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2012 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

In 2012, the United Republic of Tanzania made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government launched the National Costed Plan of Action for Most Vulnerable Children II (2013-17), which includes plans to provide social services to vulnerable children, including child laborers. The Government also expanded the Tanzania Social Action Fund conditional cash transfer program, which demonstrated an increase in school enrollment and a decrease in child labor. Despite these efforts, an updated and comprehensive list of hazardous work activities prohibited for children has not been implemented in either the mainland or Zanzibar. Gaps remain in laws regulating light work for children 12-14 and children engaging in illicit activities. Children continue to engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in dangerous activities in agriculture and fishing.

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Prevalence and Sectoral Distribution of the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The United Republic of Tanzania (Tanzania) includes mainland Tanzania and the semi-autonomous archipelago of Zanzibar. Children in Tanzania are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, many of them in dangerous activities in agriculture and fishing. In mainland Tanzania, children cultivate coffee, sisal, tea, and tobacco.(3) In Zanzibar, they work in the production of cloves.(3-5) Children working in agriculture may use dangerous tools, carry heavy loads, and apply harmful pesticides.(6) Although evidence is limited, reports indicate that children are involved in the production of rice and sugarcane.(3, 7-16) Children, especially boys, care for livestock.(14, 17-19) Along the Tanzania-Kenya border, Tanzanian children are found working as cattle herders.(20) Children herding livestock may suffer injuries from being bitten, butted, gored, or trampled by animals.(21)

Children in Tanzania are engaged in fishing, including for Nile perch.(6, 22-24) They are susceptible to diseases from standing water and heat exposure and to injury from being entangled in nets and cleaning fish with sharp tools.(9, 22, 25) Children in fishing camps are also vulnerable to sexual exploitation.

Children work in artisanal mines and stone quarries.(26) They carry heavy loads and use dangerous tools to crush stones. They also work close to dynamite and in dusty conditions and suffer from diarrhea, typhoid, and other water-borne diseases.(25) Children mining gold and Tanzanite work without safety gear and are exposed to crime, drugs, and alcohol in mining zones.(27, 28) Some children are also found in commercial sexual exploitation in mining camps.(27) Although extent of the problem is unknown, children in Tanzania reportedly make gravel and may use sharp tools to cut stones.(29) Although information is limited, there are reports that children work in the manufacturing, construction, and transportation sectors.(16)

Girls are commonly employed as domestic servants.(6, 30-32) They are sometimes forced to work long hours and may be subjected to physical and sexual abuse. Girls fleeing abusive households may be vulnerable to commercial sexual exploitation.(30, 33)

Some children in Tanzania work on the streets.(7, 15, 23, 31, 34) In Tanzania, children working on the streets are vulnerable to severe weather, traffic accidents, and crime.(23, 25, 35) In urban areas, they may sustain injuries from scavenging for scrap metal and other items to sell. Children selling food and other items in the streets are vulnerable to attacks from petty thieves.(7, 23, 31, 34). Some children may be forced by adults to beg or commit crimes. Children working as porters in markets are reportedly beaten, deprived of food, and shoulder goods over long distances.(35) Children in urban areas, primarily boys, work in informal garages and are exposed to dust, oil, grease, paint, and other substances that affect their skin and respiratory systems.(25)

In Zanzibar, children work long hours in the tourism industry as guides, street vendors, and hotel cleaners. Girls employed as cleaners have been used for commercial sexual exploitation.(5, 9, 30, 31, 33) Children in mainland Tanzania are also exploited in the sex industry within tourism areas along the Indian Ocean beach hotels.(36, 37) Girls involved in commercial sexual exploitation are vulnerable to sexual assaults.(18) They may also work as barmaids, serving alcohol until late at night and sometimes falling into commercial sexual exploitation.(23, 38)

In urban areas, children affected by HIV/AIDS are at increased risk of entering into the worst forms of child labor. These children may become the heads of their households or primary caretakers to a sick parent and work to supplement household income.(25)

