2013 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor
In 2013, Pakistan made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. Provincial governments finalized national plans of action on child labor and bonded labor. In Punjab, District Vigilance Committees were re-established to combat bonded labor, including bonded labor of children. The Federal Investigation Agency also improved coordination among law enforcement groups to better track human traffickers and took action against officials complicit in human trafficking. The Government continues to implement an array of social programs and projects to combat child labor and bonded labor. However, children in Pakistan continue to engage in child labor in agriculture and the worst forms of child labor in bonded labor. While provincial governments drafted legislation to protect children from the worst forms of child labor in response to a Government-wide decentralization effort, only the Punjab Province passed such legislation. The federal law remains in effect in the remaining provinces. The federal and Punjab laws lack a minimum working age and the minimum age for hazardous work falls short of meeting international standards. Working children continue to lack sufficient legal protections. Enforcement efforts remain weak, and labor inspections have become infrequent.
Children in Pakistan are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture and in the worst forms of child labor in bonded labor. The majority of child labor in Pakistan occurs in agriculture.(1) Data from the Government's 2012-2013 National Labor Force Survey indicate that the majority of child workers reside in rural areas.(2) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Pakistan.
|Working children, ages 10 to 14 (% and population):||13.0 (2,449,480)|
|Working children by sector, ages 10 to 14 (%)|
|School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):||72.3|
|Children combining work and school, ages 10 to 14 (%):||1.6|
|Primary completion rate (%):||71.9|
Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2012, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2014. (3)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from LFS Survey, 2010 -2011.(1)
Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.
|Agriculture||Farming, including harvesting cotton, wheat, and date palms* (4-8)|
|Fishing,*†activities unknown (9, 10)|
|Industry||Manufacturing glass bangles† (8, 11, 12)|
|Stitching soccer balls*† (13, 14)|
|Shrimp processing* (13, 14)|
|Weaving cloth using power looms (15)|
|Tanning leather† (8, 16)|
|Manufacturing surgical instruments (8)|
|Carpet weaving† (6, 8, 15, 17)|
|Crushing stones*† (4, 18)|
|Brick making (4, 5, 8, 19)|
|Making palm leaf mats* (4)|
|Mining coal* (5, 8, 20, 21)|
|Services||Construction, activities unknown† (13, 22-24)|
|Domestic service (20, 25, 26)|
|Work in hotels (20, 26)|
|Serving in restaurants and tea stalls (4, 5, 20)|
|Rag-picking (4, 17)|
|Automobile repair, welding, and carpentry in small workshops (4, 19, 20)|
|Work in transport (5, 19)|
|Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡||Bonded labor in brick making, carpet weaving, agriculture, glass bangle making,* fish raising,* and coal mining (6, 13, 24, 27, 28)|
|Farming, domestic service, begging, and commercial sexual exploitation as a result of human trafficking (28, 29)|
|Use of underage children in armed conflict (30, 31)|
|Use of children in illicit activities, such as smuggling small arms and drugs (32, 33)|
*Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
†Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a) - (c) of ILO C. 182.
Some children are used by non-state militant groups in armed conflict. Non-state groups kidnap children or coerce parents into giving away their children to spy, fight, or die in suicide attacks.(28, 30, 31) These children are subjected to physical, sexual, and psychological abuse. Children as young as age 12 are recruited by pro-Taliban insurgents, trained as suicide bombers, and trafficked between Afghanistan and Pakistan.(28, 30)
Girls who are sold into forced marriages are sometimes trafficked internationally into commercial sexual exploitation.(28) Disabled children are sold or kidnapped and taken to countries such as Iran, in which they are forced to beg.(28, 32, 35)
Pakistan has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).
|ILO C. 138, Minimum Age||✅|
|ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor||✅|
|UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict|
|UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography||✅|
|Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons|
The Government has established relevant laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).
|Minimum Age for Work||No|
|Minimum Age for Hazardous Work||Yes||14||1991 Employment of Children Act (13, 23, 33)|
|List of Hazardous Occupations Prohibited for Children||Yes||1991 Employment of Children Act (22, 23)|
|Prohibition of Forced Labor||Yes||Bonded Labor System Abolition Act (BLSA), Constitution of Pakistan (11, 36)|
|Prohibition of Child Trafficking||Yes||Prevention and Control of Human Trafficking Ordinance 2002; Penal Code; Emigration Ordinance (27, 37, 38)|
|Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children||Yes||Penal Code (39, 40)|
|Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities||No|
|Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment||N/A*|
|Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service||Yes||18||National Service Ordinance of 1970 (27, 41)|
|Compulsory Education Age||Yes||16||Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act (42)|
|Free Public Education||Yes||16||Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act (42)|
*No conscription or no standing military.
