2013 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor
In 2013, Nigeria made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government adopted its first National Policy on Child Labor and National Plan of Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor, and the Ministry of Labor and Productivity (MOLP) increased the number of inspectors employed and inspections conducted. In addition, the National Poverty Eradication Program (NAPEP) launched a conditional cash transfer program that will provide funds to households under the condition that their children remain in school. However, children in Nigeria continue to engage in forced labor in various sectors. Some children engage in armed conflict with non-government forces in the Northeast. Inconsistencies remain in laws regarding child labor and the minimum age for work is below international standards.
Children in Nigeria are engaged in forced labor in various sectors. Some children are engaged in armed conflict with non-government forces in the Northeast.( 1-4) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Nigeria.
|Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):||31.1 (13,924,739)|
|School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):||76.2|
|Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):||26.8|
|Primary completion rate (%):||76.0|
Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2010, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2014. ( 5)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from MICS4 Survey, 2011. ( 6)
Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.
|Agriculture||Production of manioc/cassava, cocoa, tobacco, and sand (7-12)|
|Herding cattle* (2, 12-14)|
|Industry||Mining and quarrying gravel and granite and breaking granite into gravel (12, 13, 15-18)|
|Artisanal gold mining* (19-22)|
|Auto repair (2)|
|Construction, activities unknown (2)|
|Services||Domestic service (1, 2, 12, 17, 23)|
|Street hawking† (2, 13, 23-25)|
|Street begging,† including by almajiri (2, 3, 7, 12, 26-28)|
|Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡||Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 7, 12, 29)|
|Begging, domestic service, street hawking, mining and quarrying gravel and granite, and work in agriculture, including in cocoa as a result of human trafficking (7, 29-31)|
|Use of children in illicit activities for armed groups, such as acting as messengers, transporters, and informants (3, 12)|
|Use of children in armed conflict, sometimes as a result of forced recruitment (3)|
*Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
†Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a) - (c) of ILO C. 182.
In northern Nigeria, many families send children from rural to urban areas to live with and receive a Koranic education from Islamic teachers. These children, known as almajiri, may receive lessons, but teachers often force them to beg on the streets and surrender the money they collect.(3, 7, 26, 28, 32) Although evidence remains limited, information indicates that some almajiri in Nigeria may be deliberately scarred or injured to arouse sympathy and thus encourage donations.(28) Almajiri are also reported to participate in political and religious riots and interreligious violence; some participate in violent activities under the influence of their religious teachers.(3, 28) In December 2010, the Ministerial Committee on Madrasah Education estimated that Nigeria had about 9.5 million almajiri.(2, 12)
Nigeria is a source, transit, and destination country for child trafficking.(28, 29, 33) Children in Nigeria are trafficked internally to work in agriculture, begging, domestic service, mining, and street peddling.(29-31) Children from Nigeria are trafficked to Equatorial Guinea where they may be forced to work as domestic servants, market laborers, vendors, and launderers.( 34) Nigerian children are also trafficked to Saudi Arabia and forced to work as beggars and street vendors.( 35) Girls from Nigeria are trafficked to Europe for commercial sexual exploitation.(29)
Children from Benin, Ghana, and Togo are trafficked to Nigeria, where many are forced to work in granite mines.(29) Some children from the Central African Republic (CAR) are trafficked back and forth between CAR and Nigeria for forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation.( 36) Boys from Niger are subjected to forced begging and forced labor in Nigeria.(37)
Pervasive poverty, coupled with mass unemployment and a poor education system, has created an atmosphere in which youth are susceptible to participation in conflict through armed groups, including ethnic-based militia organizations, criminal gangs, extremist groups, and partisan political organizations, such as party "youth wings."(3, 38-41) While the full scope of the problem is unknown, children as young as age 8 are recruited, and sometimes forced, into such groups. Street children are most at risk for recruitment.(3) Children take part in a range of activities from acting as messengers, transporters, and informants, to inciting and participating in acts of violence.(3) Research did not find reports of children being used in the Government's armed forces.
