2013 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor
In 2013, Thailand made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. Despite political unrest during the year and the Government entering caretaker status in November 2013, the Government took several actions to address child labor. In collaboration with the private sector, the Government focused on prevention efforts to combat labor abuses, including child labor, in the fishing sector. Fishing coordination centers were created in seven provinces to increase protection for workers, including strengthening monitoring through inspections and registering of workers. In addition, the Government enacted the Transnational Organized Crime Act and ratified the UN Trafficking in Persons Protocol in order to strengthen institutional frameworks on transnational organized crimes that can include the worst forms of child labor and human trafficking. The Government improved its data collection systems for reporting on identification and investigations of trafficking cases, and reported on the number of child victims involved in these cases. However, children in Thailand continue to engage in child labor in agriculture, including in the shrimp and seafood processing sector, and in the worst forms of child labor in commercial sexual exploitation. Thailand remains weak in its enforcement efforts, particularly in the home-based business sectors. The Government also lacks current nationwide data on child labor.
Children in Thailand are engaged in child labor in agriculture, including in the shrimp and seafood processing sector, and in the worst forms of child labor in commercial sexual exploitation.(1, 2) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Thailand.
|Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):||13.0 (1,302,267)|
|School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):||96.3|
|Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):||14.4|
|Primary completion rate (%):||Unavailable|
Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2012, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2014. (3)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, 2005-06. (4)
Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.
|Agriculture||Processing shrimp and seafood* (1, 5-7)|
|Fishing,* activities unknown (8)|
|Planting and harvesting sugarcane (9)|
|Production of rubber,* roses,* and oranges* (10)|
|Industry||Manufacturing, including garment production (11, 12)|
|Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡||Commercial sexual exploitation, including in the production of pornography, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (5, 12, 18)|
|Vending, begging, and domestic service as a result of human trafficking (5, 19-23)|
|Forced labor in the production of garments, in shrimp and seafood processing, in domestic service, and in begging (5, 8, 11, 22, 24)|
|Use of children in armed violence, such as serving as scouts, informants, and committing acts of arson (12, 25)|
*Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
†Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a) - (c) of ILO C. 182.
Shrimp and seafood processing occurs in the central and southern coastal regions of Thailand. The majority of child laborers in this sector are between the ages of 15 and 17, and both boys and girls are equally engaged in labor, with slightly more girls working than boys.(26) Child labor in the shrimp and seafood processing sector is predominantly among migrant children, but it is also found among Thai children in the southern provinces.(26)
Children as young as age 7 are paid to fight in a form of boxing called Muay Thai, in which they use knees, elbows, hands, and feet to fight, with no protective equipment.(14-17) Work in a gambling place is deemed hazardous by Thai law; however, gamblers place bets on the children fighting.(16, 17) Migrant children may be subjected to forced labor in begging, the selling of flowers, garment factories, shrimp and seafood processing, and domestic service.(1, 5, 8, 11)
Children are trafficked to and within Thailand for commercial sexual exploitation and labor exploitation.(5, 10, 22) They are trafficked to Thailand primarily from Burma, Cambodia, and Laos, and from within Thailand, for commercial sexual exploitation.(5, 10, 19) Children who are trafficked are forced to sell flowers and candy and beg on the streets.(5, 22) Children are also trafficked to and within Thailand into Bangkok and other urban areas to serve as domestic servants.(21)
Children from Laos are reported to seek work in Thailand to support their families, including working in Thai karaoke bars or brothels.(2, 27) Access to education, particularly for migrant and ethnic minority children, is limited by a variety of factors. These factors include a lack of awareness among local government officials and migrant families of migrant children's right to an education; language barriers, including class instruction and school applications only in the Thai language; the long distances children must travel to attend school; the prohibitive costs of school lunches; burdensome student registration requirements; and family pressure to work rather than attend school.(2) Ethnic minority, stateless, and migrant children are the most at risk of engaging in the worst forms of child labor, particularly in the informal sector.(5)
Thailand continues to experience an ethno-nationalist separatist insurgency based in the four southernmost provinces, which have a majority Malay-Muslim population. Children, teachers, and other education personnel have been killed or wounded in the conflict, which has forced the intermittent closure of schools in the region.(25, 28) There is some evidence that separatist groups recruited children to commit acts of arson or serve as scouts and informants. There are also reports of children's involvement in village defense militias.(12, 25)
The Government lacks current nationwide data on the worst forms of child labor.(2) In addition, current reporting and statistics on child labor that do exist often omit street children and migrant children.(29)
Thailand has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).
