2013 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor
In 2013, the United Republic of Tanzania made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government finalized its list of hazardous child labor and hired 10 additional labor officers; trained police officers, investigators, and prosecutors on child labor and human trafficking; and established 14 district child labor committees. The Government also continued to support programs on the elimination of child labor. However, children in Tanzania continue to engage in child labor in agriculture and mining. Gaps remain in laws regulating the voluntary military recruitment of children and children's engagement in illicit activities.
Children in Tanzania are engaged in child labor in agriculture and mining.(1-8) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Tanzania.
|Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):||25.1 (3,157,442)|
|School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):||74.1|
|Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):||21.6|
|Primary completion rate (%):||80.8|
Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2012, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2014. (9 )
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from National Panel Survey, 2010-2011 .(10)
Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.
|Agriculture||Cultivation of coffee, sisal, tea, tobacco, and cloves (6, 11-14)|
|Ploughing, weeding, harvesting, and processing crops (7)|
|Seaweed farming*† (1, 15)|
|Production of sugarcane*† (8)|
|Livestock herding,* including tending cattle* (7, 16, 17)|
|Fishing,* including for Nile perch (4-6, 11, 18)|
|Industry||Quarrying stone,* and breaking rocks to produce gravel* (1, 6, 8, 15, 18, 19)|
|Mining,†including gold and tanzanite (7, 8, 20-25)|
|Manufacturing* (7, 8)|
|Construction,*† including carrying bricks,†bricklaying, and assisting masons (7, 8, 26)|
|Services||Domestic service, including child care, cooking, and washing (6, 7, 13, 27-30)|
|Work on the streets, including vending, shoe shining, petty business, portering, and scavenging (7, 27, 31-35)|
|Work in the tourism industry*† as guides, vendors, and hotel cleaners† (1)|
|Work as barmaids* (32, 36)|
|Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡||Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking (4, 7)|
|Forced begging* (34)|
|Forced labor in domestic service, agriculture, mining, fishing, commercial trading, quarrying, shoe shining, pushing carts, and working in factories, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (4, 37-40)|
*Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
†Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a) - (c) of ILO C. 182.
Tanzania is a source, transit, and destination country for child trafficking.(1, 4) Trafficking of children for forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation is a problem in Tanzania, which particularly affects children trafficked internally.(4, 39) Trafficking often involves family members, friends, or brokers, who promise rural families jobs or assistance with education for their children in the urban areas of Arusha, Dar es Salaam, and Mwanza.(39) Children are trafficked for domestic service, and girls are trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation, including along the Kenya-Tanzania border and in touristic areas in the country.(6, 37, 39, 40) Children from Burundi, Uganda, Rwanda, and the Democratic Republic of Congo are trafficked to Tanzania for mining, domestic work, and agricultural labor.(4, 37,41, 42)
Tanzania has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).
|ILO C. 138, Minimum Age||✅|
|ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor||✅|
|UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict||✅|
|UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography||✅|
|Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons||✅|
The Government has established relevant laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).
