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Paraguay

2014 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Significant Advancement

In 2014, Paraguay made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government strengthened legal protections for incarcerated adolescents by specifying the circumstances and conditions under which they can work in the Penal Implementation Code, included funds in its 2015 budget to hire 40 additional labor inspectors, and established working groups to strengthen coordination among government agencies on child labor issues. In addition, the Government continued to fund conditional cash transfer programs to combat child labor. However, children in Paraguay are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture and in the worst forms of child labor, including in domestic work. Coordination mechanisms among government agencies working to eradicate child labor need strengthening and remain underfunded relative to the scope of the problem. In addition, the Government is unable to provide accurate statistics on whether businesses were fined for child labor infractions because labor inspectors report the fines in aggregate.

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I. Prevalence and Sectoral Distribution of Child Labor

Children in Paraguay are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture. Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in domestic service.(1, 2) The 2011 National Survey of Child and Adolescent Activities (EANA) found that 21 percent of all Paraguayan children are engaged in hazardous work, and that approximately 90 percent of all working children perform hazardous tasks, such as carrying heavy loads or using dangerous tools.(2) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Paraguay.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Working children, ages 10 to 14 (% and population):

15.3 (113,072)

Working children by sector, ages 10 to 14 (%):

 

Agriculture

60.8

Industry

7.1

Services

32.1

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

90.3

Children combining work and school, ages 10 to 14 (%):

12.1

Primary completion rate (%):

86.0

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2011, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(3)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Encuesta Permanente de Hogares (EPH), 2005.(4)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of cotton (5, 6)

Harvesting of sugarcane (1, 7)

Production of soy,* sesame,* wheat,* manioc,* peanuts,* beans,* and stevia*(7, 8)

Cattle raising*† (1, 9)

Production of charcoal* (6, 10, 11)

Industry

Production of bricks (1, 11)

Gold mining*† (1)

Limestone quarrying† (1, 2)

Manufacturing soccer balls* (1)

Construction,* activities unknown (1)

Services

Domestic service† (1, 9, 12)

Transportation activities,* including collecting bus fare* (8)

Street work,† including vending, shoe shining,* and begging (2, 9, 11, 13-15)

Garbage dump scavenging*(15-17)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 13, 18, 19)

Forced domestic service, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 17)

Used in illicit activities, including smuggling and drug trafficking* (5, 17, 20)

Debt bondage in cattle raising* (1)

Used in the production of child pornography (21, 22)

Recruited by armed groups to perform logistical activities* (23)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3 (d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3 (a) — (c) of ILO C. 182.

The 2011 EANA indicated that children who speak Guarani exclusively are more likely to be involved in child labor and have higher rates of school absence as compared to other working children; poverty is pervasive in rural Paraguay, where Guarani is the predominant language.(2, 24) Children work alongside their parents in debt bondage on cattle ranches in the remote region of the Chaco.(1, 9) A 2011 quantitative study on child labor in Paraguay's sugarcane sector estimated that children comprise more than 25 percent of the sugarcane workforce, and about one out of four of those children suffer injuries twice a year, on average, while working.(7) There is limited evidence of children engaged in gold mining in small family-run mining operations in Paso Yobái, Guairá.(1)

The practice of criadazgo, a system whereby middle-class and wealthy families informally employ and house young domestic workers from impoverished families, is pervasive in Paraguay. The NGOs have noted that domestic workers are particularly vulnerable to being trafficked for sexual exploitation, and reported that 60 percent of rescued trafficking victims began working as domestic servants as minors.(6, 25) Children from poor rural areas, in particular the Departments of Caaguazú and Alto Parana, are subjected to forced commercial sexual exploitation and domestic servitude, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking, in the border areas with Argentina and Brazil and in urban areas, including Asunción, Ciudad del Este, Encarnación, and Filadelfia.(12, 18, 25) The Government acknowledged the recruitment and use of several child soldiers by armed groups, including the Paraguayan People's Army and the Armed Peasant Association. Some children were recruited at the age of 14 or younger and, in 2014, two child soldiers were killed.(25)



II. Legal Framework for the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Paraguay has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

Paraguay ratified ILO Convention 189 Concerning Decent Work for Domestic Workers in 2013. The Paraguayan Congress drafted a Domestic Workers Law in 2014 that remains under review.(1)