|ILO C. 138, Minimum Age||✅|
|ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor||✅|
|UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict||✅|
|UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography||✅|
|Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons||✅|
The Government has established relevant laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).
|Minimum Age for Work||Yes||15||Chapter 4, Section 44 of The Labor Protection Act (30)|
|Minimum Age for Hazardous Work||Yes||18||Chapter 4, Sections 49, 50 of The Labor Protection Act (30)|
|List of Hazardous Occupations Prohibited for Children||Yes||Chapter 4, Sections 49, 50 of The Labor Protection Act (30)|
|Prohibition of Forced Labor||Yes||Section 38 of The Constitution; Section 310 of the Penal Code; Section 4 and 6 of The Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act (31-33)|
|Prohibition of Child Trafficking||Yes||Sections 282, 283 of the Penal Code; Section 6 of The Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act (32, 33)|
|Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children||Yes||Section 8 of The Prevention and Suppression of Prostitution Act; Section 6 of The Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act; Section 282, 283 of the Penal Code (32-34)|
|Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities||Yes||Article 26 of The Child Protection Act (35)|
|Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment||Yes||21||Military Service Act (36)|
|Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service||Yes||18||Military Service Act (36)|
|Compulsory Education Age||Yes||15||Section 17 of the National Education Act (37)|
|Free Public Education||Yes||Section 10 of the National Education Act; The Constitution (31, 37)|
In 2013, the Government strengthened the regulatory framework to combat human trafficking and the worst forms of child labor by enacting the Anti-Transnational Organized Crime Act (2013) and ratifying the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children.(2, 38) The Government reports that the Act will provide law enforcement agencies the ability to carry out more efficient investigations and prosecution of trafficking in persons (TIP) cases that fall under the category of transnational organized crime.(39)
In the agricultural sector, the Labor Protection Act permits children between the ages of 13 and 15 to work during school vacation or non-school hours, as long as they receive parental permission and the nature of the work is not hazardous or otherwise detrimental to the child's well-being.(2) However, the number of hours permitted for children to perform light work in agriculture is not clear.(40) During the reporting period, the Department of Labor Protection and Welfare (DLPW) reported that it is revising the ministerial regulation on agricultural work to adjust the minimum age of agricultural workers to comply with international standards.(2, 41, 42)
In fishing, Ministerial Regulation No. 10 issued under the Labor Protection Act permits children ages
15 to 16 to work on fishing boats if they are accompanied by a parent or guardian, or with the written consent of a parent or guardian. However, the 2012 hazardous work list for children prohibits children under age 18 from working on fishing boats.(2) During the reporting period, the Government drafted a revision of The Ministerial Regulation on Sea Fishing Vessels, which would provide greater protections for workers in line with international standards, including increasing the minimum age for work on sea vessels from 16 to 18 years, and updating the Labor Protection Act.(2) However, the revision has not been finalized.(12)
The Ministerial Regulation on Labor and Welfare Protection for Domestic Workers offers some protection to domestic workers in third-party households.(5) However, the regulation fails to define the number of allowable working hours.(10, 43)
While Thailand has various laws prohibiting crimes against children, it does not have laws specifically addressing child pornography. This makes it more complicated for law enforcement to prosecute child pornography offenders and does not provide a clear protection mechanism for child pornography victims.(2, 27)
The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).