The terrorist group Boko Haram recruited and used child soldiers during the reporting year. Boys as young as 11 were reportedly paid to fight, plant bombs, spy, and act as suicide bombers.(12) Girls have been abducted by Boko Haram for slave labor or sexual exploitation; some of these girls were abducted while working on farms in remote villages or hawking wares on the street.(4) Some children, presumed to be between ages 15 and 17, have reportedly been observed manning checkpoints for anti-Boko Haram citizen vigilante groups, but they do not appear to be doing so under a government mandate. Some vigilante groups inform government security forces about suspected Boko Haram activity and have admitted to using a number of children in their operations.(4) However, the military has reportedly told these groups not to allow children to join.(4, 12, 42)
In May 2013, attempting to fight against Boko Haram's escalating violent attacks in the north of the country, President Goodluck Jonathan declared a state of emergency in the states of Borno, Yobe, and Adamawa and deployed Nigeria's Armed Forces to the northeast.(43, 44) In November, the state of emergency was extended for 6 additional months.(4) Boko Haram burned or destroyed a number of schools in Borno and Yobe States and thousands of children in the northeast have stopped attending classes. Boko Haram has carried out daytime attacks on teachers and students.(12, 45, 46)
In 2011, the Ministry of Labor and Productivity (MOLP) collected data from state governments on the prevalence of child labor, but the data have not been made publicly available.(2)
Nigeria has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).
|ILO C. 138, Minimum Age||✅|
|ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor||✅|
|UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict||✅|
|UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography||✅|
|Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons||✅|
Nigeria has ratified the African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa (Kampala Convention). (47) The Convention prohibits armed groups from recruiting children, or otherwise permitting them to participate in conflict, and engaging in sexual slavery and trafficking, especially of women and children.(48)
The Government has established relevant laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).
|Minimum Age for Work||Yes||12||Article 59 of the Labor Act; Articles 28 and 29 of the Child Rights Act 2003 (49, 50)|
|Minimum Age for Hazardous Work||Yes||18||Article 59 of the Labor Act; Articles 28 and 29 of the Child Rights Act 2003 (49, 50)|
|List of Hazardous Occupations Prohibited for Children||No|
|Prohibition of Forced Labor||Yes||Article 34 of the Constitution; Article 28 of the Child Rights Act 2003 (50, 51)|
|Prohibition of Child Trafficking||Yes||Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Law Enforcement and Administration Act 2003; Article 30 of the Child Rights Act 2003 (50, 52, 53)|
|Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children||Yes||Article 30 of the Child Rights Act 2003;Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Law Enforcement and Administration Act 2003 (2, 50, 52, 53)|
|Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities||Yes||Article 30 of the Child Rights Act 2003 (50)|
|Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment||N/A*|
|Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service||Yes||18||Article 28 of the Armed Forces Act; Article 34 of the Child Rights Act (50, 54, 55)|
|Compulsory Education Age||Yes||15||Articles 2 and 15 of the Compulsory, Free Universal Basic Education Act 2004; Article 15 of the Child Rights Act 2003 (50, 56)|
|Free Public Education||Yes||Article 3 of the Compulsory, Free Universal Basic Education Act 2004; Article 15 of the Child Rights Act 2003; Article 18 of the Constitution (50,51, 56)|
*No conscription or no standing military.
Nigeria's laws regarding child labor are inconsistent.(2) Article 59 of the Labor Act sets the minimum age of employment at 12, and it is in force in all 36 states of Nigeria. The Act also permits children of any age to do light work alongside a family member in agriculture, horticulture, or domestic service.(49, 57, 58)
The Federal 2003 Child Rights Act (CRA) codifies the rights of children in Nigeria and must be ratified by each State to become law in its territory.(2, 59) There were no new adoptions of the CRA during the reporting period. To date, 23 states and the Federal Capital Territory have ratified the CRA, with most of the 13 remaining states located in northern Nigeria.(2, 23)
The CRA states that the provisions related to children in the Labor Act apply to children under the CRA, but also that the CRA supersedes any other legislation related to children. The CRA restricts children under the age of 18 from any work aside from light work for family members; however, Article 59 of the Labor Act applies these restrictions only to children under the age of 12.(50, 58, 60) This language makes it unclear what minimum ages apply for certain types of work in the country.