Trafficking for forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation is a problem in Tanzania, which particularly affects poor rural children trafficked internally. (3, 31, 33, 38, 39) Some Tanzanian girls are coerced into commercial sexual exploitation in tourist areas and are forced into domestic work and childcare.(33, 40) Children are trafficked for domestic service and sex work in surrounding countries, Europe, and the Middle East.(25, 33) Children from Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda are trafficked to Tanzania including for fishing, domestic servitude, agricultural labor, and sexual exploitation, which includes commercial sexual exploitation in brothels.(33)



Laws and Regulations on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Tanzania’s Constitution stipulates which laws apply across the entire United Republic; labor laws are not among them. Therefore, mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar have separate legal regimes governing child labor.(41-43)

Mainland Tanzania is subject to Employment and Labor Relations Act No. 6 2004, whichprohibits the employment of children younger than age 14, except in the case of light work, and prohibits children younger than age 18 from working in dangerous environments. The law also establishes criminal penalties for anyone using illegal child labor or forced labor.(42, 44) The law does not include clear provisions regulating light work for children ages 12-14.(45)

The Child Act of 2009 harmonizes all laws of mainland Tanzania pertaining to children.(29, 46, 47) The Act prohibits the employment of children in exploitative labor in the formal and informal sectors and prohibits forced child labor, children working in hazardous work, and the sexual exploitation of children.(31, 47) The act defines exploitative work as that which deprives a child of his or her health or development, exceeds 6 hours a day, and/or is inappropriate to his or her age. The act includes an incomplete list of hazardous activities from which children in mainland Tanzania are prohibited.(48)

Zanzibar is subject to Zanzibar Employment Act No. 11 2005, which prohibits the employment of children under 17, except in the case of domestic work. The law also prohibits the employment of children younger than 18 in hazardous sectors; however, it does not include a list of hazardous work activities prohibited for children.(5, 44) The Zanzibar Children’s Act of 2011 prohibits child labor and any work that would inhibit a child’s ability to attend school.(17) The law is similar to mainland Tanzania’s Child Act of 2009; however, no information was available on its implementation.

The Government maintains a list of hazardous types of work activities in both mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar, which includes fishing and other work identified in the country’s most recent integrated labor force survey.(3, 29) However, the list has not been published in the government gazette or placed into law, as it is still pending the confirmation and signature by Ministry of Labor officials.(49-51)

The Sexual Offences and Provisions Act of 1998, which applies to mainland Tanzania, includes penalties for procuring a child younger than age 18 for sexual abuse, indecent exhibition, or sexual intercourse.(52, 53) The mainland Tanzania Penal Code also prohibits knowingly living off the earnings of prostitution and sets forth penalties for doing so.(54) The Penal Code of Zanzibar includes provisions relating to the worst forms of child labor.(5) Tanzanian law does not prohibit or establish penalties for the use of children for illicit activities, including the production and trafficking of drugs.(48)

The Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2008 is applicable to both mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar.(31, 33) The law covers all aspects of trafficking in persons and considers trafficking of children to be “severe trafficking,” a criminal offense with heavier penalties than those for adult trafficking.(55) Compulsory recruitment of children younger than age 18 years to the military is prohibited by law.(56) Tanzania has a voluntary recruitment age of 18, though children ages 16 and 17 may volunteer with the consent of parents, guardians, or, if orphaned, that of the local district commissioner.(56) The law does not stipulate any restrictions on children ages 16 and 17 engaging in combat and therefore, it is unclear whether this law is in compliance with the provisions of ILO Convention 182.

By law, education in both the mainland and Zanzibar is compulsory for children until the age of 15.(57) However, students or their parents are required to contribute money to cover school feeding programs as well as the construction of classrooms and provision of teachers’ houses.(58, 59) These requirements may prevent some children from attending school. Corporal punishment in schools is lawful in Tanzania, and reports indicated that violence in schools may increase dropouts.(25, 60)

In addition to mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar’s legal frameworks on child labor, some districts have incorporated restrictions against child labor into their local by-laws.(31, 61)



Institutional Mechanisms for Coordination and Enforcement

The Prime Minister’s Office—Regional Administration and Local Government (PMORALG) oversees the National Intersectoral Committee on Child Labor, which coordinates action to bring attention to child labor issues and strengthen local structures to eliminate child labor. Committee members include government ministries and NGOs.(31) The committee met once during the reporting period to circulate child labor policies and collect regional and district-level data on the prevalence of child labor. Twenty-three District Child Labor Committees are active at the district level.(16)