|Department of Labor, Protection, and Welfare (DLPW) of the Ministry of Labor (MOL)||Enforce labor laws, including the Labor Protection Act and its ministerial regulations on domestic work, agriculture, and sea fishing vessels, through workplace inspections.(5, 27, 44) Operate a MOL telephone hotline, Hotline 1506, to answer questions involving working conditions and receive complaints from the public about child labor.(45, 46)|
|Fishing Coordination Centers (operated jointly by the Department of Employment, DLPW, and the Marine Police)||Monitor and inspect working conditions of fishing vessels. Aim to increase protection for workers, and allow migrants to become legalized through a registration process.(2, 47)|
|Anti-Human Trafficking Division (AHTD) of the Royal Thai Police (RTP)||Enforce laws specifically related to forced labor, human trafficking, and commercial sexual exploitation of women and children.(2)|
|Department of Special Investigations (DSI) in the Ministry of Justice||Investigate complicated human trafficking crimes, including those related to police complicity and transnational or organized crime. MOU between Thai Police and DSI states that a NGO or social worker can choose which entity will investigate and that that entity must work on the case from start to finish.(2, 47, 48)|
|RTP and Attorney General||Enforce the Transnational Organized Crime Act.(27)|
Law enforcement agencies in Thailand took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.
Labor Law Enforcement
In 2013, the DLPW's operational budget for the labor inspectorate was $492,280, a 24 percent increase from the 2012 budget.(2, 42) The DLPW employed 678 labor inspectors, a number that the Department recognized as insufficient to adequately monitor all workplaces covered by Thai labor laws.(2, 42) DLPW requested additional labor inspectors, but this request was rejected by the Government.(2) To address this issue, the DLPW authorized the Thai Police and Thai Navy (in the case of sea fishing vessels) to conduct labor inspections. As of January 2014, approximately 160 officers from the Marine Police and Navy were trained and registered as labor inspectors.(2) The DLPW reported that, in addition to regular annual training, 150 junior labor inspectors, 693 labor inspectors, and 40 occupational safety and health inspectors received focused training on the worst forms of child labor.(2, 42) Labor inspectors were also trained on how to conduct home inspections.(12)
DLPW labor inspectors inspected 581 workplaces, specifically for child labor law violations, and found 27 workplaces that were in violation of the law. The violations included employing children who were under age 15, failure to notify DLPW of employed youth workers, delayed payment of wages, and the use of child labor for overnight shifts.(2, 41, 42) DLPW confirmed that, in cases where fines were applicable, they were collected; however, examples of penalties reported by DLPW are less than what is prescribed by law.(2) DLPW only monitors labor violations under labor laws and does not keep track of criminal cases under TIP statutes.(47) Despite the Ministry of Labor's (MOL) efforts to hire interpreters to facilitate communication with migrant workers, labor inspection teams were rarely accompanied by interpreters. Inspectors often rely on the interpreters who are provided by the employer or other migrant workers inside the factory.(2)
Enforcement of the list of hazardous work prohibited to children is concentrated in the formal sector, such as the industrial and service sectors.(2) Under the Home Workers Protection Act (Act), DLPW now includes home-based workplaces under its purview.(2) However, labor inspectors have limited access to the entities covered by the Act, including home-based businesses and home-based employment sites, which require a warrant to inspect. This makes the inspection of private homes to monitor the welfare of child domestic workers or children working in home-based employment very challenging.(2, 12)
The MOL used the Labor Protection Network as another means to learn about reported cases of child labor violations. The 45,979-person network is composed of government agencies, NGOs, employers, academics, and community groups.(2, 49) Its purpose is to raise awareness, disseminate information, and provide a mechanism for reporting labor violations.(10)
In October 2013, the Department of Employment created fishing coordination centers in seven provinces which are responsible for registering migrant workers and conducting inspections of boats and working conditions. Through increased pressure on boat owners and employers, the creation of the centers has led to an increase in registered workers which assists in identifying and protecting child laborers.(2)
NGOs report that grievance mechanisms are weak for workers, including child laborers, in the informal sector, in remote areas, and on fishing vessels.(2)
Criminal Law Enforcement
In 2013, the Anti-Human Trafficking Division (AHTD) of the Royal Thai Police (RTP) and the Department of Special Investigations in the Ministry of Justice had 300 officials and 22 officials, respectively, who were responsible for enforcing laws specifically related to forced child labor, trafficking, and commercial sexual exploitation of children.(2) From January to December, the RTP initiated investigations into 674 trafficking cases, doubling the figure from last year. These cases involved 1,020 trafficking victims, including 757 victims under the age of 18.(50) Through formalized complaint mechanisms for workers, and with assistance from inter-agency partners, the DLPW reported that it assisted 38 labor trafficking victims, including four victims under the age of 15, to claim wages and overtime pay when the employer failed to comply with labor laws.(2, 47)
During the reporting period, the Ministry of Social Development and Human Security (MSDHS) trained 300 frontline police officers and social workers on trafficking victim identification. The RTP trained 874 police officers, including 169 female police investigators, on human trafficking investigation techniques.(2)
The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).
