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Sri Lanka

2014 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Moderate Advancement

In 2013, Sri Lanka made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government reactivated its National Steering Committee (NSC) on child labor; launched a project to create a child labor free district by 2016 which will serve as a model to be replicated in all 25 districts; and assisted in the formation of 755 Child Protection Committees in schools across the country in part to prevent trafficking of children. It also implemented an innovative, fully automated Labor Inspection System Application that supports on-site inspection processes. However, children in Sri Lanka continue to engage in child labor in agriculture and manufacturing. The Government's enforcement efforts continued to be weak, particularly with regards to hazardous child labor.

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I. Prevalence and Sectoral Distribution of Child Labor

Children in Sri Lanka are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture and in domestic work.(1-4) Table1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Sri Lanka.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

9.2 (302,865)

Working children by sector, ages 5 to 14 (%)

 

Agriculture

67.0

Industry

16.0

Services

17.1

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

97.8

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

10.4

Primary completion rate (%):

96.9

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2012, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(5)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Child Activity Survey, 2008 — 2009.(6)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, activities unknown (2-4, 7)

Fishing* (1, 3, 7)

Industry

Manufacturing,* activities unknown (3, 4)

Mining,† including gem mining* (1, 3, 8, 9)

Construction,* activities unknown (1, 10)

Production of fireworks*† (1)

Services

Domestic work (2, 3)

Transportation,* activities unknown (3, 10)

Street vending and begging (1, 3, 10)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1-4, 11)

Forced labor in domestic work* and begging* each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 2, 12)

Forced labor in farming,* fish-drying,* and fireworks* production (2, 11)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a) — (c) of ILO C. 182.

Children, particularly from former conflict zones and from the northern and southeastern plantations and tea estates, are employed as domestic workers in third-party households in Colombo and in other urban areas.(1, 13) There are reports of children being employed as domestic workers due to debt bondage, and of children from tea estates being trafficked internally to perform domestic work in Colombo, for which their payments are withheld and movements are restricted.(2, 3, 11) Some child domestic workers are subject to physical, sexual, and emotional abuse.(3)

There are reports that children are subjected to bonded and forced labor in farming.(11) Children, predominantly boys, are trafficked internally for commercial sexual exploitation in coastal areas as part of the sex tourism industry.(2, 3, 11) Sri Lankan children who move abroad for employment, primarily to Middle Eastern countries, are vulnerable to forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation.(11)

There is a lack of current data on child labor, particularly in the agricultural sector and in manufacturing; there is also a lack of data on child labor in the Northern Province, which was excluded from the Government's 2008/2009 Child Activity Survey because of civil conflict in the region.(14)

Most children in Sri Lanka have access to basic education.(5) However, barriers to accessing education include difficulties traveling to school in some regions, lack of sanitation and clean water, and an inadequate supply of teachers. This is particularly true in the Northern and Eastern Provinces, which have been affected by the civil conflict that ended in 2009.(15)



II. Legal Framework for the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Sri Lanka has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor, including its worst forms (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Sections 13 and 34 of the Employment of Women, Young Persons, and Children Act (16)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Section 20A of the Employment of Women, Young Persons, and Children Act (16)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Part III, Employment of Women, Young Persons, and Children Act (17)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Section 358A of the Penal Code (18)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Section 360 of the Penal Code (18, 19)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Sections 286 of the Penal Code; Section 360 of the Penal Code (19, 20)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Section 360C of the Penal Code; Section 288B of the Penal Code (18, 20)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Section 2 of the Hazardous Occupations Regulation (17)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

14

Section 43 of the Education Ordinance; Compulsory Attendance of Children at Schools Regulation (21-23)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Section 47 of the Education Ordinance (22)

*No conscription (24)

There are no laws regulating employment in third-party households; thereby children ages 14 to 18 who are employed as domestic workers are vulnerable to exploitation.(13)



III. Enforcement of Laws on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Department of Labor (DOL), Ministry of Labor and Labor Relations (MOLLR)

Enforce child labor laws and receive public complaints of child labor filed in national and district-level offices. Refer cases involving the worst forms of child labor to the police and National Child Protection Authority (NCPA).(25)

Children and Women's Bureau of the Sri Lankan Police (CWBSLP)

Enforce laws on child labor, child trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation of children, and the use of children in illicit activities.(10)

NCPA Police Unit

Inspect any premises, interrogate any person, and seize any property suspected to be involved with child abuse, including unlawful child labor.(10, 26)

Department of Probation and Child Care Services (DPCCS)

Coordinate services for child victims of forced labor, trafficking, and commercial sexual exploitation who have been referred to DPCCS by the police and the court. Refer children to centers that provide shelter, medical and legal services, psychological counseling, and life and vocational skills training.(27-29)

Law enforcement agencies in Sri Lanka took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.