In mainland Tanzania, the Ministry of Labor and Employment (Ministry of Labor) is responsible for the enforcement of child labor laws. As the lead agency on child labor issues, the Ministry of Labor works closely with the Ministry of Community Development, Gender, and Children; the Ministry of Home Affairs; the Ministry of Education; the Ministry of Agriculture; and the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, as well as with PMORALG.(24, 30) The Ministry of Labor maintains a separate Child Labor Unit, which is responsible for enforcement of child labor laws at the national level.(16) During the reporting period, the Unit initiated three cases of criminal charges related to violations of child labor law.(16) No information was available on the Unit’s budget during the reporting period. The Ministry also created the position of child labor commissioner, however, the position remained vacant during the reporting period.(24)

In 2012, the Ministry of Labor issued its annual labor administration and inspection report, which included data on the number of children identified and withdrawn from the worst forms of child labor, primarily from agricultural activities on tobacco farms.(16, 62) The report also summarized the Ministry’s efforts to raise public-awareness. Inspectors conducted 2,401 labor inspections, issued 147 compliance orders, and brought 15 cases to court.(62) However, the number of child labor inspections conducted and violations found were not reported.

In addition to labor inspectors, the Ministry of Labor has a total of 71 labor officers in mainland Tanzania.(16, 17) Ministry of Labor regulations dictate that one or more labor officers must be assigned to each region. As of the writing of this report, labor officers were not assigned to four regions in Tanzania.(16, 31, 63) The Ministry of Community Development, Gender, and Children and the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare are responsible for the district-government-employed community development officers and social welfare officers who monitor child labor at the district and village levels and report findings to PMORALG.(24, 30)

Zanzibar’s Ministry of Labor, Economic Empowerment and Cooperatives is responsible for enforcing the archipelago’s child labor laws.(30, 63) The Labor Commission, under the Ministry of Labor, Economic Empowerment and Cooperatives, is responsible for matters related to labor inspections.(63) Information on the number of labor inspectors in Zanzibar was unavailable. The Ministry of Social Welfare and Youth Development in Zanzibar is responsible for all child protection issues and has created a separate Child Protection Unit.(30) In some districts, the police, social welfare and education officers, magistrates, and health workers improved child protection systems to expedite processing cases related to children.(64) Information is not available on the effectiveness and prevalence of these systems in the country.

In both the mainland and Zanzibar, the police investigate cases of child labor reported to police stations, and in some cases, refer them to labor officers or solicit the assistance of social welfare officers.(7, 30) Child labor cases are usually resolved by district courts, and children engaged in exploitative labor are referred to social welfare officers for services and support. The distance and cost of traveling to district courts may deter rural inhabitants from taking complaints to them.(7) Regulations passed in Zanzibar this year include a provision to establish the Zanzibar Dispute Handling Unit to mediate labor disputes in a similar fashion to the mainland Commission for Mediation and Arbitration.(17) However, no information is available on when the unit will be fully operational. Information was not available on whether any child labor cases were taken up in Zanzibar during the reporting period.

The Anti-Trafficking Secretariat and Committee is responsible for promoting, defining, and coordinating policy to prevent trafficking.(55) The Secretariat produced Tanzania’s National Anti-Trafficking in Persons Action Plan.(49) The Secretariat has not received a budgetary allocation for its assigned task to support anti‑trafficking efforts.(17, 30) The Ministry of Home Affairs is responsible for the enforcement of anti-trafficking laws. The Interpol Office of Transnational Crimes within the police force includes the position of an officer responsible for trafficking.(30) Focal points to handle child victims of trafficking are assigned in every police station.(45) The police also have an independent trafficking desk.(30, 43) New police officers, investigators, and prosecutors receive training on child labor and human trafficking.(17, 30) However, training is reportedly inadequate, as many police remain unaware of child labor laws and anti-trafficking laws. Information on whether trainings had been provided in 2012 is unavailable.(17) Child trafficking cases can be reported through the Interpol Office and NGO hotlines.(30, 31) The police anti-trafficking desk reported initiating one investigation involving child trafficking and confirmed two prosecutions in 2012. No convictions for child trafficking were reported.(16)