|Coordinating Body||Role & Description|
|The National Committee to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor||Coordinate the implementation of child labor policies and plans, facilitate cooperation among various coordinating ministries, and report semiannually to the Thai Cabinet on child labor issues.(44) Chaired by the MOL, with representation from other government agencies, employer and worker associations, and civil society groups.(51) Oversee three subcommittees that monitor the National Policy and Plan to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2009-2014); update the list of hazardous activities prohibited to children under age 18; and work on key performance indicators to measure and eliminate the worst forms of child labor in Thailand.(44, 52) In 2013, the MOL expanded participation to include the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology, the National Statistical Office, the Budget Bureau, and the Public Relations Office to facilitate cooperation on data collection to combat the worst forms of child labor.(2, 41, 42) In coordination with DLPW, the subcommittee on hazardous work for youth labor worked with the ILO on technical studies to provide scientific evidence to clarify permissible temperatures, noise levels, and weightlifting amounts to amend the Labor Protection Act (LPA) hazardous child labor laws.(2, 42) Subcommittee on monitoring and evaluation has extended its responsibilities to include development of the second National Policy and Plan to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2015-2019). (2)|
|The Anti-Trafficking in Persons Committee (ATP)||Make decisions and policy recommendations on combating human trafficking, and coordinate strategy across agencies. Chaired by the Prime Minister. Supervise the Coordinating and Monitoring of Anti-Trafficking in Persons Committee (CMP). (33, 53, 54) Oversee multiple other subcommittees that cover a range of topics, including data collection, combating trafficking in fishing sector, and implementation of the national anti-trafficking policy.(55)|
|The Coordinating and Monitoring of Anti-Trafficking in Persons Committee (CMP)||Monitor and evaluate the implementation of policy, as well as prepare plans and recommendations for review by the ATP. Chaired by the Deputy Prime Minister.(33)|
|National Operation Center for the Prevention and Suppression of Human Trafficking||Coordinate anti-human trafficking activities, including those involving child forced labor, trafficking, and commercial sexual exploitation. Secretariat for the ATP and CMP falls under the Ministry of Social Development and Human Security (MSDHS). Manage 76 Provincial Operation Centers for the Prevention and Suppression of Human Trafficking; these serve as the frontline implementers of anti-human trafficking activities.(2)|
During the reporting period, the Government of Thailand worked with counterparts from Laos, Brunei, Burma, China, Malaysia, and the United Arab Emirates to improve information-sharing and collaboration on prevention and enforcement to combat human trafficking.(2) The Government also began implementing an action plan under a Memorandum of Cooperation with the Government of Japan, which calls for the exchange of information for the purpose of preventing and combating trafficking in persons.(47)
The Government of Thailand has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).