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 1 of Law No. 2332; Article 58 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code (26, 27)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 54 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code; Article 3 of Decree No. 4951; Article 125 of the Labor Code (26, 28, 29)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Article 54 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code; Article 2 of Decree No. 4951; Article 122 of the Labor Code (26, 28, 30)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 10 of the Constitution; Article 320 of the Penal Code (31, 32)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 6-7 of the Comprehensive Law Against Trafficking in Persons; Articles 125, 129, and 223 of the Penal Code; Articles 10 and 54 of the Constitution (31, 33, 34)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 135 and 223 of the Penal Code; Article 2.19 of Decree No. 4951; Article 31 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code (26, 28, 32, 34)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 135 and 223 of the Penal Code; Article 25 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code (26, 32, 34, 35)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Article 2 of Law No. 3360 (36)

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Article 2 of Law No. 3360 (36)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Article 2 of Law No. 4088; Article 32 of the General Education Law No. 1264 (37, 38)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 76 of the Constitution; Article 32 of the General Education Law No. 1264 (31, 37)

The Government has not yet adopted regulations governing the nature and conditions of light work that is permitted for children between ages 12 and 14. Moreover, the ILO Committee of Experts has recommended that Paraguay strengthen its laws regarding light work for children.(39) Research did not find specific legal provisions that stipulate penalties for violations of the List of Work Endangering Children (Decree No. 4951) or which ministries are responsible for enforcing this law.

In October 2014, the Government modified the Penal Implementation Code to include articles specifying the circumstances and conditions under which incarcerated adolescents can work.(6, 40) The updated law stipulates that such work must be compensated and must prepare adolescents for employment opportunities after their release; it also prohibits coerced labor. The code did not previously regulate work for minors within the incarceration system.(6, 40)



III. Enforcement of Laws on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor, Work and Social Security (MLWS)*

Enforce laws related to child labor and hazardous child labor, inspect workplaces for child labor, and fine companies found in violation of labor laws.(1)Refer cases involving criminal violation of child labor to the Public Ministry or the National Secretariat for Children and Adolescents (SNNA).(1) In 2014, a General Directorate for Working Children and Adolescents was created.(41)

National Police

Maintain a special unit of 33 police officers that handle complaints regarding trafficking in persons, including children, with offices in five cities.(1)

The Public Ministry (Prosecutor's Office)

Enforce criminal laws, including those related to the worst forms of child labor. Investigate and prosecute violators based on complaints, its own information, or referrals from the MLWS and other agencies, such as the SNNA and the Public Defender's Office.(1)Maintain a Special Directorate to Fight the Trafficking of Persons and Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children that works with local prosecutors nationwide to prosecute human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation crimes.(1)

SNNA

Maintain a unit dedicated to fighting child trafficking.(1) Sponsor a hotline to report cases of human trafficking and the commercial sexual exploitation of children; provide social services to trafficking victims upon receiving referrals from law enforcement agencies.(20) In 2014, provided services to eight children identified in sex trafficking and four children in labor trafficking.(42)

The Public Defender's Office

Protect the due process of law. Endowed with legal, administrative, and budgetary autonomy within the judicial system.(5) Established a permanent Observatory Unit on Torture and an Observatory Unit on Penal Conditions. Employs 200 attorneys.(5)

Ministry of Women's Affairs (MWA)

Provide services to female victims of trafficking, half of whom are estimated to be children. House an office dedicated to combating trafficking of children. Handle most social services for trafficking victims. Have five dedicated personnel.(1, 20)

* Agency responsible for child labor enforcement was created during the reporting period.

Law enforcement agencies in Paraguay took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2014, the Ministry of Labor, Work and Social Security (MLWS) employed 26 inspectors nationwide in eight state-level branch offices to conduct all labor inspections, including for child labor violations.(6) Given the extent of child labor in Paraguay, the number of labor inspectors is inadequate.(6) In 2014, the ILO provided various trainings for MLWS labor inspectors that were not child labor specific, and held a September workshop in Asunción for Southern Cone representatives, including MLWS officials, on rural poverty and child labor in agriculture.(6, 43)

On January 1, 2014, the Ministry of Justice and Labor split into two ministries: the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights, and the MLWS.(1) During the operational transition after its creation, the MLWS relied on funds previously assigned to the Vice Ministry of Labor and did not have its own operational budget for 2014. Throughout the reporting period, the MLWS lacked adequate resources to enforce child labor laws, including dedicated vehicles and travel funds.(6) The 2015 budget of nearly $35 million was approved at the end of the reporting period and allows the MLWS to hire 40 additional labor inspectors, (6).