Labor Law Enforcement

The Department of Labor (DOL)'s inspectorate employed 428 officers to enforce all labor laws, including those related to child labor. DOL provided training on legal procedures applying to child labor and hazardous child labor to government officials in districts; it also conducted awareness-raising programs for stakeholders helping to eradicate child labor.(30) More than 400 labor officers received training on the collection of evidence during labor inspections, and training manuals for labor inspectors were translated into the local languages of Sinhala and Tamil.(31)

In 2014, DOL conducted 8,300 labor inspections, which included 200 child labor inspections. No child labor law violations were found during these inspections.(32) During the reporting period, DOL received 133 complaints of child labor, leading to the prosecution of 9 cases. Eight of these cases are pending in court, while one case was finalized with a fine of $750.(32)

During the reporting period, the Ministry of Labor and Labor Relations (MOLLR) implemented the Labor Inspection System Application (LISA) in five of nine provinces. LISA is an automated system in which trained labor inspectors use handheld tablets to input data and record findings during onsite inspections.(31) In thirty district offices, 140 DOL staff members have been trained in operationalizing LISA.(31) Inspectors can use the application to monitor and track specific children and to ensure that they do not return to child labor once they have been identified and removed.(33, 34)

Criminal Law Enforcement

The Children and Women's Bureau of the Sri Lankan Police (CWBSLP) is staffed by 45 officers in 36 of the country's 460 police stations. In police stations without CWBSLP representation, the officer in charge oversees all the functions of the bureau.(10) The National Child Protection Authority Police Unit (NCPA) has approximately 40 police officers who investigate complaints involving children, including child labor. The agency also has approximately 250 child protection officers based in the districts who are tasked with preventing child exploitation and victim protection.(10, 34) In 2014, the Government conducted training programs on combatting trafficking in persons. The Government also approved standard operating procedures for identifying, protecting, and referring human trafficking victims.(12)

In 2014, there were six reported cases and five settled cases involving forced child labor as a result of human trafficking.(32) Information on the number of investigations, prosecutions, and convictions of crimes involving the worst forms of child labor is not available for the reporting period. Both the CWBSLP and the NCPA face a shortage of funds that affects their ability to carry out their mandate.(10)

The Government of Sri Lanka has committed to investigating allegations of previous recruitment and use of children in armed conflict by non-state armed forces. While some recruiters of child soldiers were killed during the conflict, research has found no evidence of prosecutions and convictions of living survivors who had violated the law on children and armed conflict.(35-37)



IV. Coordination of Government Efforts on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

The National Steering Committee on Child Labor

Coordinate the implementation of the Roadmap to End the Worst Forms of Child Labor, the Government's key policy document for the elimination of the worst forms of child labor.(1, 25, 38) Chaired by the Secretary of MOLLR and includes representatives from key government agencies, employer and workers' organizations, ILO, UNICEF, and NGOs.(25)

NCPA

Coordinate and monitor activities related to the protection of children, including activities to combat the worst forms of child labor.(39) Consult with the relevant Government ministries, local governments, employers, and NGOs, and recommend policies and actions to prevent and protect children from abuse and exploitation.(40)

National Anti-Trafficking Task Force (NTF)

Coordinate government anti-trafficking interventions among ministries, departments, law enforcement agencies, and civil society groups. Led by the Ministry of Justice and includes representatives from NCPA, the Sri Lanka Police, Immigration, Foreign Employment Bureau, and civil society groups.(10, 41)



V. Government Policies on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government of Sri Lanka has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).