Government Policies on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor for Mainland Tanzania (2009) names key stakeholders and ministries responsible for child labor interventions.(38) It proposes strategies for poverty alleviation, child labor monitoring and child protection. It also calls for capacity building for child labor law enforcement and evaluation of efforts to combat the worst forms of child labor.(17, 30) Zanzibar also has a National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor (2009).(5) The plan authorizes the Zanzibar Child Labor Steering Committee, chaired by the Permanent Secretary of the Chief Minister’s Office and composed of key officials from various implementing agencies responsible for child labor, to provide policy guidance on the national action plan. The Zanzibar Steering Committee exchanges information with the National Intersectoral Coordinating Committee in mainland Tanzania.(5, 30) District labor officers oversee the implementation of the national action plans in individual districts within mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar in partnership with education officers, social welfare officers, and women and child welfare officers.(5) The Government of Tanzania signed an MOU with the Government of Brazil to develop an implementation plan for the National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor.(17, 65) Efforts to implement the plan have been stalled due to lack of funding.(16)

The National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty II contains provisions for improving literacy rates, promoting schooling for out-of-school children, promoting children’s rights, and providing social protection interventions to assist vulnerable populations, which may include families of working children.(66) The Zanzibar Strategy for Growth and Poverty Reduction (2010-15) includes a number of specific activities to reduce child labor, including providing support for the rehabilitation and reintegration of children withdrawn from labor into the education system. It encourages district officials to adapt simple versions of child labor educational materials, establishes district-level child labor regulations, and strengthens the system for inspection and enforcement of child labor laws.(5, 67) There is no information on whether these activities have been budgeted or implemented. These poverty reduction plans are meant to contribute to the Government of Tanzania’s National Development Vision of 2025.(5, 68)

A number of other government policies target child labor. The National Costed Plan of Action for Most Vulnerable Children II (2013-17) was officially launched during the reporting period. (69, 70) The plan, which includes child laborers among the most vulnerable children, aims to provide children with access to adequate care, support, protection, and basic social services.(69, 70) The National Employment Policy of 2007 requires the Government and partners to provide child labor guidelines and programs; the United Republic of Tanzania Child Development Policy has a goal of eliminating the worst forms of child labor; and the Zanzibar Child Protection Policy supports the Government’s commitment to the Convention on the Rights of the Child. In addition, the National Social Protection Framework identifies child labor as a coping mechanism for families with economic risks and proposes strategies to improve sustainable livelihoods.(71-74)

Children involved in or at risk of becoming involved in child labor are identified by the Most Vulnerable Children Committees, which operate at the ward and village levels.(43) Child labor committees also exist in some districts.(31) Districts are guided by the District Framework for Interventions on Child Labor in Tanzania, which outlines a strategic approach for district-based action against child labor.(29) Districts integrate child labor into individual district development plans and budgets, and many do this by promoting enrollment and retention of children in basic education and targeting vulnerable households in poverty reduction initiatives.(29)

The Ministry of Community Development, Gender, and Children developed a National Plan of Action to Respond to Violence against Children, which assigns responsibilities to various government agencies to address the problem and gives Most Vulnerable Children Committees, Council Multi-Sectoral AIDS Committees, and District Child Protection Teams the responsibility of implementing the plan at the local level.(25, 35) Information on the Ministry’s 2010 Plan of Action to Combat Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children is not available.

The Primary Education Development Plan (PEDP) and the PRSP eliminated primary school fees in Tanzania.(52, 55, 75, 76) However, additional school-related costs increase the risk of children’s involvement in the worst forms of child labor.