Pakistan's laws are not completely consistent with international standards regarding child labor. The lack of a national minimum age for employment may increase the likelihood that very young children engage in activities that jeopardize their health and safety. The minimum age for hazardous work is also not consistent with international standards and may jeopardize the health and safety of young people ages 14 through 17.(13, 43) Additionally, domestic service, a sector in which many child laborers work, is not covered by the list of prohibited hazardous occupations or processes.(22, 33) The law also excludes workplaces with less than 10 persons employed. As a result, children in the informal sector do not benefit from the same protections as those working in larger establishments.(6, 44, 45)
The 18th Amendment to the Constitution, passed in 2010, devolved all child welfare and labor issues from the national level to the provincial government units. Until each province repeals or adopts a replacement law, federal laws on child protection and bonded labor are in force.(13, 31) Punjab is the only province to have passed a law on the employment of children and on bonded labor that mirrors existing national laws.(13, 28) Each of Pakistan's four provinces has draft legislation that prohibits work for children under age 14 and hazardous work for children under age 18.(31, 33) Each province's legislation has been pending since 2012; therefore, these provinces continue to use the previous national law as their standard.(31) Under the current laws, children remain vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor.
Pakistan's laws do not specifically prohibit child pornography, the use of children in illicit activities, or internal trafficking. However, the Penal Code outlaws the circulation or production of any obscene books, drawings, representations, or other objects.(40, 46) The Government also uses the Penal Code and Sections 17 through 23 of the Emigration Ordinance, which address fraudulent immigration, to prosecute internal trafficking cases.(37, 38)
While education is free and compulsory through age 16, access to education is still limited. Over 6.5 million children are not in primary school.(47) In conflict zones, schools and infrastructure are often damaged.(32, 48) In some areas, schools are attacked and sometimes destroyed by militant groups opposed to secular education and the education of girls.(32)
The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).
|Provincial Labor Inspectors||Inspect industrial areas and markets to identify child labor violations, enforce both national and provincial labor laws, and pursue legal action against employers.(11)|
|District Vigilance Committees||Implement the BLSA, assist in rehabilitating bonded laborers, and help laborers achieve the objectives of the law.(49)|
|Anti-trafficking Unit of the Federal Investigation Agency (FIA)||Enforce transnational trafficking-related laws.(50) Cooperate with other governments on trafficking cases, operate a hotline for victims, and publish information on anti-trafficking efforts on its website.(51)|
|Police||Investigate cases of bonded labor and enforce the BLSA.(52)|
Law enforcement agencies in Pakistan took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.
Labor Law Enforcement
Research has not revealed the number of labor inspectors or inspections conducted throughout Pakistan.(13) The Government of Pakistan does not collect data on the number of violations, children assisted, or penalties imposed for those found to commit child labor violations.(13) Each province has a training center for labor inspectors, in which training on child labor is provided to labor inspectors.(53) Despite these training centers, provincial labor inspectors had little training and insufficient resources to adequately inspect workplaces.