|Minimum Age for Work||Yes Yes||14 17 18||Article 5 of the Employment and Labor Relations Act No. 6 of 2004; Article 77 of the Law of the Child Act of 2009 (43, 44)|
|Articles 116 and 117 of the Zanzibar Labor Act of 1997; Article 7 of the Zanzibar Employment Act No. 11 of 2005; Article 2 and 99 of the Zanzibar Children's Act of 2011 (45-47)|
|Minimum Age for Hazardous Work||Yes||18||Article 5 of the Employment and Labor Relations Act No. 6 of 2004; Article 82 of the Law of the Child Act of 2009; Article 8 of the Zanzibar Employment Act No. 11 of 2005; Article 100 of the of the Zanzibar Children's Act of 2011 (43,44,46, 47)|
|List of Hazardous Occupations Prohibited for Children||Yes||Article 5 of the Employment and Labor Relations Act No. 6 of 2004; Article 82 of the Law of the Child Act of 2009; Article 8 of the Zanzibar Employment Act No. 11 of 2005 ; Article 100 of the of the Zanzibar Children's Act of 2011 ; List of Hazards (8, 43, 44,46, 47)|
|Prohibition of Forced Labor||Yes||Article 25 of the Constitution; Article 80 of Article 82 of the Law of the Child Act of 2009; Article 6 of the Employment and Labor Relations Act No. 6 of 2004; Article 102 of the of the Zanzibar Children's Act of 2011; Article 5 of the Zanzibar Employment Act No. 11 of 2005 (43, 44, 46-48)|
|Prohibition of Child Trafficking||Yes||Article 4 of the Anti-trafficking in Persons Act of 2008 (49)|
|Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children||Yes||Article 138b of the Sexual Offences Special Provisions Act of 1998; Article 155 Penal Code of Zanzibar; Article 110 of the Zanzibar Children's Act of 2011; Article 83 of the Law of the Child Act of 2009 (44,47, 50)|
|Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities||Yes||Article 53 of the Zanzibar Children's Act of 2011 (47)|
|Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment||N/A*|
|Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service||Yes||18||Article 29 of the National Defense Act of 1966 (51)|
|Compulsory Education Age||Yes||15||Article 35 of the National Education Act of 1978 (52)|
|Free Public Education||Yes||Education Sector Development Program 2012-2016, Primary Education Development Plan (2002-2006) (53, 54)|
*No conscription or no standing military.
During the reporting period, Tanzania's Constitution was under review.(2) As part of their constitutional review, district governments recommended incorporating child labor issues into the Constitution.(2)
Tanzania's Constitution stipulates which laws apply across the entire United Republic; labor laws are not included.(48, 55) Therefore, mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar have separate legislation governing child labor.(1) In addition to mainland Tanzania's and Zanzibar's legal frameworks on child labor, some districts have incorporated restrictions against child labor into their local by-laws.(13, 20, 56)
Because mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar have different labor laws, each has a different minimum age for work and laws governing hazardous labor.(43,44, 46-48, 51) Zanzibar has two different minimum ages for work. Article 100 of the Zanzibar Children's Act of 2011 prohibits children under age 18 from working, while the Zanzibar Employment Act and Act 116 of the Zanzibar Labor Act of 2007 stipulate age 17 as the minimum age for work.(45-47) In contrast, the minimum age for work on mainland Tanzania is 14.(43, 44)
While the Constitution and mainland Employment and Labor Relations Act, Law of the Child Act of 2009, Zanzibar Children's Act of 2011, and Zanzibar Employment Act No. 11 of 2005 prohibit forced labor, the National Defense Act and the Constitution include exceptions for forced labor through compulsory national service.(43,45-48, 51) The Zanzibar Employment Act permits children in Zanzibar under the minimum working age to engage in domestic work. However, the mainland law does not explicitly prohibit child domestic work.(43, 46)
While Zanzibar clearly stipulates the prohibition of the use of children for illicit activities, mainland Tanzania does not.(46, 47) The mainland law does not clearly provide penalties for using children for illicit activities, including the production and trafficking of drugs. During the reporting period, the Government finalized its list of hazardous work, which applies to mainland Tanzania.(8, 57)
Although Tanzania's age for voluntary military recruitment is 18, children under 18 years of age may volunteer with the consent of parents, guardians, or, if orphaned, that of the local district commission.(51, 58, 59) The law does not stipulate any restrictions on children under age 18 engaging in combat, and, therefore, it is unclear whether this law complies with the provisions of ILO C. 182.
While primary education is free, students or their parents are required to contribute money to pay for books, school feeding programs, the construction of classrooms, and the provision of teachers' houses.(6, 8, 60) In addition, corporal punishment in schools is lawful in Tanzania and, while information is limited, data have shown that the use of corporal punishment by teachers may increase dropouts.(18, 61-64) Furthermore, some children may lack birth registration, which makes it difficult for them to access education and health and other social services.(23, 28, 48, 65) As a result of HIV/AIDS, some children must work for survival; thus, they become head of household and are unable to attend school.(28, 57)
The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).