The MLWS conducted 30 labor inspections in 2014, including in charcoal factories, agricultural markets, supermarkets, restaurants, and a poultry farm. The MLWS noted that many inspections were reduced or suspended due to internal investigations and ongoing reorganization of its Office of the Inspectorate; government officials considered the number of inspections in 2014 to be inadequate.(6) The MLWS targets certain sectors and industries for general labor inspections but usually carries out child labor inspections in reaction to complaints rather than specifically targeting child labor.(6) Five labor inspections in 2014 directly targeted child labor in San Pedro, Paraguarí, Asunción, and Central but did not identify any violations.(6) Enforcement of child labor laws is inadequate in the informal sector, and the MLWS is unable to provide accurate statistics on the number of citations or penalties issued for child labor law violations because labor inspectors report the fines in aggregate.(6)

An additional constraint to labor law enforcement is the legal requirement that the Public Ministry and the MLWS secure a search warrant from a judge if an employer does not permit them to enter a workplace, including the workplace of domestic servants, to inspect it. There is a lack of efficient and timely cooperation by judicial authorities in granting search warrants for workplace inspections; the system is paper-based and orders routinely take over 3 months to arrive.(1, 6, 44) In 2014, the MLWS proposed a cooperative agreement with the Supreme Court to create an electronic filing and communication system to allow judges to submit and receive legal orders and information requests more quickly.(6)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2014, the Public Ministry employed three specialized prosecutors in its Special Directorate to Fight the Trafficking of Persons and Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children.(6) These prosecutors were based in Asunción and had a staff of 35 assistants.(6) The Directorate reported that more specialized prosecutors were needed to support local prosecutors nationwide and to increase the Public Ministry's ability to investigate and prosecute child labor cases.(6) The National Police maintained a department for complaints regarding trafficking in persons, including children; the department was staffed with
33 police officers and maintained offices in five cities.(6) In 2014, 13 human trafficking workshops were held, for a total of 800 Attorney General Prosecutors and employees.(25) The Ministry of Women's Affairs' (MWA) Anti-trafficking in Persons Unit organized training seminars for 20 judges, 18 police officers, 2 prosecutors, and 32 employees from various government agencies.(25)

The Special Directorate to Fight the Trafficking of Persons and Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children has insufficient resources, including vehicles, fuel, and logistical support, to carry out investigations, particularly in remote areas such as the Chaco region, where the worst forms of child labor, human trafficking, and debt bondage are most prevalent. Overall, Paraguay's law enforcement agencies lack resources, including staff and training, to sufficiently identify, investigate, and prosecute cases of the worst forms of child labor; as a result, the number of convictions of crimes related to the worst forms of child labor is insufficient, and existing penalties are inadequate deterrents.(1, 6, 45)

In 2014, the Attorney General's Anti-trafficking in Persons Unit reported 173 child pornography cases, including 120 that originated from the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children cyber tip line. The Anti-trafficking in Persons Unit reported an increase in the number of investigations and convictions related to human trafficking during the reporting period, including 80 trafficking in persons cases, 28 prosecutions, and 16 convictions.(25) There is a lack of formal referral mechanisms between prosecutors in the Attorney General's Office and other agencies that receive complaints related to the worst forms of child labor, such as the National Secretariat for Children and Adolescents (SNNA).(1)



IV. Coordination of Government Efforts on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

The National Commission to Prevent and Eradicate the Exploitation of Children (CONAETI)

Lead government efforts against child labor and include representatives from the MLWS, the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights, the MWA, the SNNA, and other government agencies, as well as labor union representatives, industry associations, and NGOs.(1, 46)

National Council for Children and Adolescents (National Council)

Establish policies to protect children's rights and approve specific programs aimed at children and adolescents.(1, 46)

Inter-Institutional Working Group on Preventing and Combating Human Trafficking

Coordinate inter-agency efforts to combat all forms of trafficking in persons, including child trafficking. Headed by the Ministry of Foreign Relations.(1, 12, 46)