Table 7. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Sri Lanka's Roadmap 2016 on the Worst Forms of Child Labor
(2011 — 2016)

Specifies timebound goals, including developing and/or strengthening the management, coordination, implementation, resource mobilization, and reporting of programs that will lead to the elimination of the worst forms of child labor by 2016.(1) Provides district-level mainstreaming strategies to address specific sectors of child labor, including armed conflict, plantations, fisheries, and tourism. Outlines strategies to include child labor issues within social protection and education goals.(1)

The National Human Resources and Employment Policy for Sri Lanka

Provides an overarching umbrella framework to several existing national policies related to employment and human resources formulated by different ministries. Sets eliminating child labor in hazardous activities as a priority and a goal of zero tolerance for the worst forms of child labor by 2016.(42)

National Education Sector Development Framework and Program II (ESDFP-II) (2012 — 2016)*

Aims to increase the equitable access, quality, and delivery of education. Supports accelerated learning and nonformal education for dropouts from the formal education system.(43)

National Plan of Action on Anti-Human Trafficking

Plans the implementation of anti-trafficking activities for each member of NTF on an annual basis.(41)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.

The Government has not yet approved the draft National Child Protection Policy. The Policy is intended to ensure effective coordination among all organizations and actors working for the protection and development of children in Sri Lanka; it also outlines key policy recommendations including strengthening and expanding nonformal education opportunities for vulnerable children (including child laborers) in geographic locations with the highest concentrations of vulnerable households. It recommends measures to prevent and eliminate the trafficking of children including through improved detection and identification of traffickers and victims, and to provide greater protections to child victims.(44)

The Government anticipates that the new national child labor policy, drafted by the National Steering Committee on Child Labor with technical assistance from the ILO, will be finalized in 2015.(32) The draft policy aims to end the worst forms of child labor by 2016 through a variety of activities, including effective enforcement of relevant laws and mainstreaming child labor into key development policies and programs.(10)



VI. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

In 2014, the Government of Sri Lanka funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms. The Government has other programs that may have an impact on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Child Labor Free Zone by 2016†

Local government initiatives that seek to eliminate child labor through the identification of children engaged in child labor, a rehabilitation program, assistance to families of children at risk of engaging in child labor, and an awareness-raising campaign. Operated by the District Secretariats with assistance from the MOLLR and with technical and financial support from the ILO.(45) The program was piloted in Ratnapura in 2013, and expanded to Kegalle and Ampara districts in 2014.(45-47)

Shelter for Victims of Human Trafficking

IOM-funded Ministry of Child Development and Women's Affairs (MOCDWA) shelter that provides victims, including children, with safe shelter and access to medical, psychological, and legal assistance. In 2014, MOCDWA and IOM provided training to shelter staff on victim identification, first aid, counseling skills, and security.(12, 48)

Decent Work Country Program (2013 — 2017)

ILO technical assistance project detailing the policies, strategies, and results required to make progress toward the goal of decent work for all. Includes four strategies to reduce the worst forms of child labor: (1)capacity building for mainstreaming worst forms of child labor into sectorial plans and programs, (2)area-based integrated approach within districts, (3)strengthening institutional mechanisms for improved coordination and monitoring, and (4)development of a knowledge base for tracking progress.(49)

UN Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) (2013 — 2017)

Agreement pegging UN assistance to Sri Lanka's long-term development priorities with the goal of sustainable and inclusive economic growth with equitable access to quality social services, strengthened human capabilities, and reconciliation for lasting peace. Stipulates that UN agencies will support national efforts to strengthen justice for children and achieve the goal of zero tolerance of the worst forms of child labor, including the trafficking of children for exploitative employment.(50)

Transforming School Education*

A $100 million WB-financed, 5-year education project to support the ESDFP. Objectives include promoting access to primary and secondary education, improving the quality of education, and strengthening governance and delivery of education services.(51) Appoints school attendance committees to promote school enrollment and attendance; runs school nutrition and health programs.(25)

New Beginnings for Children Affected by Conflict and Violence*

USAID-funded project implemented by Save the Children and DPCCS. Objectives include improving care and protection for children, and strengthening child protection mechanisms.(52)

* The impact of this program on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
† Program was launched during the reporting period.
‡ Program is funded by the Government of Sri Lanka.



VII. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Sri Lanka (Table 9).

Table 9. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ratify the Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons.

2013 — 2014

Ensure that the legal framework includes protections for children engaged in domestic work.

2010 — 2014

Enforcement

Publish information on the number of investigations, prosecutions, and convictions of crimes involving the worst forms of child labor.

2014

Provide additional funding for the police and the NCPA to adequately investigate forced labor, child trafficking, and the commercial sexual exploitation of children.

2011 — 2014

Prosecute individuals who have violated laws related to children's exploitation in the armed conflict.

2009 — 2014

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into existing education policies.

2014

Social Programs

Conduct research on child labor in the Northern Province and on the specific activities carried out by children working in farming, manufacturing, construction, and transportation sectors.