|Ministry of Labor and Employment (MOLE) (mainland)- Child Labor Unit||Enforce child labor laws at the national level.(1, 6)|
|MOLE (mainland)- Labor Administration and Inspection Section||Coordinate labor inspections carried out by the area offices and prepare, review, and recommend guidelines on labor inspection services and compliance with labor legislation. Provide legal guidance upon request; disseminate information to employers and employees on their rights and obligations; and assist area offices in conducting labor inspections.(66)|
|MOLE (mainland)- Labor Officers||Inspect locales for suspected violations of child labor laws.(1) Assigned to each region of Tanzania. Respond to reports of child labor violations, issue noncompliance orders, and report incidents to local police authorities and other responsible ministries.(1) Accept complaints about violations of child labor law.(1)|
|Ministry of Community Development, Gender and Children||Enforce child protection laws and regulations and employ community development officers to monitor child labor at the district and village levels and report findings to the Regional Administration and Local Government (PMORALG). (2, 16) Coordinate all children issues through the Child Development Policy of 2008. Key advocate for the primary education agenda at the community level.(67)|
|Ministry of Health and Social Welfare||Implement, monitor, and evaluate health and social welfare policies, including those related to children.(68) Support vulnerable groups of children through the National Costed Action Plan for most vulnerable children.(67, 68) Employ Social Welfare Officers at the district level who monitor child labor at the district and village levels and report findings to the PMORALG.(69)|
|Ministry of Labor, Economic Empowerment and Cooperatives- Labor Commission (Zanzibar)||Enforce Zanzibar's child labor laws and administer provisions of the Zanzibar Labor Act, including inspections.(1, 13, 26) Investigate reports of child labor reported by police and refer cases to social welfare officers for support.(1, 13, 45, 66)|
|Ministry of Social Welfare and Youth Development (Zanzibar)-Child Protection Unit||Ensure compliance with child protection laws, including child labor.(68)|
|Police (mainland)||Include a trafficking desk and investigate cases of child labor reported to police stations, and in some cases, refer them to labor officers or solicit the assistance of social welfare officers. Include Gender and Children's desks to handle cases related to children.(13, 39, 70)|
|Police (Zanzibar)||Investigate and compile reports of incidents of child abuse, child labor, trafficking, rape, and other forms of child endangerment.(13, 39)|
|INTERPOL Criminal Investigation Department- INTERPOL National Central Bureau for Tanzania||Investigate various priority crimes, including trafficking in human beings and illegal immigration. Headed by a Commissioner of Police, staffed by 23 police officers, and includes focal points responsible for trafficking.(13, 71)|
|Ministry of Home Affairs (mainland)||Enforce anti-trafficking laws, including child trafficking.(13)|
|Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (Zanzibar)||Enforce anti-trafficking laws, including child trafficking.(13)|
Law enforcement agencies in Tanzania took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.
Labor Law Enforcement
The Ministry of Labor and Employment (MOLE) regulations dictate that one or more labor officers be assigned to each region; however, Geita, Kagera, Katavi, Simiyu regions did not have a dedicated labor officer during the reporting period.(1) In 2013, the mainland MOLE hired 10 labor officers and employed 81 officers by the end of 2013.(1, 7) Eighty percent of the newly hired labor officers were stationed in the field, where child labor is more prevalent.(1) On the mainland, 3,092 labor inspections were conducted during the reporting year.(1, 7) Inspections were carried out in establishments covering the agriculture, mining, domestic service, hotels, trade, industry and commerce, construction, and fishing sectors.(7) Of the establishments inspected, 10 were found to be using children in their operations.(7) Information on the number of citations and penalties issued was not found. In Zanzibar, 240 labor inspections were conducted in 2013.(1) In some instances, cases are not pursued because of the cost of legal expenses; poor families, especially in rural areas, are often unable to pay for legal fees and transportation to participate in court hearings. Research did not find the number of child labor violations that resulted from the 240 labor inspections conducted in Zanzibar.