Defense Councils for the Rights of Children and Adolescents (CODENI)

Coordinate government efforts to protect children's rights at the municipal level, including by maintaining a registry of children and youth involved in economic activities and coordinating with vocational training programs for adolescent workers.(1, 26)

National Commission of Fundamental Labor Rights and Prevention of Forced Labor

Include representatives of employers, unions, and government agencies, such as the MLWS.(6)

In 2014, the MLWS signed a framework agreement with several ministries to define and coordinate the responsibilities of each agency and to create a national registry of adolescent workers.(6) The National Commission to Prevent and Eradicate the Exploitation of Children (CONAETI) held regular meetings during the reporting period and created working groups to establish coordinating mechanisms among government agencies. CONAETI organized several workshops with employers, unions, and adolescent workers to discuss regulations governing the nature and conditions of light work.(6) CONAETI continued to work closely with the Sugarcane Growers' Association to implement several ILO/USDOL-funded programs aimed at eradicating child labor in sugar plantations.(1) Despite these efforts, Government coordination — including between CONAETI, the MLWS, and other agencies, such as the Prosecutor's Office, Public Defender's Office, and the Judicial branch, and particularly at the local level — is done on an informal basis and remains insufficient to combat child labor.(1)



V. Government Policies on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government of Paraguay has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).

Table 7. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Strategy for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and Protection of Working Adolescents (2010 — 2015)

Serves as the Government's main policy framework to address child labor. CONAETI-approved plan, aims to combat the worst forms of child labor. Provides access to free, quality education for child laborers and livelihood alternatives for their families. Raises public awareness of child labor and improves enforcement of child labor laws.(1, 46)

National Plan for Development (2014 — 2030)†

Includes goals for reducing child labor as part of broader efforts to reduce social exclusion and poverty. Includes the Embrace Program, which specifically aims to reduce the worst forms of child labor.(6, 47)

National Plan on Human Rights

Includes components on child labor, forced labor, and indigenous child labor. Established in 2012, the plan has no expiration date.(1)

Inter-Institutional Agreement on Government Procurement

Seeks to ensure that any goods or services procured by the Government are not produced through child labor. Established between SNNA and the National Bureau for Public Contracts.(48)

MERCOSUR United Against Child Labor Campaign

Develops public awareness about the need to combat child labor in MERCOSUR. Addresses child labor in agriculture, domestic work, and sexual exploitation, with particular emphasis on communities along country borders.(49)

Second Presidential Declaration on the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor in MERCOSUR (2012)

Promotes greater coordination between governmental agencies, levels of government, and with civil society among MERCOSUR members.(50, 51)

MERCOSUR Southern Child Initiative

Aims to defend the rights of children and adolescents in the region by raising awareness and seeking coordination among member states regarding the commercial sexual exploitation of children, child trafficking and pornography, child labor, and migrant labor; by improving country legal frameworks to harmonize them with international conventions affecting children; and by exchanging best practices.(52)

Declaration of the Regional Initiative: Latin America and the Caribbean Free of Child Labor (2014 — 2020)†

Aims to increase regional cooperation on eradicating child labor by 2020 through signatories' efforts to strengthen monitoring and coordination mechanisms, government programs, and South-South exchanges. Reaffirms commitments made in the Brasilia Declaration from the Third Global Conference on Child Labor (October 2013), and signed by Paraguay at the ILO's 18th Regional Meeting of the Americas in Lima, Peru, in October 2014.(53, 54)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In September 2014, Paraguay participated in the First Meeting of the Working Groups of the XVIII Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor to foster continued dialogue and cooperation on labor issues throughout the Americas. Held in Bridgetown, Barbados, these discussions promoted the exchange of information on policies and programs that seek to formalize the informal sector, uphold workers' rights, and prevent and eliminate child labor.(55, 56) In October, the Governments of Paraguay and Colombia signed a memorandum of understanding for the Prevention and Investigation of the Crime of Human Trafficking and Assistance for Victims.(57)



VI. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

In 2014, the Government of Paraguay funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms. The Government has other programs that may have an impact on child labor, including its worst forms. (Table 8)

Table 8. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Embrace Program (Programa Abrazo) (2005 — 2014)‡