|The National Plan of Action (NPA) to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2009-2014)||Aims to prevent, protect, and withdraw children from the worst forms of child labor, improve legislation and law enforcement related to the worst forms of child labor, and build the capacity of officials who administer policies and programs on the worst forms of child labor.(1, 44, 56) Key performance indicators include a reduction in the number of children engaging in the worst forms of child labor; increased efforts to remove children from the worst forms of child labor; increased criminal prosecutions against employers who exploit children; increased capacity and knowledge of practitioners working in this field; and increased national- and provincial-level administrative and management efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor.(5) In 2013, the DLPW received a government budget allocation of $172,356 to specifically implement the NPA.(2)|
|The Government's National Policy Strategies and Measures to Prevent and Suppress Trafficking in Persons (2011-2016)||Comprehensive Anti-Trafficking in Persons Policy contains five strategies which are operationalized in annual action plans.(55) Strategies include prevention; prosecution; protection and assistance; development of policy and promotion mechanisms; and development and management of information.(57)|
|National Child and Youth Development Plan (2012-2016)*||Main principles include (1) the enforcement and implementation of the National Child and Youth Development Promotion Act of 2007 and relevant laws; (2) the idea that every child and young person has the right to receive basic education of the highest quality; (3) the notion that children and youth have the right to basic health care services of the highest standard; and (4) the idea that children and youth have the right to play, rest, and participate in recreational activities.(58, 59)|
*The impact of this policy on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
In 2013, the Government of Thailand funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).
|National and Provincial Operation Centers for Providing Assistance to Women and Child Laborers‡||DLPW program that provides assistance to women and child laborers, collects and disseminates information on the worst forms of child labor, and reports their activities to the National Committee.(5)|
|Trafficking victim support services‡||MSDHS' Bureau of Anti-Trafficking in Women and Children program that operates 76 Provincial Operation Centers to provide emergency assistance and protection to human trafficking victims. Nine long-term shelters offer medical care, psychosocial services, education, and life skills education for human trafficking victims.(10, 19, 54) In 2013, government shelters provided services to 681 trafficked victims, including 518 children under the age of 18.(50)|
|Migrant Learning Centers‡*||Government and nonprofit organizations program to provide basic education to children in migrant communities. Government District Education Offices provide guidance and technical support to ensure that children receive a learning assessment and meet qualifications to earn a certificate of completion issued by the Ministry of Education.(10)|
|Combating the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Shrimp and Seafood Processing Areas in Thailand||$9 million USDOL-funded, 4-year project implemented by ILO-IPEC to eliminate child labor in the shrimp and seafood processing industry. Aims to strengthen policy frameworks to protect the rights of Thai and migrant children; assist the shrimp and seafood processing industry to comply with labor laws; and provide education and other services to at-risk children and families in the targeted areas.(1)Targets 7,500 children for the prevention and withdrawal from the worst forms of child labor, and 3,000 households for livelihood services.(1) In 2013, completed and finalized a baseline survey of child labor in the shrimp and seafood processing areas in Samut Sakhon, Songkla, Nakhon Si Thamarat, and Surat Thani.(26) Completed a migrant child labor survey targeting shrimp and seafood processing areas in Samut Sakhon. Piloted and implemented the Good Labor Practices Training Program for factory owners and workers.(60, 61) Worked with two subdistrict governments to institute a pilot for child labor monitoring systems in Samut Sakhon and Songkhla provinces to keep current data on child labor.(2)|
|Project Childhood||$3.67 million UNODC-operated, multiyear project to build the capacity of law enforcement officials in Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam to identify and prosecute child sex offenders.(62, 63)|
|ILO-GMS TRIANGLE Project||Government of Australia-funded, 5-year project implemented by ILO to reduce the exploitation of labor migrants through increased legal and safe migration and improved labor protection. Includes six participating countries in the Greater Mekong Sub-region.(64) In 2013, surveyed fishermen in four provinces in the east and south of Thailand and found that 5.5 percent of fishermen were younger than age 18. Worked with the Ministry of Labor to develop a labor inspection training module that focused on child labor, forced labor, human trafficking, and migrant worker protection.(2, 65)|
|One-Stop Crisis Center (OSCC) 1300 Hotline||MSDHS program that focuses on teenage pregnancy, human trafficking, child labor, and violence against children, women, the elderly, and persons with disabilities. In 2013, OSCC was upgraded and centralized under MSDHS; it created a standardized referral system and coordination process with specialists from the MOL, the Ministry of Public Health, and the RTP.(2, 41) Operators who spoke foreign languages were not yet hired in 2013; enough information is not yet available that measures the effectiveness of the new OSCC hotline to recognize, identify, report, and refer child exploitation victims.(2) From June 9, 2013 to January 13, 2014, the OSCC 1300 hotline received 3,500 calls regarding incidents of violence against children, women, and the elderly (1,604); social problems, such as homeless or missing persons (1,366); teenage mothers (316); human trafficking (197); and child labor (17). (50)|
*The impact of this program on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
‡Program is funded by the Government of Thailand.