Budget figures for the Child Labor Unit on the mainland and Zanzibar were unavailable for 2013.(1) There is a lack of sufficient resources to thoroughly investigate reports of child labor, and the Child Labor Unit sometimes request support from NGOs to conduct field visits.(1)
Criminal Law Enforcement
Of the trafficking in persons cases reported in 2013, three resulted in convictions; the other two were dismissed due to a lack of victims' testimony, evidence, and/or witnesses.(39) It is unclear whether these cases involved children.(39)
The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).
|Coordinating Body||Role & Description|
|National Intersectoral Committee on Child Labor (NISCC)||Oversee interagency child labor policy coordination, provide guidance on the overall implementation of child labor activities, and strengthen local structures' capacity to address child labor.(7, 36) Chaired by the Prime Minister's Office-PMORALG, members include the Ministries of Labor, Community Development, Gender and Children, and Health and Social Welfare, as well as NGOs.(1, 7, 27)|
|Anti-Trafficking Secretariat and Committee||Promote, define, and coordinate policy to prevent trafficking.(4, 39, 49)|
|Regional Task Force on Human Trafficking and Illegal Immigration||Maintain a list of service providers to which trafficking victims can be referred. Launched in 2013 in cooperation with IOM.(38, 72, 73)|
|District Child Labor Committees||Coordinate and oversee the implementation of efforts to eliminate child labor at the district level. Members include the District Executive Director, Officer Commanding District, District Community Development Office, District Education Officer, District Medical Officer, Social Welfare Officer, District Trade Officer, Legal Officer, Cooperative Officer, Planning Officer, representatives from regional affiliations, and representatives from NGOs and community-based organizations that deal with child labor.(2, 7) There were 14 district child labor committees during the reporting period.(7)|
|Village Child Labor Committee||Coordinate and oversee efforts related to child labor at the village level.(7)|
|Zanzibar Child Labor Steering Committee||Coordinate various implementing agencies responsible for child labor. Provide policy guidance on the Zanzibar National Action Plan to Combat Child Labor (NAP). Exchange information with the mainland Tanzania NISCC.(13)|
|Most Vulnerable Children Committees||Identify children involved in or at risk of becoming involved in child labor at the ward and village levels and refer children to social services.(2, 68)|
|Multi-sector Task Force on Violence Against Children||Implement the 3-year National Plan to Prevent and Respond to Violence Against Children and enforce the Law of the Child Act.(63, 74)|
The National Intersectoral Committee on Child Labor (NISCC) met once during the reporting period. This meeting was insufficient to deal with the scope of the child labor problem in Tanzania.(39)
In 2013, the Anti-Trafficking Secretariat and Anti-Trafficking Committee met four times to draft and review regulations and standard operating procedures required for implementation of the 2008 Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act.(39)
The Government of Tanzania has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).
|National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor for Mainland Tanzania (2009)||Names key stakeholders and ministries responsible for child labor; proposes strategies for poverty alleviation, child labor monitoring, and child protection. Calls for capacity building for child labor law enforcement and evaluation efforts to combat the worst forms of child labor.(36, 75)|
|Zanzibar National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor (2009)||Authorizes the Zanzibar Child Labor Steering Committee to provide policy guidance on child labor.(76)|
|National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty II (2011-2015)/MKUKUTA II*||Includes provisions for improving literacy rates, promoting schooling for out-of-school children, promoting children's rights, and providing social protection interventions to assist vulnerable populations, which may include families of working children. Eliminates primary school fees in Tanzania.(28, 77) Contributes to Tanzania's National Development Vision of 2025, which includes the issue of child labor.(78)|
|Zanzibar Strategy for Growth and Poverty Reduction II (2010-2015)/MKUZA II||Includes a number of specific activities to reduce child labor. Provides support for the rehabilitation and reintegration of children withdrawn from labor into the education system. Encourages district officials to incorporate simple versions of child labor into educational materials, establishes district-level child labor regulations, and strengthens the system for inspection and enforcement of child labor laws.(79) Contributes to Tanzania's National Development Vision of 2025, which includes the issue of child labor.(78)|
