.5 million.(12, 57) Government will improve 26 vocational schools with these funds.(12)|
|Uganda Social Assistance Grants for Empowerment (SAGE)*‡||MGLSD program that provides direct income support of about $8 a month to poor and vulnerable households in 14 pilot districts located in Central, Northern, and Western Uganda. Supported by donors in the amount of approximately $49 million.(12) Government has provided about $2.4m in office space, equipment, and staff and has also released $800,000 in funding for the program. During the year, 104,000 people received program benefits.(59)|
|Coordinated Response to Human Trafficking in Uganda†||IOM project that provides support to children trafficked from Karamoja region for exploitive labor on streets in urban areas of Uganda and builds capacity of services providers in Karamoja and elsewhere in Uganda.(53) Provided assistance to 77 girls and 55 boys trafficked internally from Karamoja.(28, 53) During the year, the program, together with the government, launched a Web site to raise awareness about trafficking issues in Uganda and provide information on laws and government activities. The Web site helps link trafficking victims to appropriate contacts.(28, 53)|
|Uganda Youth Development Link (UYDEL)||Program focused on child protection, including protection from sexual exploitation, trafficking, and labor, that provides rehabilitation and livelihoods skills training to victims. Services provided at five drop in centers and outreach posts in Kampala slum, one drop-in center in Kitega, Mukono District, and one rehabilitation transit center at Masooli in Wakiso District.(60)|
|Uganda Women's Effort to Save Orphans (UWESO)||Provides shelter and counseling to trafficking victims under the age of 18.(28)|
|Strengthening the evidence base on child labour through expanded data collection, data analysis, and research-based global reports||$5,028,453 million USDOL-funded, 4.5-year project implemented by the ILO to increase statistical information and research for improved policy and program formulation on child labor. With support of the project, the Government published the National Labor Force and Child Activities Survey 2011/12 during the reporting period.(11, 61) The survey is the first comprehensive national survey on child labor in Uganda and includes detailed information on the activities of children in the country.(11)|
|Combating Child Labor through Education‡||MOES three-hour after school education program in areas where children are unable to attend school for a full day. Program collaborates with MGLSD and received support from ILO and the Dutch government.(12) Schools receive some funding from district budgets.(12)|
|Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues Project||USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016 established by the Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to improve the evidence base on child labor through data collection and research in Uganda.(62)|
|Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce (CLEAR) Child Labor Project†||USDOL-funded capacity building project implemented by the ILO in at least 10 countries to build local and national capacity of the Government to address child labor. Aims to build local and national capacity of the Government to address child labor by improving legislation addressing child labor issues, including by bringing local or national laws into compliance with international standards; improve monitoring and enforcement of laws and policies related to child labor; and develop, validate, adopt, and implement a NAP on the elimination of child labor in Uganda.(63)|
|African Youth Empowerment and Development Initiative(AYEDI)†||$3 million USDOL-funded, 4-year project awarded in 2013 and implemented by World Education, Inc. to address exploitative labor among youth under the age of 18. The project will provide training to youth to help them develop marketable skills and serve as civic leaders in their communities.(64, 65)|
|Youth Venture Fund‡*||Government program aimed at reducing youth unemployment.(28)|
*The impact of this program on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
†Program was launched during the reporting period.
‡Program is funded by the Government of Uganda.
In 2013, the government carried out a number of activities to raise awareness about trafficking in Uganda. The National Coordinator of the Anti-Human Trafficking Taskforce made regular contributions to media pieces on trafficking and spoke with target audiences, including youth groups, and Taskforce worked with NGOs to develop awareness raising campaigns.(28) The CPFU held regular discussions with secondary school students about commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor. Together with the IOM, the government screened an anti-trafficking movie and the National Theatre and is continuing to use the film for sensitization and discussion.(28)
The UPDF rescued 26 children between the ages of three and thirteen who were allegedly in training for ADF rebel activity in the DRC on Buvuma Island in Lake Victoria. The children were taken to a rehabilitation shelter run by the Ugandan Youth Development Link (UYDEL). (28) With IOM assistance, the National Taskforce and UPF assisted some victims of trafficking with their return home, including through provision of temporary shelters for children. The government's anti-trafficking budget is small, and the country is dependent on agency and donor contributions for its activities.(28) Funds for assistance to trafficking victims come primarily from the IOM and NGOs.(28)
Although Uganda has programs that address child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem.
Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Uganda (Table 9).
|Area||Suggested Action||Year(s) Suggested|
|Laws||Ratify the Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons.||2013|
|Amend the Penal Code to ensure that boys are protected from being procured for commercial sexual exploitation, all clients are penalized, and children who are procured or offered for prostitution are protected from being treated as offenders.||2009 - 2013|
|Adopt legislation that increases the age of compulsory education to 14 so that it is commensurate with the minimum age for work.||2009 - 2013|
|Enforcement||Establish an adequately resourced, staffed, and trained labor inspection system.||2013|
|Collect and publishing data on child labor violations and inspections.||2013|
|Integrate the Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act into the police officer training curriculum.||2013|
|Coordination||Operationalize the Office to Combat Trafficking in Persons (COCTIP) and increase funding for anti-trafficking efforts.||2013|
|Government Policies||Assess the impact that existing policies may have on addressing child labor.||2013|
|Finalize and adopt the National Action Plan to combat trafficking.||2013|
|Social Programs||Take additional steps to ensure that all children are able to attend school regardless of their ability to pay school fees and other related costs.||2012 - 2013|
|Assess the impact that existing social programs may have on addressing child labor.||2013|
|Increase funding and services for trafficking victims.||2013|
|Expand social programs to target children involved in the worst forms of child labor, particularly in agriculture and armed conflict.||2009 - 2013|
6. U.S. Department of State. "Uganda," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2013&dlid=220173EXECUTIVE
7. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed February 10, 2014]; http://www.uis.unesco.org/Pages/default.aspx?SPSLanguage=EN . Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.
8. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Labor Force Survey, 2010. Analysis received February 13, 2014. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.
10. Terre des Hommes. The future of child labour: Study of the worst forms of child labour in Bangladesh, Bolivia, India, Kenya, Peru, Tanzania and Uganda. The Hague; 2010. http://www.terredeshommesnl.org/download/64.
11. Uganda Bureau of Statistics. National Labour Force and Child Activities Survey 2011/12. Kampala; July 2013. http://www.ubos.org/onlinefiles/uploads/ubos/pdf%20documents/NCLS%20Report%202011_12.pdf.
15. Ministry of Gender, Labor, and Social Development. National Action Plan for the Elimination of Worst Forms of Child Labor in Uganda 2012/2013-2016/17. Kampala; May 2012. http://www.unicef.org/uganda/NAP_Uganda_June_2012.pdf.
18. Survey Commissioned by the IRC Reveals Widespread Child Labor in Uganda, International Rescue Committee, [online] [cited June 25, 2014]; http://www.rescue.org/news/survey-commissioned-irc-reveals-widespread-child-labor-uganda.
19. Nabulya, R. Uganda Ranks High In Child Labor, Chimpreports.com, [online] December 6, 2013 [cited June 25, 2014]; http://chimpreports.com/index.php/news/10691-uganda-ranks-high-in-child-labor.html.
22. Arojjo, S. The Platform for Labour Action: Hope for child Domestic workers in Uganda, [online] September 2, 2010 [cited June 25, 2014]; http://www.consultancyafrica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=534:the-platform-for-labour-action-hope-for-child-domestic-workers-in-uganda&catid=90:optimistic-africa&Itemid=295.
29. MONUSCO. Child Recruitment by Armed Groups in DRC From January 2012 to August 2013; October 24, 2013. http://watchlist.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/131024-MONUSCO-CPS-public-report-on-Armed-Group-recruitment-2012-2013.pdf.
33. "African convention on internally displaced persons comes into force." The Guardian, London, December 7, 2012. http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/2012/dec/07/african-convention-internally-displaced-persons.
34. African Union. Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa (Kampala Convention), enacted 2012. http://au.int/en/content/african-union-convention-protection-and-assistance-internally-displaced-persons-africa.
36. Government of Uganda. The Constitution of Uganda, enacted 1995. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CB0QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.parliament.go.ug%2Fnew%2Fimages%2Fstories%2Fconstitution%2FConstitution_of_Uganda_1995.pdf&ei=l0irU-O9FMyOqAaQx4DoAg&usg=AFQjCNGmzErpWyzgjM8WlPlHkkZQz8hFDQ&sig2=Mla04mPIl1gjmhJz1fBbGw&bvm=bv.69620078,d.b2k.
42. Child Soldiers International. "Appendix II: Data Summary Table on Recruitement Ages of National Armies," in Louder Than Words: An Agenda for Action to End State Use of Child Soldiers. London; 2012; http://www.child-soldiers.org/user_uploads/pdf/appendix2datasummarytableonrecruitmentagesofnationalarmies9687452.pdf.
44. UNESCO. World Data on Education, 2010-2011. New York; 2011. www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/.../WDE/.../Uganda.pdf.
45. Government of Uganda. The Education (Pre-Primary, Primary and Post-Primary) Act, 2008. Act 13, enacted August 29, 2008. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CB0QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fplanipolis.iiep.unesco.org%2Fupload%2FUganda%2FUganda_EducationAct.pdf&ei=BkmrU_ayBcWQqgbMhIKIAg&usg=AFQjCNFheCzDihwYxFeQoPBIrC7TdPJ88A&sig2=9nA2RP70IWcwyAlVi1Pwfw.
46. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Uganda (ratification: 2001) Submitted: 2012; accessed June 25, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/iloquery.htm.
48. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81) Uganda (ratification: 1963) Submitted: 2012; accessed June 25, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/iloquery.htm.
51. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81) Uganda (ratification: 1963) Published: 2014; accessed April 24, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/iloquery.htm.
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