2011 — 2014

Eliminate barriers to education, including uneven distribution of schools, inadequate facilities, and problems with teacher deployment and training.

2012 — 2014

Assess the impact that existing programs may have on child labor.

2014



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2.International Trade Union Confederation. Internationally Recognised Core Labour Standards in Sri Lanka: Report for the WTO General Council Review of the Trade Policies of Sri Lanka. Geneva; November 3 and 5, 2010. http://www.ituc-csi.org/IMG/pdf/Sri_Lanka_WTO_Report_2010.pdf.

3.U.S. Department of State. "Sri Lanka," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper.

4.ILO Committee of Experts. Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labor convention, 1999 (No. 182) Sri Lanka (ratification: 2001) Published 2014; accessed March 12, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:20010:0::NO:::.

5.UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed February 4, 2013] http://www.uis.unesco.org/pages/default.aspx?SPSLanguage=EN. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

6.UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Child Activity Survey, 2008-2009. Analysis received February 13, 2014. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more iniformation on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

7.ILO-IPEC. Mainstreaming Child Labour Issues in Key Development Policies and Programmes- Sri Lanka: Report of a Preliminary Review. Geneva; December 2010. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/download.do?type=document&id=18675.

8.ucanews.com reporters. "Education key to ending child labor in Sri Lanka's gem mines." Union of Catholic Asian News, Bangkok, October 18, 2013. http://www.ucanews.com/news/education-key-to-ending-child-labor-in-sri-lankas-gem-mines/69505.

9.U.S. Embassy- Colombo. reporting, February 11, 2014.

10.U.S. Embassy- Colombo. reporting, February 27, 2014.

11.U.S. Department of State. "Sri Lanka," in Trafficking in Persons Report - 2014. Washington, DC; 2014; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/226848.pdf

12.U.S. Embassy- Colombo. reporting, March 23, 2015.

13.Salary.lk. Domestic Work in Sri Lanka, Wage Indicator Foundation, [online] [cited February 14, 2014]; http://www.salary.lk/home/labour-law/domestic-work-in-sri-lanka.

14.Government of Sri Lanka Department of Census and Statistics. Child Activity Survey 2008/2009. Colombo; August 1, 2011. http://www.statistics.gov.lk/samplesurvey/CAS200809FinalReport.pdf.

15.UNICEF Sri Lanka. Out-of-School Children in Sri Lanka: Country Study. Colombo; February 2013. http://www.unicef.org/srilanka/2013_OSS.pdf.

16.Government of Sri Lanka. Employment of Women, Young Persons and Children Act, No. 47 of 1956, enacted August 17, 2010.
http://www.labourdept.gov.lk/web/images/PDF_upload/hazardous/gazatte_en.pdf.

17.Government of Sri Lanka. Hazardous Occupations Regulations, 2010, No. 47, enacted August 17, 2010. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.details?p_lang=en&p_country=LKA&p_classification=04&p_origin=COUNTRY&p_sortby=SORTBY_COUNTRY.

18.Government of Sri Lanka. Penal Code, Amended 2006, No. 16, enacted April 24, 2006. http://www.oecd.org/site/adboecdanti-corruptioninitiative/46817262.pdf.

19.Government of Sri Lanka. Penal Code, Amended 1995, No. 22, enacted October 31, 1995. http://hrcsl.lk/PFF/LIbrary_Domestic_Laws/Legislations_related_to_Women/Penal%20code%20(Amendment%20)Act%20No%2025%20of%201995.pdf.

20.Government of Sri Lanka. Penal Code, Amended 1998, No. 29, enacted June 4, 1998. http://documents.gov.lk/Acts/1998/Act%20No.%2029/ACT%2029E.pdf.

21.UNESCO. World Data on Education; 2010. http://stats.uis.unesco.org/unesco/TableViewer/tableView.aspx?ReportID=163.

22.Government of Sri Lanka. Education Ordinance, enacted 1939. http://www.commonlii.org/lk/legis/consol_act/e381147.pdf.

23.Government of Sri Lanka. Compulsory Attendance of Children at School Regulation No. 1 of 1997, enacted 1997.

24.Government of Sri Lanka. Army Act, enacted http://www.defence.lk/main_pub.asp?fname=armyact.

25.U.S. Embassy- Colombo. reporting, March 13, 2013.

26.Sri Lanka. National Child Protection Authority Act, No. 50 of 1998, enacted 1998. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/52618/65161/E98LKA01.htm.