SNNA program that assists children engaged in exploitative work by providing them and their families with health and education services and cash transfers conditioned on children's school attendance and withdrawal from work.(46) Works closely with NGO Fortalecer in the implementation of ILO-IPEC programs, and with the Sugarcane Growers' Association, Ministry of Education and Culture (MEC), and CONAETI to set up programs tailored to at-risk children who work during the sugarcane harvesting season.(1) As of November 2014, provided support to 8,531 children ages 0 — 14. The Government budgeted $6.7 million in 2014 and provided monetary and in-kind support, particularly in direct food distribution.(6)

Well-Being Conditional Cash Transfer Program (Tekoporã)‡

Government-administered program through the Secretariat for Social Action.(1) Provides conditional cash transfers to families in moderate to extreme poverty in the Concepción, San Pedro, Canindeyú, Caaguazú, and Caazapá departments.(1) Incorporates aspects of the Abrazo program, such as the family monitoring methodology, to ensure beneficiary families do not allow their children to engage in child labor.(1) As of October 2014, served 81,741 families.(6)

Mutual Aid Conditional Cash Transfer Program (Ñopytyvô)

Government program that provides conditional cash transfers to impoverished indigenous families in the Chaco region.(58) Cash transfer is conditioned on families withdrawing children from child labor and meeting education and health requirements. Program assists approximately 774 families, including 1,256 children and adolescents.(6, 58)

Shout Program (2008 — 2014)

MEC/ILO program that carries out child labor awareness-raising activities among students and teachers to help school administrators identify child laborers and prevent children from engaging in the worst forms of child labor.(6, 46)

Comprehensive Attention Program for Street Children and Adolescents*‡

SNNA program that provides assistance and services to children living on the streets. Program's goal is to assist approximately 200 children.(46)

Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce Child Labor (2013 — 2017)

USDOL-funded capacity-building project implemented by the ILO in at least 10 countries to build local and national capacity of the Government to address child labor. Aims to improve legislation addressing child labor issues, including by bringing local or national laws into compliance with international standards; improve monitoring and enforcement of laws and policies related to child labor; and enhance the implementation of national and local policies and programs aimed at the reduction and prevention of child labor in Paraguay.(59) In 2014, held four workshops on light work and hired a consultant to lead discussions on hazardous work.(41)

Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (2013 — 2017)

USDOL-funded research project implemented by the ILO in 10 countries to increase the knowledge base around child labor by collecting new data, analyzing existing data, and building capacity of the Government to conduct research in this area. In 2014, began preparatory discussions on a sectoral survey of child labor in agriculture.(60)

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues (2011 — 2015)

USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016, established by the Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to build the capacity of the national Government and develop strategic policies to address the elimination of child labor and forced labor in Paraguay.(61)

Regional Action Group for the Americas (Grupo de Acción Regional para las Américas)

Regional initiative that conducts prevention and awareness-raising campaigns to combat the commercial sexual exploitation of children in Latin America. Members include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela.(62)

Southern Child Initiative (Niñ@sur)

Regional initiative that carries out public campaigns against commercial sexual exploitation, trafficking, and child labor; facilitates technical assistance to improve domestic legal frameworks to comply with international standards on those issues; andsupports the exchange of best practices related to victim protection and assistance.(63, 64)

Global Program on the Eradication of Child Labor

$4.5 million Government of Spain — funded, 3-year project implemented by the ILO-IPEC to combat child labor.(65)

Partnership Program to Eliminate Child Labor

$2.3 million Government of Brazil — funded, 4-year project implemented by the ILO-IPEC to combat child labor.(65)

* The impact of this program on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
‡ Program is funded by the Government of Paraguay.

The 2012 Law Against Trafficking in Persons requires the MWA to provide compensation and financial assistance to victims of sexual and labor trafficking, including minors. However, the Government has not allocated funding for the MWA to implement such a program, and most victims did not have access to comprehensive care.(6, 33, 42) MWA ran a temporary shelter in Asunción for female victims of human trafficking and domestic violence that provided lodging and counseling to 18 teenage girls in 2014.(42) Although Paraguay has programs that target child labor, the scope and funding level of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem. Additional programs are needed to reach the large numbers of working children, especially in agriculture and domestic service.(6)



VII. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Paraguay (Table 9).