Provincial labor inspectors lack authority to enforce child labor laws in agricultural settings.(54)
In Punjab, routine factory labor inspections have been replaced by a self-declaration system, whereby factory owners post declarations regarding workplace safety, health, and wage issues in their factories. Some of those factories are then chosen at random for inspection.(50) Because declarations are not mandatory and the review of declarations is the only method used to select companies for inspection, many factories go uninspected and there are no penalties for not complying with the self-declaration policy.(13, 50) In Punjab and Sindh, inspectors are instructed not to inspect a business for one year following its establishment. In addition, inspectors must seek permission from employers before labor inspections can be conducted.(27) Since devolution, labor inspections have become more infrequent. To address this issue, NGOs often perform labor inspections.(6)
During the reporting period, District Vigilance Committees were re-established in Punjab and 370 cases of bonded labor have been reported by the local police.(53) However, in other provinces, District Vigilance Committees may be nonfunctioning.(53, 55, 56)
Criminal Law Enforcement
The Government of Pakistan does not collect data on the number of criminal investigations, prosecutions, children assisted, or convictions of child traffickers and those using children in other exploitative forms of labor.(13, 50)
During the reporting period, the Federal Investigation Agency's (FIA) Interagency Task Force held several meetings to improve coordination among different law enforcement groups in order to improve the tracking of human traffickers.(57) Additionally, FIA took action against FIA officials who were complicit in human trafficking and smuggling. During the reporting period, FIA arrested and filed eight criminal cases against its own staff, and it demoted or dismissed senior officers involved in human trafficking.(57) In 2013, UNODC and the Government of Pakistan launched a pilot training course of a human trafficking training curriculum for all law enforcement agencies.(57)
Police lack the necessary personnel, training, and equipment to confront the armed guards who often oversee bonded laborers.(27) These circumstances hamper the effectiveness of Bonded Labor System Abolition Act (BLSA) enforcement, and since the law's passage in 1992, there have been no convictions under the act.(28) In 2013, police officers in Sindh Province were provided training on how to prevent and prosecute cases of bonded labor.(52)
The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).
|Coordinating Body||Role & Description|
|Provincial Child Labor Units||Conduct research, build capacity, and coordinate child labor activities at the provincial level.(33, 50) Established by each provincial government.|
|National Commission of Human Rights Act||Coordinate Pakistan's compliance with international treaty obligations, including those related to child labor.(33, 58)|
|Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Child Protection and Welfare Commission||Coordinate efforts to enhance the safety, welfare, and wellbeing of children, including the prevention of exploitative child labor practices and running prevention programs in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province.(59)|
|Sindh Child Protection Authority||Coordinate efforts to ensure the rights of the children in need of special protection measures in Sindh Province, including child laborers.(60)|
The Government of Pakistan has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).
|Sindh and Punjab Provincial Plans of Action to Combat Bonded Labor†||Details how Sindh and Punjab Provinces will revise bonded labor legislation. Includes plans to strengthen the capacity of labor inspectors, generate awareness on bonded labor, improve reporting, and computerize labor inspection data.(53, 61)|
|Provincial Plans of Action to Combat Child Labor†||Details how each province will revise child labor legislation. Includes plans to strengthen the capacity of labor inspectors, generate awareness on child labor, improve reporting, and computerize labor inspection data.(53, 61)|
|National Action Plan for Children||Aims to prohibit, restrict, and regulate child labor with an eventual goal of its ultimate elimination.(62) Lays out 14 key strategies and actions, including harmonizing work between government agencies, NGOs, and donors; promoting research on child labor issues; developing non-formal education for child laborers; providing microcredit for families of child laborers; and conducting national surveys on child labor. Also addresses child trafficking and outlines key objectives for its elimination.(62)|
|National Education Policy||Focuses on increasing the literacy rate and providing livelihood skills to children, including those engaged in child labor. Aims to expand non-formal and vocational education programs to children, including child laborers.(63)|
|Poverty Alleviation Strategy||Describes the strategy for alleviating poverty in Pakistan, which includes priority access to microfinance for families of working children.(13)|
|National Action Plan for Combating Human Trafficking||Describes the prevention, prosecution, and protection strategies for ending human trafficking, including child trafficking.(64)|
|Child Protection Policy (FATA)||Describes how the FATA will promote and create a protective environment for all children. Includes actions to be taken towards the prevention and elimination of child labor.(65)|
†Policy was launched during the reporting period.