During the reporting period, various government agencies contributed to awareness raising about child labor. In 2013, the DLPW trained 10,578 children and youth with a special emphasis on the worst forms of child labor; and reached out to 154,170 people in rural areas to raise awareness on child labor, including its worst forms, and demonstrated how to report cases to the DLPW.(2, 42) The agency also developed a briefing pamphlet to explain the LPA ministerial regulation on domestic workers in migrant languages with the inclusion of a sample of standard employment contracts for domestic workers, and tasked provincial offices with the collection of information on domestic workers in each province.(2) The Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives and the Office of the Cane and Sugar Board, under the Ministry of Industry, conducted a series of awareness-raising events to eliminate the use of child labor and promote the sound management of chemical use among sugarcane producers and manufacturers.(2, 66) The Ministry of Interior instructed provincial social workers to increase efforts to facilitate the provision of day care for children of workers during sugarcane cutting season and during school breaks.(2, 42, 66) The Ministry of Education instructed local education offices to monitor the use of child labor and publicize information on hazardous child labor to parents and communities.(2, 42)
Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Thailand (Table 9).
|Area||Suggested Action||Year(s) Suggested|
|Laws||Clarify the maximum number of hours that children age 13 to 15 may work in the agricultural sector.||2011 - 2013|
|Clarify the minimum age for working on fishing boats to conform with the list of hazardous occupations for children and to international standards.||2013|
|Amend legislation to protect child domestics from working an excessive number of hours.||2012 - 2013|
|Develop legislation to include specific provisions, protection, and penalties on all aspects of child pornography.||2013|
|Enforcement||Increase the number of labor inspectors in order to adequately enforce labor laws in all workplaces covered by the law.||2013|
|Apply penalties to violators of child labor laws that adhere to the penalties proscribed by law.||2013|
|Provide labor inspectors with the capacity to communicate in migrant or ethnic minority languages useful for labor inspections.||2009 - 2013|
|Remove administrative barriers that impede inspections of home-based businesses.||2013|
|Improve mechanisms for labor complaints that workers can easily access to report labor law violations, particularly in remote areas and in the informal sector, including in shrimp and seafood processing.||2012 - 2013|
|Government Policies||Assess the impact that existing policies may have on addressing child labor.||2013|
|Social Programs||Take steps to eliminate barriers and make education accessible for all children, including ethnic minorities and migrants, in Thailand.||2012 - 2013|
|Raise awareness of migrant children's right to education among migrant families and local government officials.||2012 - 2013|
|Initiate a national child labor survey.||2009 - 2013|
|Ensure that national reporting and statistics on child labor include children working on the streets and migrant children.||2012 - 2013|
|Assess the impact that existing programs may have on addressing child labor.||2013|
3. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed February 10, 2014]; http://www.uis.unesco.org/Pages/default.aspx?SPSLanguage=EN . Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.
4. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, 2005-06. Analysis received February 13, 2014. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.
9. Jaranya Wongprom, Thanjak Yenbamrung, Niramon Srithongchai, Nisit Sakayapan, and Moontri Sawai. Assessing the Situation of Selected Worst Forums of Child Labour in Udon Thani Province. Bangkok, Research and Development Institute, Khon Kaen University, supported by IPEC; June 2006.