|National Costed Plan of Action for Most Vulnerable Children II (2013-2017)†||Includes child laborers among the most vulnerable children and aims to provide children with access to adequate care, support, protection, and basic social services.(57, 68, 75)|
|National Employment Policy (2007)||Requires the Government and partners to provide child labor guidelines and programs.(80)|
|Child Development Policy (2008)||Includes strategies for eliminating the worst forms of child labor.(75, 81)|
|Zanzibar Child Survival and Development Policy (2001)*||Supports the Government's commitment to the Convention on the Rights of the Child.(82)|
|National Social Protection Framework||Identifies child labor as a coping mechanism for families with economic risks and proposes strategies to improve sustainable livelihoods.(83)|
|National Plan of Action to Respond to Violence against Children*||Assigns responsibilities to various government agencies to address the issue of violence against children and gives Most Vulnerable Children Committees, Council Multi-Sectoral AIDS Committees, and District Child Protection Teams the responsibility of implementing the plan at the local level.(63, 84)|
|Primary Education Development Plan III (2012-2016) (PEDP III)*||Increases equitable access to pre-primary and primary education, raises the quality of education to ensure better learning outcomes for children, and addresses the root causes for school dropouts such as poor school infrastructure and violence in schools.(54, 75, 85)|
|Zanzibar Education Development Plan (ZEDP) 2008-2015*||Provides education and vocational education strategy to prepare children for the future workforce.(86)|
|Zanzibar Vocational Education and Training Policy (2005)*||Promotes government and private job training and preparation for youth.(87)|
|Tanzania Complimentary Basic Education and Training Program||Targets child laborers and provides child labor components in its curricula.(2, 75)|
|Vocational Education and Training Authority training program||Offers skills and entrepreneurship training to rural populations and incorporates child labor targets.(2)|
|Secondary Education Development Program II (2010-2015) (SEDP II)*||Contributes to increased enrollment, reduced dropouts, and improved learning in secondary schools.(88, 89)|
|United National Development Assistance Program (2011-2015)||Provides a secure and sustainable social protection system and addresses child labor.(90)|
|Decent Work Country Program (2013-2016)†||Identifies, with support from the ILO, four objectives of Decent Work: creating jobs; guaranteeing rights at work; extending social protection; and promoting social dialogue. Includes, as an outcome, improving the enabling environment for the elimination of child labor and its worst forms.(91, 92)|
|Common Country Program (2011-2015)||Recognizes child labor as a barrier to education and targets efforts towards achieving universal primary education in Tanzania.(93, 94)|
Zanzibar Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (2010-2015)
|Includes specific interventions to address child labor, such as building the capacity of key actors such as teachers and parents, child labor district officials, and community service organizations.(79)|
|District Framework for Interventions on Child Labor in Tanzania||Guides district government in strategic approaches for district-based action against child labor.(3) Districts integrate child labor into individual district development plans and budgets, many by promoting enrollment and retention of children in basic education and targeting vulnerable households in poverty reduction initiatives.(3)|
|Plan of Action to Combat Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children||Includes priorities and objectives to strengthen and support the capacity of families to protect and care for commercial sex victims and vulnerable children; mobilizes and strengthens community-based responses for care, support and protection of commercial sex victims and vulnerable children; ensures that legislation and policy strategies and programs are in place to protect commercial sex victims and other vulnerable children; and raises awareness and advocates for a conducive environment for vulnerable children.(63) The Plan was finalized but not adopted by Cabinet due to a lack of budgetary resources.(71)|
*The impact of this policy on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
†Policy was launched during the reporting period.
Information was not available on the amount of funding budgeted towards the implementation of the National Action Plans for the Elimination of Child Labor in mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar.
In 2013, the Government of Tanzania funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).