While the Labor Act forbids the employment of youth under age 18 in work that is dangerous to their health, safety, or morals, it allows children to participate in certain types of work that may be dangerous by setting different age thresholds for various activities. In addition, the Labor Act does not apply to youth working in domestic service.(49) As a result, children are vulnerable to dangerous work in industrial undertakings, underground, with machines, and in domestic service. The Labor Act allows youth older than age 16 to work at night in gold mining and the manufacturing of iron, steel, paper, raw sugar, and glass.(49) This standard may leave children who work at night in gold mining and the above manufacturing activities vulnerable to hazardous work. In addition, neither the Labor Act nor the CRA lays out a comprehensive list of hazardous activities prohibited to children.(57, 61) During the year, the National Steering Committee validated the Report on the Identification of Hazardous Child Labor in Nigeria. The report is with the MOLP for official adoption and implementation.(2)
States may also enact additional provisions to bolster protection for working children within their territory. Some states within Nigeria have taken such action and closed gaps in the law.( 62) The 2006 Abia State Child's Rights Law prohibits all children under age 18 from engaging in domestic service outside of the home or family environment.(63) The state governments of Anambra, Bayelsa, and Lagos have prohibited children from all street trading, while Delta State only prohibits children from street trading during the school day.(2) During the year, Kano State initiated a prohibition against almajiri children begging on the street.(2)
Some states that apply Shari'a (the moral code and religious law of Islam) treat children as offenders rather than victims. The Shari'a Penal Code of the Zamfara State defines an offender as anyone who "does any obscene or indecent act in a private or public place, or acts or conducts himself/herself in an indecent manner."(61) Treating child victims of commercial sexual exploitation as offenders contradicts internationally accepted standards for the treatment of such children.(61) There is no law to prohibit the recruitment of children by non-state armed groups.(3, 64)
The 2004 Compulsory, Free Universal Basic Education Act provides for free and compulsory education for children until the age of 15.(56) The Federal Constitution (1999) also provides for free and compulsory primary education "when practicable."(51) While some states do offer free education, free universal compulsory education does not yet fully exist in Nigeria.(9, 12) School fees are often charged and the cost of school materials can be prohibitive.(12, 64) In addition, there is little enforcement of student attendance.( 64) As the laws providing for free and compulsory education are not systematically enforced, children are more likely to enter the worst forms of child labor.(2, 64) Under financial strain, many families will choose to send girls to work and boys to school.( 12)
The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).
|Ministry of Labor and Productivity, Inspectorate Division||Enforce federal child labor laws. Labor inspectors are deployed across 36 regions and the Federal Capital Territory (including Abuja) and are responsible for investigating all labor law violations, including those related to child labor.(7, 9, 65)|
|National Agency for the Prohibition of Traffic in Persons and Other Related Matters (NAPTIP)||Enforce anti-trafficking legislation. Has the power to conduct investigations to determine whether any person has committed an offense under the anti-trafficking law.(66) NAPTIP reports that authorities turn over rescued children to state-level agencies.(9)|
|Nigeria Police Force (NPF)||Enforce all laws prohibiting forced child labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Support MOLP and collaborate with NAPTIP on trafficking enforcement.(2)|
|Nigerian Immigration Service(NIS)||Collaborate with NAPTIP to enforce laws against trafficking children.(2)|
Law enforcement agencies in Nigeria took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.
Labor Law Enforcement
In 2013, the MOLP employed a total of 882 factory inspectors and labor officers, an increase of 209 inspectors from 2012. Of the 209 newly hired inspectors, 80 percent will focus on factory inspections.(2) Despite this substantial increase, evidence indicates that the number of inspectors is inadequate. MOLP's Labor Inspectorate held a conference to educate all MOLP labor officers on the National Policy on Child Labor which was adopted during the reporting year.(2) The MOLP provided three hours of training on child labor to new labor inspectors.(2)
The MOLP conducted 8,441 inspections from January to November 2013, an increase from the 7,840 labor inspections carried out in 2012. While 1,200 violations were documented, information on the number of child labor law violations or the number of citations issued is not available.(2) MOLP typically sends letters of caution to employers, encouraging them to resolve violations, and then conducts follow-up inspections.(2, 9, 64) It is unclear whether this system sufficiently encourages compliance with labor laws. The Labor Inspectorate director can also halt employer operations, but information is not available as to whether this occurred during the period.(2)
There are no labor inspectors available to conduct inspections on seafaring vessels.(67) Since children age 15 and older may work onboard these vessels, this leaves such children unprotected by the country's enforcement framework.(49) Research did not uncover mechanisms to enforce existing protections for street children.