The Government has focused on training as a means to address child labor and developed a number of policies and institutions to support this effort. The Zanzibar Vocational Education and Training Policy (2005) promotes government and private job training and preparation for youth.(77) A Ministry of Education-managed alternative education program assists adults and children who have dropped out of school. The mainland Tanzania Complimentary Basic Education and Training program targets child laborers and provides child labor components in its curricula.(10) The Vocational Education and Training Authority offers skills and entrepreneurship training to rural populations and incorporates child labor targets.(5, 77-79) In 2012, the Government launched the third phase of PEDP, PEDP III, which includes the Ministry of Labor as a member of the Education Sector Development Program Inter-Ministerial Steering Committee. While PEDP III and the Secondary Education Development Program (SEDP) contribute to increased enrollments in schools, there was no mention of child labor in these plans.(65, 80) PEDP III and SEDP were launched in 2012 and their impact on child labor issues has not yet been assessed.



Social Programs to Eliminate or Prevent the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government supports the 4-year, USDOL-funded, $10 million WEKEZA project, which began in December 2012.(16, 81) The project supports children and youth “at-risk” or engaged in child labor in the Tanga and Kigoma regions, including those in domestic service and commercial agriculture, and especially those working in the sisal and tobacco sectors. The project targets 8,000 children and 3,360 households with education and livelihood services.(81)

The Government continues to implement the 2025 Timebound Program on the Elimination of Child Labor and, with ILO assistance, has prioritized child labor in Tanzania’s Decent Work Country Program.(17)

Tanzania is also partnering with other UN agencies to address child labor. The UNICEF-supported Common Country Program (2011-15) recognizes child labor as a barrier to education and targets efforts towards achieving universal primary education in Tanzania.(82). The Government also teams with UNICEF to address the issue of violence against children, which may impact child laborers.(83) Government efforts to provide a secure and sustainable social protection system are supported by the One UN Program.

The Government supports a number of NGO-implemented programs to combat child labor. These programs include the PROSPER program, funded by the ECLT Foundation, which addresses forces that fuel child labor and strengthens local and national structures to achieve child-free tobacco production in target districts.(17, 51, 84) The Government also supports the provision of income generating activities, education materials, and other social services as a part of the Jali Watoto program.(17, 85) The Government provides logistical support to Fighting Child Labor in Zanzibar and Eradicating the Worst Forms of Labor in the Eight Mining Wards of Geita District, two EU-funded projects. (16) The Government also supported the Women Empowerment in Zanzibar program, which withdrew children from child labor and put them in school. The program ended in January 2012.(86, 87)

At the regional and policy levels, the Government of Tanzania participates in the East African Police Chiefs Cooperation Organization to strengthen regional cooperation and capacities among East African law enforcement authorities.(88) The Regional Program for East Africa covers 13 countries, including Tanzania and is funded with $38 million from the UNODC and other funding partners. The Program includes activities that support increased coordination in combating human trafficking.(88)

The Government has promoted nationwide enrollment in basic education, which involves community mobilization and increased budgetary allocations to local administrators to ensure that enrollment covers children from poor, vulnerable families.(89) The National Economic Empowerment Fund and Zanzibar Empowerment Fund support poverty reduction efforts at the regional and district levels, channeled through government and financial institutions in rural areas. The question of whether the Government’s basic education program and National Economic Empowerment Fund have an impact on the worst forms of child labor does not appear to have been addressed.(29, 90) The Tanzania Social Action Fund provides grants and a conditional cash transfer program (CCT) to vulnerable populations, including children. During the reporting period, reports demonstrated an increase in child school enrolment as a result of the CCT.(63) CCT recipients in the Chamwino District reported an increase in school attendance and household savings and a decline in child labor.(91) Despite these reports, a formal study on the impact of this program on the worst forms of child labor has not been conducted.

The Government of Tanzania contributes funds to the East African Regional Training Academy for immigration officials, which provides instruction in anti-trafficking efforts.(48, 92) The Government signed an MOU with the IOM to further increase Government capacity to attend to the needs of victims of trafficking.(93)

The Government has not built on 2010 USDOL-funded efforts to address child labor in the fishing sector.



Based on the reporting above, the following actions would advance the elimination of the worst forms of child labor in Tanzania:

Area

Suggested Actions

Year(s) Action Recommended

Laws and Regulations

Finalize and implement the hazardous list of work activities in Tanzania, which includes hazards in fishing and other dangerous activities identified by the Government.

