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Niue

2013 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

No Assessment

For the 2013 reporting period, no assessment has been made regarding Niue's efforts to advance the prevention of the worst forms of child labor because this 2013 report is the first year suggested actions are included for Niue. While there is no evidence of a problem, the Government has not established adequate legal protection to prevent the worst forms of child labor. Niue's Terrorism Suppression and Transnational Crimes Act of 2006 specifically address child prostitution. However, there is no law addressing other forms of commercial sexual exploitation of children nor is there an established minimum age for labor and comprehensive list of hazardous work prohibited to children. Additionally, research has not identified any laws that prohibit the use of children for drug trafficking or other illicit activities.

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I. Prevalence and Sectoral Distribution of Child Labor

Research found no evidence that child labor exists in Niue.(1)



II. Legal Framework for the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Niue is a self-governing territory of New Zealand and does not follow New Zealand laws. There are no armed forces in Niue as New Zealand is responsible for Niue's defense.(2, 3)

Since 1988, no treaty signed, ratified, accepted, approved, or acceded to by New Zealand extends to Niue, unless it was done expressly on behalf of Niue.(4)

The following convention has been ratified by Niue (Table 1).

Table 1. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor
Convention Ratification
ILO C. 138, Minimum Age  
ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor  
UN CRC
UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict  
UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography  
Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons  

The Government has established a few relevant laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 2).

Table 2. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor
Standard Yes/No Age Related Legislation
Minimum Age for Work No    
Minimum Age for Hazardous Work No    
List of Hazardous Occupations Prohibited for Children No    
Prohibition of Forced Labor No    
Prohibition of Child Trafficking Yes   Terrorism Suppression and Transnational Crimes Act (5)
Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children No    
Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities No    
Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment No    
Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service Yes 17 Minimum Entry Requirements- Army Generic Requirements for New Zealand (2, 3, 6)
Compulsory Education Age Yes 16 Education Act (7)
Free Public Education Yes   Education Act (7)

In Niue, children under the age of 16 are prohibited from working in the public sector, but they can help with family businesses.(8) There are, however, no labor laws and no established minimum age for labor.(8) There also is no comprehensive list of hazardous work prohibited to children.(1, 8)

The Terrorism Suppression and Transnational Crimes Act of 2006 makes it an offense to traffic children, and any person convicted of this offense may be imprisoned for a term not to exceed 20 years.(5) Research, however, has not identified whether there are laws that specifically address child prostitution and other forms of commercial sexual exploitation of children, such as pornography. Research also has not identified whether laws exist regarding the use of children for drug trafficking or other illicit activities.



III. Enforcement of Laws on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

As there is no evidence of a problem, there appears to be no need for enforcement actions to address child labor, including its worst forms in Niue.



IV. Coordination of Government Efforts on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Even though there is no evidence of a problem, the Government has established institutional mechanisms to address children's rights and protection (Table 3).

Table 3. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor
Coordinating Body Role & Description
The National Coordinating Committee for the Convention on the Rights of the Child (NCCCRC) Coordinate and monitor implementation of national policies related to children's rights and protections.(1, 8) Chaired by the Minister of Health and includes representatives from the Departments of Education, Crown Law, Community Affairs, Justice, Statistics, and Environment.(1, 8)



V. Government Policies on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

As there is no evidence of a problem, there appears to be no need for policies to address child labor, including its worst forms, in Niue.



VI. Social Programs to Address the Worst Forms of Child Labor

As there is no evidence of a problem, there appears to be no need for social programs to address child labor, including its worst forms, in Niue.



VII. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Based on the reporting above, the following actions would advance the continued prevention of child labor including its worst forms, in Niue (Table 4).

Table 4. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including Its Worst Forms
Area Suggested Action Year(s) Suggested
Laws Enact a labor law to include a minimum age for labor and hazardous work and ensure legal protection for working children. 2013
Complete and adopt the list of hazardous activities prohibited for children under age 18. 2013
Enact new legislation to protect children from commercial sexual exploitation, drug trafficking, and illicit activities. 2013



1. U.S. Embassy- Wellington. reporting, January 22, 2014.

2. Central Intelligence Agency. The World Fact Book: Niue; accessed April 11, 2014; https:// www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ne.html.

3. Minimum Entry Requirements- Army Generic Requirements for New Zealand, [cited August 8, 2013]; http://www.defencecareers.mil.nz/army/joining-up/am-i-eligible/minimum-entry-requirements.

4. U.S. Embassy - Wellington official. E-mail communication to USDOL official April 27, 2014.

5. Government of Niue. Terrorism Suppression and Transnational Crimes Act 2006. 2006. http://www.paclii.org/nu/legis/consol_act/tsatca2006529/.

6. Child Soldiers International. "Appendix II: Data Summary on Recruitment Ages of National Armies," in Louder than Words: An Agenda for Action to End State Use of Child Soldiers. London; September 2012; http://www.child-soldiers.org/global_report_reader.php?id=562.

7. Government of Niue. Education Act 1989. 1989.

8. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the initial report of Niue, adopted by the Committe at is sixty-second session. 2013.