|WEKEZA project||USDOL-funded, 4-year project implemented by the International Rescue Committee that supports children and youth "at-risk" or engaged in child labor in the Tanga and Kigoma regions, including those in domestic service and commercial agriculture in the sisal and tobacco sectors. Targets 8,000 children and 3,360 households with education and livelihood services. The Government sits on the WEKEZA national project advisory council.(2) In 2013, the Government contributed to a WEKEZA study that reported an increase in child school enrollment and a reduction in forced child migration and child labor as a result of the Tanzania Social Action Fund Conditional Cash Transfer. In one case, a child was brought back home so his family could get more cash from the program.(2) The study also revealed that some children are still engaged in child labor in order to purchase food.(95)|
|Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (MAP)†||USDOL-funded, 4-year research project implemented by the ILO and active in 10 countries, including Tanzania. Aims to increase the knowledge base around child labor by collecting new data, analyzing existing data, and building capacity to conduct research in this area.(96)|
|Expanding the Evidence Base and Reinforcing Policy Research for Scaling Up and Accelerating Action Against Child Labor||$3.5 million USDOL-funded, 4-year global project implemented by the ILO that includes Tanzania and supports the implementation of a National Child Labor Survey.(97)|
|2025 Timebound Program on the Elimination of Child Labor||Provides a plan to eliminate the worst forms of child labor in Tanzania by 2025 and facilitates the formation of child labor committees at the district and regional levels.(98)|
|Food for Education program*||WFP-funded program that improves school attendance through support of community-led school meal initiatives and provision of daily school lunch to 700,000 primary school children in 1,167 schools in 16 drought-prone and food-insecure districts.(99) Constructs rainwater harvesting tanks to help schools access water for cooking and hygiene. In 2013, the program supported establishing 10 school gardens in northern Tanzania.(100)|
|Supporting the Establishment, Assistance and Referral Mechanisms for Child Victims of Trafficking in Tanzania†||$1.4 million EU/UNDAP-funded, 3-year project that promotes structured measures at local and national level to eradicate child trafficking in Tanzania, including by developing standardized medical and psychological tools, setting up two shelters for child victims of trafficking in Arusha and Mwanza, and providing vocational skills training and medical and psychosocial care for child victims of trafficking.(101)|
|Supporting the implementation of the National Action Plan for the Elimination of Worst Forms of Child Labor in Tanzania (NAP)||$280,800 Government of Brazil-funded, 2-year project that supports the implementation of the NAP.(102)|
|Promotiing Sustainable Practices to Eradicate Child Labor in Tobacco (PROSPER program||$4.75 million Eliminating Child Labor in Tobacco Growing (ECLT) Foundation-funded, 4-year project implemented by Winrock International that targets 7,800 children and aims to reduce child labor in Tanzania's tobacco industry through targeted interventions to address social and economic factors that fuel child labor in the target districts of Urambo and Sikonge. Strengthens local and national structures to achieve child-free tobacco production in target districts.(103, 104)|
|Child Domestic Worker program||$15,000 Anti-Slavery-funded project that provides small grants to child domestic workers, develops data on the health impacts of child domestic work, and advocates for legal reform.(105, 106) Local government leaders, religious leaders, community volunteers, and community groups build their capacity to address issues affecting child domestic workers.|
|Towards a Decent Life for Children, Youth and their Families in the Mining Sector II†||DANIDA-funded project that targets 243 boys and girls in Mirerani for withdrawal from child labor in mining. Also enrolls these children in primary or secondary education and provides women with income generating opportunities.(107)|
|Fighting Child Labor in Zanzibar project||$1.4 million EU-funded, 3-year project that targets 5,000 children for withdrawal from child labor in nine districts in Unguja and Pemba. Pilots a multi-sectoral strategy to protect children from worst forms of child labor through strengthening national and local policies, frameworks, strategies, and institutions.(31, 108)|
|Child Labor Projects||Terre des Hommes-funded projects support the elimination of child labor, including the $148,000 2-year, Support for Vulnerable Children and Child Laborers project; 2-year, $128,000 CWCA Fight against Child Abuse and Exploitation project; 2-year, $646,000 Community Empowerment for Elimination of Child Sexual Exploitation project; 2-year, $362,000 St. Anthony Vocational Training for Child Laborers and Orphans project; and $274,000 2-year Child Labor Project/Tuwawezeshe Watoto project. Provide legal aid clinics and community awareness activities for the prevention of child abuse, child labor, and child rights and provide child rights training in which the police, judiciary, social welfare and paralegal officers participate. Also withdraw victims from commercial sexual exploitation, stone quarries, fishing, child domestic work and mining through the provision of child-friendly services, including shelter, counseling, education, entrepreneurship skills, and vocational training alternatives.(109, 110)|