11. ILO. The Mekong Challenge: Working Day and Night. Bangkok, ILO Asia and the Pacific; 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/bangkok/child/trafficking/downloads/workingdayandnight-english.pdf.
12. U.S. Department of State. "Thailand," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper.
14. Catsoulis, J. "Portrait of the Sad Life of Child Boxers in Thailand." New York Times, New York, November 13, 2012; Movie Reviews. http://movies.nytimes.com/2012/11/14/movies/buffalo-girls-on-thailands-child-boxing-circuit.html?_r=0.
15. Malm, S. "Blood, sweat and tears: Muay Thai child fighters battle against each other to become the next generation of champions." dailymail.co.ok [online] July 8, 2012 [cited May 20, 2013]; http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2170513/Blood-sweat-tears-Muay-Thai-child-fighters-battle-generation-champions.html.
16. Walker, C. "As Gamblers Gather, Thailand's child Boxers Slug It Out." NPR.org [online] May 14, 2013 [cited May 17, 2013]; http://www.npr.org/blogs/parallels/2013/05/06/181647462/As-Gamblers-Gather-Thailands-Child-Boxers-Slug-It-Out.
17. Karlinsky, N. "Thailand's Child Boxers Compete in Brutal Fights for Money, Better Future." abcnews.go.com [online] January 21, 2014 [cited April 15, 2014]; http://abcnews.go.com/International/thailands-child-boxers-compete-brutal-fights-money-future/story?id=21613303&singlePage=true.
22. Integrated Regional Information Networks. "Thailand: Children Trafficked to Sell Flowers and Beg." IRINnews.org [online] June 4, 2012 [cited October 24, 2012]; http://www.irinnews.org/Report/95566/THAILAND-Children-trafficked-to-sell-flowers-and-beg
24. Mekong Sub-regional Project to Combat Trafficking in Children and Women. The Mekong Challenge - Underpaid, Overworked and Overlooked: The realities of young migrant workers in Thailand. Bangkok, ILO; 2006. http://natlex.ilo.ch/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/documents/publication/wcms_bk_pb_67_en.pdf.
26. ILO-IPEC. Baseline Surveys on Child Labour in Selected Areas in Thailand. Bangkok; September 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/documents/publication/wcms_222568.pdf.
28. Campbell, C. "Savage Escalation Threatened in Thailand's Southern Insurgency." Time, (May 22, 2013); http://world.time.com/2013/05/22/savage-escalation-threatened-in-thailands-southern-insurgency/.
38. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of The Kingdom of Thailand. Thailand Ratifies UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC) and Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime . Press Release. Bangkok; October 21, 2013. http://www.mfa.go.th/main/en/media-center/14/40175-Thailand-Ratifies-UN-Convention-against-Transnatio.html.
39. Office of the National Economic and Social Development Board. Thailand's Social Development in Q4/2013 and the Year 2013. Bangkok; February 24, 2014. http://www.nesdb.go.th/temp_social/data/SocialPressEngQ4-2014.pdf.
41. Government of Thailand. Significant Operations on the Elimination of Worst Forms of Child Labour in 2013. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (December 11, 2013) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Bangkok; March 5, 2014.
42. Government of Thailand. Translated answers to U.S. Department of Labor Questionnaire. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (December 11, 2013) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Bangkok; March 5, 2014.
43. ILO. Thailand: new Ministerial Regulation offers better protection of domestic workers' rights. Geneva; 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---travail/documents/publication/wcms_208703.pdf.
57. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 8 of the Convention: List of Issues: Thailand. Geneva; January 20, 2012. Report No. CRC/C/OPAC/THA/Q/1. http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G12/403/09/PDF/G1240309.pdf?OpenElement.
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66. Government of Thailand. The Actions of the Concerned Parties to Solve the Problem of Child Labour and Forced Labour in the Shrimp, Garment, Sugar Cane, and Fish Products in Thailand in 2013 . Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (December 11, 2013) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Bangkok; March 5, 2014.
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