2011, 2012

Clarify whether the minimum age for military recruitment meets the standards established in ILO Convention 182.

2011, 2012

Establish laws and regulations to control corporal punishment in schools across the country.

2012

Establish penalties for the use of children for illicit activities, including the production and trafficking of drugs.

2012

Coordination and Enforcement

Make available information on child trafficking violations and prosecutions in mainland Tanzania and in Zanzibar.

2010, 2011, 2012

Conduct regular meetings of the National Intersectoral Child Labor Committee and Anti-Trafficking Secretariat and Committee and develop concrete goals for the committees to work towards.

2011, 2012

Encourage Zanzibari labor officers to use their new authority to prosecute labor cases in order to identify and prosecute child labor cases.

2011, 2012

Establish and assess the effectiveness of child protection systems.

2012

Provide the number of inspections, violations of laws, and citations related to child labor, including the number of child labor cases prosecuted in Zanzibar.

2012

Policies

Ensure that child labor activities in the Zanzibar Strategy for Growth and Poverty Reduction are budgeted for and implemented and that information on the activities is made available.

2010, 2011, 2012

Ensure that the Plan of Action to Combat Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children is implemented and information on its activities made available.

2010, 2011, 2012

Assess the impact of all relevant policies on the worst forms of child labor.

2010, 2011, 2012

Coordinate efforts to address the worst forms of child labor through implementation and full funding of the National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor and ensure that the National Plan of Action to Respond to Violence Against Children is implemented and coordinate national- and district-level activities in support of this plan.

2011, 2012

Ensure child labor is integrated into PEDP III and SEDP, and study the impact of the programs on the prevalence of child labor.

2012

Social Programs

Develop concrete programs to build on past USDOL-funded projects to withdraw and prevent children from engagement in hazardous labor, especially where present in the fishing sector.

2010, 2011, 2012

Assess the impact that the Government’s basic education programs, the Tanzania Social Action Fund and National Empowerment Fund, have on addressing the worst forms of child labor.

2011, 2012



1. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total.; accessed February 4, 2013; http://www.uis.unesco.org/Pages/default.aspx?SPSLanguage=EN. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

2. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. February 5, 2013. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

3. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. reporting, January 30, 2009.

4. Dassu S. "Tanzania: Child Labour Declining on Slow Pace- ILO." allAfrica.com [online] June 1, 2010 [cited January 22, 2013]; http://allafrica.com/stories/printable/201006011164.html.

5. Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar- Ministry of Labour, Youth, Women and Children Development. National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labour 2009-2015. Zanzibar; 2009. http://bit.ly/ysboUl

6. International Labour Office. Children in hazardous work: What we know, What we need to do. Geneva, International Labour Organization; 2011. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/---publ/documents/publication/wcms_155428.pdf. While country-specific information on the dangers children face in agriculture is not available, research studies and other reports have documented the dangerous nature of tasks in agriculture and their accompanying occupational exposures, injuries and potential health consequences to children working in the sector.

7. Government of Tanzania- Ministry of Labour, Employment, Youth Development. Review on Enforcement of Child Labour Legislation in Ten Selected Districts in Tanzania. Dar Es Salaam; 2009. [hardcopy on file].

8. AllAfrica.com. "Tanzania: Tobacco Sub-Sector Advocates Cooperation and Correct Information." allAfrica.com [online] June 10, 2010 [cited March 21, 2011]; http://allafrica.com/stories/201006101117.html.

9. Basic Education Coalition. "Too Much Work, Too Little School." International Basic Education Update- Tanzania, (2010); http://www.basiced.org/wp-content/uploads/Newsletter/2010/April_16_2010_update.pdf.

10. ILO-IPEC. Support for the Time-Bound Programme on the Worst Forms of Child Labour- Phase II. Technical Progress Report; September 2008. [hardcopy on file].

11. Yusuf I. "Tanzania: Child Labour May Need Another Definition in Zanzibar." allafrica.com [online] April 25, 2012 [cited February 4, 2013]; http://allafrica.com/stories/201204250239.html.