27.U.S. Embassy- Colombo. reporting, March 7, 2013.

28.Department of Probation and Child Care Services. Counselling Centre, [online] March 5, 2013 [cited 2013];
http://www.probation.gov.lk/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=50&Itemid=37&lang=en.

29.U.S. Department of State. "Sri Lanka," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2012. Washington, DC; June 19, 2012; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/192597.pdf.

30.U.S. Embassy- Colombo official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 3, 2015.

31.ILO. Promoting Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work in Sri Lanka. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; September 30, 2014.

32.Government of Sri Lanka. US Department of Labor's Findings of Child Labor and Forced Labor Information on Sri Lanka. Washington, DC; February 27, 2015.

33.ILO. Promoting Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work in Sri Lanka. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; January 31, 2014.

34.U.S. Embassy- Colombo official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 23, 2014.

35.Lanka Standard. "Sri Lanka Faces Impatience in US Over Rights Record." lankastandard.com [online] May 19, 2012 [cited May 23, 2012]; www.lankastandard.com/2012/05/sri-lanka-faces-impatience-in-us-over-rights-record/.

36.UN Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict. Children and Armed Conflict: Sri Lanka, UN Security Council [online ] April 26, 2012 [cited April 2, 2013]; http://childrenandarmedconflict.un.org/countries/sri-lanka/.

37.Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Promoting reconciliation and accountability in Sri Lanka; February 24, 2014. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session25/Documents/A-HRC-25-23_AEV.doc.

38.Government of Sri Lanka. US Department of Labor's Findings of Child Labor and Forced Labor Information on Sri Lanka Washington, DC; February 1, 2013.

39.U.S. Department of State. "Sri Lanka " in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2012 Washington, DC; April 19, 2013; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2012&dlid=204411.

40.National Child Protection Authority. Functions of the NCPA, Child Protection, [online] 2010 [cited July 16, 2010]; http://www.childprotection.gov.lk/about-us/functions-of-the-national-child-protection-authority/.

41.U.S. Embassy- Colombo. reporting, March 3, 2014.

42.Government of Sri Lanka. The National Human Resources and Employment Policy for Sri Lanka. Colombo; 2012. http://www.nhrep.gov.lk/images/pdf/nhrep_final.pdf.

43.Government of Sri Lanka Ministry of Education. Education Sector Development Framework and Programme - II (ESDFP-II): 2012-2016. Colombo; 2012.
http://www.moe.gov.lk/web/images/stories/branchnews/planning/tsep_esmf_2011.pdf.

44.Government of Sri Lanka. National Child Protection Policy. Draft. Colombo; October 2013. http://www.childprotection.gov.lk/documents/National%20Child%20Protection%20Policy%20-%20final%20-%202013.10.4.pdf.

45.ILO. Ratnapura - a Child Labour Free Zone by 2016. Press Release. Colombo; June 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/---ilo-colombo/documents/pressrelease/wcms_229824.pdf.

46.Bandara. "Kegalle District declared a child labour free zone." Daily FT, Dhaka, June 23 2014. http://www.ft.lk/2014/06/23/kegalle-district-declared-a-child-labour-free-zone/.

47.Admin. "Sri Lanka to end child labour by 2016." Colombo Gazetter, Colombo, August 14 2014.
http://colombogazette.com/2014/08/14/sri-lanka-to-end-child-labour-by-2016/.

48.International Organization for Migration. Sri Lanka to Open First Government Shelter for Women Victims of Human Trafficking, IOM, [online] December 11, 2012 [cited March 10, 2014];
http://www.iom.int/cms/en/sites/iom/home/news-and-views/press-briefing-notes/pbn-2012/pbn-listing/sri-lanka-to-open-first-governme.html.

49.ILO. Decent Work Country Programme 2013-2017. Project Document. Colombo; May 2013. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/program/dwcp/download/srilanka.pdf.

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51.The World Bank. Transforming the School Educaiton System as the Foundation of a Knowledge Hub. Colombo; 2011. http://www.worldbank.org/projects/P113488/transforming-school-education-foundation-knowledge-hub?lang=en.

52.Jayasooriya, C. A Capacity Assessment of Village Child Rights Monitoring Committees in Sri Lanka Supported by Save the Children. Colombo; March 2013. http://mhpss.net/wp-content/uploads/group-documents/49/1365570125-CapacityAssessmentofVCRMCs_FINALREPORTMarch2013.pdf.

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