Table 9. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Adopt regulations governing the nature and conditions of the light work permitted to children between ages 12 and 14.

2009 — 2014

Adopt and publicize the legislation that establishes sanctions for violations of Decree No. 4951, the List of Work Endangering Children.

2010 — 2014

Enforcement

Increase the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor and the resources available to them in order to provide adequate coverage of the workforce.

2009 — 2014

Make information regarding the total annual number of labor inspections publicly available.

2013 — 2014

Build enforcement capacity to address children's work in the informal sector.

2014

Make information publicly available on citations and penalties issued to employers for child labor infractions.

2012 — 2014

Improve cooperation mechanisms among judicial authorities and labor enforcement officials in order to grant search warrants for workplace inspections in a more efficient and timely manner.

2013 — 2014

Increase efforts to prosecute crimes related to employing children in the worst forms of child labor, including by hiring more specialized prosecutors and developing coordination and referral mechanisms for government agencies likely to receive child labor complaints to refer relevant complaints to the Public Ministry.

2012 — 2014

Coordination

Strengthen coordinating mechanisms among CONAETI, the MLWS, and other agencies to combat child labor, including its worst forms.

2013 — 2014

Policies

Conduct research to determine the activities carried out by children working in construction, transportation, and the informal sector in order to inform policies and programs.

2013 — 2014

Social Programs

Increase access to education, particularly for children working in domestic service and in rural and indigenous communities, including in the Chaco region.

2014

Assess the impact that the Comprehensive Attention Program for Street Children and Adolescents has on reducing the worst forms of child labor.

2012 — 2014

Further expand government programs to assist more families and children affected by the worst forms of child labor, especially in agriculture, domestic service, and human trafficking cases.

2010 — 2014



1.U.S. Embassy- Asunción. reporting, February 3, 2014.

2.ILO and DGEEC. Magnitud y características del trabajo infantil y adolescente en el Paraguay; 2013.

3.UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed January 16, 2015]; http://www.uis.unesco.org/Pages/default.aspx?SPSLanguage=EN. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

4.UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Encuesta Permanente de Hogares (EPH), 2005. Analysis received January 16, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

5.U.S. Department of State. "Paraguay," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2012. Washington, DC; April 19, 2013; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2012&dlid=204470.

6.U.S. Embassy- Asunción. reporting, January 15, 2015.

7.ICF Macro. Child Labor in the Sugarcane Industry in Paraguay: Quantitative Research and Data Collection. Calverton, MD; October 2011.

8.U.S. Department of State. "Paraguay," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper.

9.International Trade Union Confederation. Internationally Recognised Core Labour Standards in Paraguay. Geneva; 2011. http://www.ituc-csi.org/IMG/pdf/Paraguay_cls.pdf.

10.La Coordinadora para la Eliminación del Trabajo Infantil and IPEC. Dejame ser niño, Dejame ser niña [DVD]. Paraguay; 2011, 13 min., 21 sec.,

11.Dequeni Foundation. Interview with USDOL official. July 5, 2011.

12.U.S. Embassy- Asunción. reporting, March 5, 2014.

13.Vasquez, A. Construyendo una estrategia de supervivencia que no las lleve a la calle. Asunción, Grupo Luna Nueva; April 2011.

14.ILO Committee of Experts. Individual direct request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Paraguay (ratification: 2001) Published: 2014; accessed April 17, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3149343:NO.

15.UNICEF. At a glance: Paraguay. Amidst severe poverty, community centres aid families in Paraguay, [online] October 21, 2010 [cited May 4, 2015]; http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/paraguay_56594.html.

16.ABC Color. "Muchas "Liz" siguen en Cateura." ABC Color [online] February 10 2014 [cited March 25, 2015]; http://www.abc.com.py/nacionales/muchas-liz-siguen-en-cateura-1213703.html.

17.UNICEF. Situacion del Derecho a la Proteccion Infantil y Adolescente en Paraguay. Asunción; December 2014. http://www.unicef.org/paraguay/spanish/unicef-situacionderechoproteccion.pdf.

18.U.S. Department of State. "Paraguay," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2013. Washington, DC; June 19, 2013; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/210741.pdf.

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20.U.S. Embassy- Asunción. reporting, February 1, 2013.

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