12. Yusuf I. "Tanzania: Pemba Needs New Ways to Fight Child Labour." allafrica.com [online] October 17, 2012 [cited February 4, 2013]; http://allafrica.com/stories/201210170233.html?viewall=1.

13. Care. Annual Narrative Report (January-December 2009): Women Empowerment in Zanzibar (WEZA). Dar Es Salaam; October 17, 2010. http://expert.care.at/uploads/media/TZA058_CARE_InterimReport_2009.pdf.

14. Mwita SP. "Tanzania: War On Child Labour Remains Sticky." Tanzania Daily News, Dar Es Salaam, October 25, 2011. http://allafrica.com/stories/201110170410.html.

15. Save the Children. Fighting Child Labour in Zanzibar, Description of the Action- Part A, Concept Note. Technical Progress Report. Zanzibar; September 2008. [hardcopy on file].

16. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. reporting, January 29, 2013.

17. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. reporting, January 24, 2012.

18. Mwita SP. "Tanzania: War on Child Labour Remains Sticky." allAfrica.com [online] October 15, 2011 [cited January 22, 2013]; http://allafrica.com/stories/201110170410.html.

19. Government of Tanzania. Key Findings on Child Labour in Tanzania: Based on the Analysis of Findings of the Integrated Labour Force Survey, 2006 Dar es Salaam; January 2009. [hardcopy on file].

20. Afrol News. "Nairobi, Dar es Salaam attracting trafficked children." afrol.com [online] October 12, 2010 [cited January 22, 2013]; http://afrol.com/articles/36758.

21. International Labour Office. Livestock Production, International Labour Organization, [online] January 31, 2012 [cited November 2, 2012]; http://www.ilo.org/ipec/areas/Agriculture/WCMS_172431/lang--en/index.htm.

22. USDOL. List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor 2012 Report Required by the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (Sources). Washington, DC; September 2012. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/reports/pdf/2012TVPRA.pdf.

23. Mugarula F. "Joint Action Needed on Plight of Street Children." The Citizen, Dar Es Salaam, 2011. http://allafrica.com/stories/201107181737.html.

24. U.S. Department of State. Tanzania. In: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2012. Washington, D.C.; April 19, 2013; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2012&dlid=204176.

25. UNICEF. Cities and Children: The Challenge of Urbansation in Tanzania. Dar es Salaam; 2012. http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/files/Cities_and_Children_-_FINAL.pdf.

26. ILO-IPEC. Girls in mining: Research finding from Ghana, Niger, Peru and the United Republic of Tanzania. Geneva; 2007. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/gender/docs/RES/539/F181278003/Girls%20in%20Mining.pdf

27. ILO-IPEC. Children in hazardous work: What we know, what we need to do. Geneva; 2011. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/---publ/documents/publication/wcms_155428.pdf

28. "Activists Free Mererani Kids From Dreadful Labour." Arusha Times, Arusha, May 29, 2010. http://allafrica.com/stories/201005310967.html.

29. ILO-IPEC. Support for the Time-Bound Programme on the Worst Forms of Child Labour- Phase II. Technical Progress Report; March 2010. [hardcopy on file].

30. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. reporting, January 28, 2011.

31. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. reporting, February 9, 2010.

32. Klocker N. "Negotiating change: working with children and their employers to transform child domestic work in Iringa, Tanzania." Children's Geographies, 9(2):205-220 (2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14733285.2011.562381.

33. U.S. Department of State. Tanzania. In: Trafficking in Persons Report- 2011. Washington, DC; June 27, 2011; http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2011/index.htm.

34. UNESCO. From Street Child to Star Pupil, UNESCO, [online] [cited May 4, 2013]; http://bit.ly/wej2Xa

35. "Market Turning Into Child Labour Camp." Arusha Times, Arusha, 2008. http://allafrica.com/stories/200807210907.html.

36. UN Human Rights Council Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review. Summary prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights in accordance with paragraph 15 (c) of the annex to Human Rights Council resolution 5/1. Geneva; October 3-14, 2011. http://daccess-ods.un.org/TMP/326694.846153259.html.

37. U.S. Department of State. Tanzania. In: Trafficking in Persons Report- 2012. Washington, D.C.; June 19, 2012; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/192598.pdf.

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