Agencies at the state level are responsible for enforcing the CRA.(2) States may also undertake other measures that aid in the enforcement of labor provisions. For example, Ondo State has established a child labor monitoring system in cocoa plantations.( 68) In Edo State, labor officers work alongside the transportation industry to prevent children from working as bus conductors during the school day.(2)
The Nigeria Police Force (NPF) is not trained on state laws and may not have knowledge of such laws that protect children from a particular worst form of child labor within a specific state. This limits the capacity of the NPF to enforce the laws protecting children from the worst forms of child labor.( 69) The enforcement efforts of the MOLP and the social services provided by the Ministry of Women's Affairs and Social Development (MOWASD) are not well coordinated.(2)
Criminal Law Enforcement
In 2013, the National Agency for the Prohibition of Traffic in Persons and Other Related Matters (NAPTIP) investigated 137 cases of trafficking involving children, including 37 that involved child labor. Information on the number of prosecutions, convictions, and NAPTIP investigators is unavailable.(2, 29) At least 420 government officials, including officials from NAPTIP, NPF, and Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS), received anti-trafficking training during the year. During the reporting period, a government official was being investigated for allegedly violating child labor laws.(29) It is reported that some convicted traffickers were sentenced to between 6 months and 14 years of prison time; however, some of those convicted have the option to pay a fine instead of serving prison time.(1, 2)
Research did not uncover a referral mechanism between MOLP and the Ministry of Justice.(2)
The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).
|Coordinating Body||Role & Description|
|National Steering Committee for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Nigeria (NSC)||Coordinate efforts to combat child labor.Represented on the NSC are MOLP, Ministry of Women's Affairs and Social Development (MOWASD), and Ministries of Mining and Metal Production, Agriculture, Foreign Affairs, and Education-along with NAPTIP and National Bureau of Statistics.(2) Committee also includes ILO-IPEC, UNICEF, NGOs, and faith-based organizations that work on child labor issues.(2)|
|Ogun and Oyo State Steering Committees on Child Labor (SSC)||Facilitate each state's Action Plan for the elimination of child labor and enhance collaboration between all actors involved at the state level. State level Ministry of Labor and Productivity, Ministry for Women Affairs and Social Development, Ministry of Education, NAPTIP, Nigeria Police Force, Nigeria Immigration Service, and NGOs are represented on the SSCs.(70, 71) Both Committees meet regularly throughout the year.(71)|
|National Task Force on Trafficking in Persons||Coordinate trafficking efforts across government agencies and other organizations. Chaired by NAPTIP.(2)|
|State Level Child Labor Taskforce||Ensure that children attend school. Akwa Ibom, Delta, Lagos, Ogun, and Oyo states have each established a child labor taskforce within their state.(2, 42)|
The National Steering Committee for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Nigeria (NSC) met twice during the reporting period and adopted the draft National Policy on Child Labor and the National Action Plan (NAP) for the Elimination of Child Labor in Nigeria (2013-2017). The NSC also adopted the Report on the Identification of Hazardous Child Labor in Nigeria, and it was sent to the MOLP for consideration.(2)
The Government of Nigeria has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).
|National Policy on Child Labor†||Aims to significantly reduce prevalence of child labor in Nigeria by 2015 and achieve total elimination by 2020.(72) Adopted by Nigeria's Federal Executive Council on September 11, 2013.(2)|
|National Action Plan (NAP) for the Elimination of Child Labor in Nigeria (2013-2017)†||Provides a roadmap for implementation of the National Policy on Child Labor in Nigeria.(73) Adopted by Nigeria's Federal Executive Council on September 11, 2013.(2)|
|Ogun and Oyo State Action Plans on Child Labor||Guides implementation of the National Policy on Child Labor in Ogun and Oyo States. Both state plans were adopted during the reporting period.(71, 74, 75)|
|National Policy on Protection and Assistance to Trafficked Persons in Nigeria||Outlines protection and rehabilitation services for trafficking victims.(76-78) NAPTIP developed Guidelines on National Referral Mechanism for Protection and Assistance to Trafficked Persons in Nigeria to coordinate and improve service provision for trafficking victims.(29)|
|Five-Year Strategic Plan on Trafficking in Persons (2012-2017)||Articulates a strategy for coordination of anti-trafficking efforts across agencies and organizations.(1)|
|ECOWAS Regional Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor||Aims to eliminate worst forms of child labor in ECOWAS member states by 2015.(79) In 2013, ECOWAS conducted its first peer review to evaluate efforts to combat child labor at the country level. With Côte d'Ivoire, Nigeria reviewed Ghana's efforts to combat child labor and provided preliminary findings and recommendations.(71, 80)|
|National Framework for the Development and Integration of Almajiri Education in the Universal Basic Education Scheme||Provides guidelines for state governments to regulate almajiri schools in order to more effectively address the challenges that the traditional Islamic education sector faces on itinerancy and begging.(2, 81-83) Outlines government plans to build about 400 schools for almajiri children by 2015.(2, 41) Government completed construction of 123 of the schools, an increase of 34 schools from the previous reporting period.( 64)|
†Policy was launched during the reporting period.