The National Action Plan for Children mandates child labor surveys; however, such surveys have not been conducted since 1996.(31, 33) The lack of recent data hampers the Government's ability to assess the scope and prevalence of child labor and to develop policies or plans for future child labor initiatives.(31)
In 2013, the Government of Pakistan participated in and funded programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).
|Child Camel Jockey Rehabilitation Assistance‡||Child Protection and Rehabilitation Bureau program that provides housing for trafficked children, including children returned from working as camel jockeys in the United Arab Emirates. Reintegrates child victims of trafficking into their families and home communities.(27)|
|National Centers for Rehabilitation of Child Laborers‡||Ministry of Social Welfare and Special Education program that aims to remove children ages 5 to 14 from hazardous labor and provide them with education, clothing, and a stipend. As of 2012, there were 151 centers.(13)|
|Combating Abusive Child Labor II Project†‡||EU-funded project implemented by the ILO to assist provincial governments with the drafting of new child labor legislation, create Provincial Child Labor Units that monitor the implementation of a provincial child labor program, expand the knowledgebase on child labor, and increase awareness to promote child labor-friendly policies. Concluded in 2013.(66)|
|Project to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor#||Punjab Provincial Child Labor Unit program that provides non-formal education and literacy services to children in the worst forms of child labor in four of Punjab's districts. Provides livelihood services to target families and improves working conditions.(67)|
|Project to Eliminate Bonded Labor in Brick Kilns#*||Punjab Provincial Government project that provides interest-free loans, national identity cards, and health services to assist bonded laborers.(50, 53)|
|Strengthening Law Enforcement Responses and Action Against Internal Trafficking and Bonded Labor||ILO-funded program that engages brick kiln owners in Sindh and Punjab to establish new practices to help eradicate bonded labor, including child bonded labor. Links brick kiln workers to social safety nets.(53)|
|Benazir Income Support Program‡||Government scheme that provides financial assistance to underprivileged families and offers incentives for parents to keep their children in school and out of work.(31) In 2013, provided $175 million to implement the Benazir Bhutto Income Support Program.(31)|
|Education Voucher Scheme#*||Punjab Educational Foundation provides stipends to private schools for students enrolled from low-income areas of Lahore.(13, 68)|
*The impact of this program on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
†Program was launched during the reporting period.
‡Program is funded by the Government of Pakistan.
# Program is funded by the Provincial Government of Punjab.
During the reporting period, district officials in Sahiwal, Punjab, Sukkur, and Sindh began running a pilot program to track child labor patterns by collecting information on how many children are absent from school.(31) While the Government of Pakistan has a number of initiatives to address the worst forms of child labor, their limited reach is insufficient to address the scope of the child labor problem. In addition, there is no evidence of programs specifically targeting child domestics, or to raise awareness of and provide assistance to children being used in armed conflict.(27) The Education Voucher Scheme only reaches a small portion of students and the other three provinces of Pakistan lack the resources to ensure that all children receive a free and compulsory education as assured in the Constitution and to address the magnitude of the bonded labor situation.(13)
Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Pakistan (Table 9).
|Area||Suggested Action||Year(s) Suggested|
|Laws||Ratify the UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict and the Palermo Protocol.||2013|
|Provinces should establish a minimum age for employment that, at minimum, is harmonized with the compulsory education age.||2009 - 2013|
|Create comprehensive prohibitions against additional specific hazardous activities and clearly establish a minimum age for hazardous work at 18.||2009 - 2013|
|Ensure that relevant child labor laws and regulations apply equally to children working in the formal and informal sectors regardless of the size of the establishment.||2011 - 2013|
|Amend the law to clearly criminalize child pornography, internal child trafficking, and to prohibit the use of children in illicit activities.||2011 - 2013|
|Enforcement||Collect and publish enforcement data for child labor violations and criminal violation of child trafficking laws.||2010 - 2013|
|Allow labor inspectors to conduct inspections at any time, without notice, including within the first year of an enterprise's establishment and within agricultural settings.||2011 - 2013|
|Revise the self-declaration labor monitoring system in Punjab to require employers to post reports on workplace safety, health, and wages and thereby be subject to inspection.||2010 - 2013|
|Ensure vigilance committees are established and active throughout Pakistan.||2013|
|Provide adequate funding for training to enable inspectors and investigators to combat the worst forms of child labor.||2010 - 2013|
|Coordination||Ensure that the response to the worst forms of child labor can be coordinated at both the provincial and national levels.||2011 - 2013|
|Government Policies||Conduct sectoral surveys on areas with a high incidence of child labor to increase the knowledgebase in these areas and inform policy and program planning.||2009 - 2013|
|Social Programs||Increase the size and scope of Government programs to reach children working in the worst forms of child labor, including work in domestic service and bonded child laborers.||2009 - 2013|
|Implement programs to raise awareness and provide assistance to children used by non-state militant groups to engage in armed conflict.||2011 - 2013|
|Expand education programs to provide free and compulsory education as required in the Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act.||2011 - 2013|
|Assess the impact that existing programs may have on child labor.||2013|
1. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from LFS Survey, 2010-2011. Analysis received February 13, 2014. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.
3. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed February 10, 2014]; http://www.uis.unesco.org/Pages/default.aspx?SPSLanguage=EN . Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.
4. ILO-IPEC. The Effect of Work on Children's Health: Report of Research on Ten Occupational Sectors in Pakistan. Geneva; 2013. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_22375/lang--en/index.htm.
10. Akhtar Abdul Hai, Ambreen Fatima, and Mahpara Sadaqat. "Socio-economic conditions of child labor: A case study for the fishing sector on Balochistan coast." International Journal of Social Economics, 37(4):316 - 338 (2010); www.emeraldinsight.com/0306-8293.htm.
12. Reuters. "Millions pushed into child labor in Pakistan." reuters.com [online] February 7, 2012 [cited March 18, 2014]; http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/02/07/us-pakistan-childlabour-idUSTRE8160LA20120207.
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16. Ernest & Young. Sustainability in the Leather Supply Chain; June 2013. http://www.mvonederland.nl/sites/default/files/research_on_sustainability_in_the_leather_supply_chain_final_report_june_2013.pdf.
21. Ghosh, P. "Balochistan, Pakistan: Where Children Work, And Do Not Attend School." ibtimes.com [online] November 21, 2013 [cited January 24, 2014]; http://www.ibtimes.com/balochistan-pakistan-where-children-work-do-not-attend-school-1480666.
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30. General Assembly Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General to the Security Council. New York; May 15, 2013. http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/Children%20and%20armed%20conflict.pdf.
35. Integrated Regional Information Networks. "Pakistan: Disabled- and at risk of being trafficked." IRINnews.org [online] March 14, 2011 [cited January 26, 2014]; www.irinnews.org/PrintReport.aspx?ReportID=92183.
39. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Pakistan (ratification: 2001) Submitted: 2010; accessed February 15, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/iloquery.htm.
43. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Pakistan (ratification: 2006) Published: 2011; accessed February 15, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/pdconv.pl?host=status01&textbase=iloeng&document=12548&chapter=6&query=Pakistan%40ref&highlight=&querytype=bool&context=0.
46. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Pakistan (ratification: 2001) Submitted: 2011; accessed February 15, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/pdconv.pl?host=status01&textbase=iloeng&document=27089&chapter=9&query=Pakistan%40ref&highlight=&querytype=bool&context=0.
48. Yusufzai, A. "School's out for Pakistan children trapped between militants and military." London, January 14, 2013. http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2013/jan/14/school-pakistan-children-militants-military.
53. International Labor Conference. Report of the Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations, 103rd Session, 2014. Geneva. http://www.ilo.org/ilc/ILCSessions/103/reports/reports-to-the-conference/WCMS_235054/lang--en/index.htm.
55. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Forced Labor Convention (No. 29) Pakistan (ratification: 1957) Published: 2013 ; accessed May 01, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO::P13100_COMMENT_ID:3080774.
56. U.S. Department of State. "Pakistan," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2012. Washington, DC; April 19, 2013; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2012&dlid=204409.
65. Social Welfare, Women Empowerment, Zakat & Ushr Department, FATA Secretariat. Child Protection Policy. Islamabad; 2012. http://pakistan.childrightsdesk.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/CP-Policy-Printed-version-Final-f.pdf.
66. Delegation of the European Union to Pakistan. EU Funded CACL II Project Combats Worst Forms of Child Labour in Pakistan, European Union, [online] July 11, 2013 [cited January 26, 2014]; http://eeas.europa.eu/delegations/pakistan/press_corner/all_news/news/2013/20130705_01_en.htm.
67. Punjab Provincial Child Labor Unit. PCLU Punjab mobilizes 180 million rupees from government to launch the first ever project against worst forms of child labour, [online] June 27, 2012 [cited January 26, 2014]; http://www.pclupunjab.org.pk/pclu-punjab-mobilizes-180-million-rupees-from-government-to-launch-the-first-ever-project-against-worst-forms-of-child-labour.
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