|Support Programme for Child Domestic Workers/Wote Sawa||$975,000 Terres des Hommes/Anti-Slavery International/MamaCash-funded program that withdraws and trains child domestic workers, and establishes child domestic worker committees in Mwanza.(105, 110, 111) Empowers child domestic workers to advocate collectively for their rights, including through reporting cases of mistreatment to the local authorities. Advocates for the passage of ILO C. 189.|
|Eradicating the Worst Forms of Labor in the Eight Mining Wards of Geita District||$ 1.1 million EU-funded, 3-year project that enhances social protection mechanisms for communities in order to prevent child labor and improves awareness of child labor among children, parents, and mining employers.(20, 108)|
|Tanzania Social Action Fund‡conditional cash transfer program (TASAF CCT)||Government program that provides grants and a conditional cash transfer program (CCT) to vulnerable populations, including children.(2, 112, 113) The Government contributed to a USDOL-funded study implemented by the WEKEZA project that reported an increase in child school enrollment and a reduction in forced child migration and child labor as a result of the TASAF CCT.|
|Education Fund†*||Government program that supports the improvement of quality, equity, and increasing access to education at all levels in mainland Tanzania and higher education in Tanzania and Zanzibar.(114)|
|Child Labor Campaign‡||Government program that conducted a child labor sensitization campaign in 14 districts in August 2013.(2)|
|Big Results Now initiative*||Government program to improve the quality and availability of education. Supports teacher training, provision of learning materials, and school incentive grants to high performing schools, and includes efforts to construct schools, particularly at secondary level. However, due to constraints on resources for school construction, the Government has also encouraged communities to build and run their own schools while providing teachers and capitation grants once schools are established.(115)|
*The impact of this program on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
†Program was launched during the reporting period.
‡Program is funded by the Government of Tanzania.
Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Tanzania (Table 9).
|Area||Suggested Action||Year(s) Suggested|
|Laws & Regulations||Clarify whether the minimum age for military recruitment meets the standards established in ILO C. 182.||2011 - 2013|
|Adopt legislation that prohibits the use of children used for illicit activities on mainland Tanzania.||2013|
|Establish penalties for the use of children for illicit activities, including the production and trafficking of drugs.||2012 - 2013|
|Ensure laws protect children in domestic work.||2013|
|Enforcement||Provide the number of inspections, violations of laws, and citations related to child labor, including the number of child labor cases prosecuted in Zanzibar.||2012 - 2013|
|Provide legal aid and other assistance to help poor families access the judicial system.||2011 - 2013|
|Appoint a dedicated labor officer to each region.||2013|
|Provide budget figures for child labor activities within the Ministries of Labor on mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar.||2013|
|Provide adequate resources to conduct child labor inspections.||2013|
|Collect and publish disaggregated data on child trafficking cases, including number investigations, prosecutions, penalties, and convictions.||2013|
|Coordination||Conduct regular meetings of the National Intersectoral Child Labor Committee and develop concrete goals for the committee.||2011 - 2013|
|Government Policies||Assess the impact that existing social and education policies may have on addressing child labor, including its worst forms.||2011 - 2013|
|Ensure that the Plan of Action to Combat Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children is approved and implemented, and that information on its activities is made available.||2013|
|Coordinate national- and district-level activities and provide full funding for government policies, including the National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor and the National Plan of Action to Respond to Violence Against Children.||2010 - 2013|
|Social Programs||Assess the impact that existing social programs may have on addressing child labor, including its worst forms.||2012 - 2013|
|Provide assistance to families to help them address barriers to education, such as corporal punishment, lack of birth registration, and lack of resources to pay school costs, including school meals.||2010 - 2013|
5. Basic Education Coalition. "Too Much Work, Too Little School." International Basic Education Update- Tanzania, (2010); http://www.basiced.org/wp-content/uploads/Newsletter/2010/April_16_2010_update.pdf.
6. U.S. Department of State. "Tanzania," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2013&dlid=220169.
9. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed February 10, 2014]; http://www.uis.unesco.org/Pages/default.aspx?SPSLanguage=EN . Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.
10. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from National Panel Survey, 2010-2011. Analysis received February 13, 2014. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.
11. USDOL. List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor 2013 Report Required by the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act. Washington, DC; 2013. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/reports/child-labor/list-of-goods/.
12. Dassu, S. "Tanzania: Child Labour Declining on Slow Pace- ILO." allAfrica.com [previously online] June 1, 2010 [cited January 22, 2013]; http://allafrica.com/stories/printable/201006011164.html [source on file].
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