In 2013, the Government of Nigeria funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).
|National Poverty Eradication Program (NAPEP)*†‡||NAPEP cash transfer (CCT) program launched during the year through its Care of the People (COPE) program. Will provide about $31 a month for households headed by a woman, an elderly person, or a person who is physically challenged to keep their children in school.(2) NAPEP will spend about $4.9 million on the program, reaching over 10,000 households during the pilot. Initially, the program will be implemented in three local government areas across 12 of Nigeria's 36 states.(2)|
|Akwa Ibom State*‡||State government provides free primary education.(2)|
|Anambra*‡||State government initiated programs to raise public awareness of its ban of children in street trading.(2)|
|Borno State*†||Governor has instituted programs that provide school fees, buses, and lunch to vulnerable children to help them attend school.(42)|
|Delta State*†||State government provides compulsory, free primary education.(84)|
|Kano State*‡||State government provides free primary education, free school meals, and some free transportation for children to attend school. State is introducing kindergarten classes.(2)|
|Katsina State†‡||State government introduced free primary and secondary education.(2)|
|Ogun State*||Labor officers implemented awareness raising programs for parents of children working in stone quarries.(2)|
|O'MEALS*‡||State government provides free lunch program for elementary students in Osun State.(2)|
|Rivers*‡||State government provided free primary education to all children.(2, 42)|
|Eliminating the Worst Forms of Child Labor in West Africa by Strengthening Sub-Regional Cooperation through ECOWAS (ECOWAS I)||$7.95 million, USDOL-funded, 5-year project implemented by the ILO with direct interventions to accelerate progress on the elimination of the worst forms of child labor in Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Nigeria. Supports ECOWAS to strengthen its role in combating the worst forms of child labor in the West Africa sub-region by providing policy and capacity building support for all ECOWAS states.(85) In Nigeria, the project supported national and state level efforts to eliminate worst forms of child labor in the country.(85)|
|Eliminating the Worst Forms of Child Labor in West Africa by Strengthening Sub-Regional Cooperation through ECOWAS (ECOWAS II)||Linked to the ECOWAS I project, a $5 million, USDOL-funded, 4-year project, implemented by the ILO with direct interventions in Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Nigeria. Supports ECOWAS to strengthen its role in combating the worst forms of child labor in the West Africa sub-region by providing policy and capacity building support for all ECOWAS states.(86) By the end of March 2014, the project had provided educational services to 779 children in Nigeria's Ogun and Oyo States and livelihoods services to 326 households.(87)|
|NAPTIP||NAPTIP operates eight shelters in Nigeria and assisted 612 child trafficking victims during the year. NAPTIP and the MOWASD coordinate social services for trafficked children and repatriation to their families.(2)|
*The impact of this program on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
†Program was launched during the reporting period.
‡Program is funded by the Government of Nigeria.
Although Nigeria has some programs in place to assist vulnerable and working children, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem. Research found no evidence of programs to assist children engaged in agriculture, commercial sexual exploitation, domestic service, forced labor, illicit activities, or armed conflict.
Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Nigeria (Table 9).
|Area||Suggested Action||Year(s) Suggested|
|Laws||Increase the minimum age for regular work to at least age 14, in accordance with international standards.||2012 - 2013|
|Amend the Labor Act and Child Rights Act to ensure they are consistent and apply equally to children working in all sectors; ensure that all children under age 18 are protected from hazardous work; and ensure that provisions related to light work conform to international standards.||2009 - 2013|
|Adopt and implement the Report on the Identification of Hazardous Child Labor in Nigeria.||2009 - 2013|
|Ensure that those states applying Shari'a as the Penal Code do not penalize child victims of commercial sexual exploitation.||2009 - 2013|
|Adopt legislation to ensure all children under the age of 18 are prohibited from recruitment for armed conflict, including by non-state armed groups.||2011 - 2013|
|Fully implement and enforce the Compulsory, Free Universal Basic Education Act.||2012 - 2013|
|Enforcement||Enforce the prohibition against the use of children in armed conflict.||2013|
|Provide an adequate number of trained inspectors to effectively enforce laws related to the worst forms of child labor.||2011 - 2013|
|Collect, analyze, and disseminate information on the enforcement of laws related to the worst forms of child labor.||2009 - 2013|
|Ensure that child labor inspections occur on seafaring vessels and that a mechanism exists for enforcing existing protections for street children.||2010 - 2013|
|Ensure that penalties given for child labor violations are in keeping with the law.||2013|
|Ensure that Nigeria Police Force has knowledge of state laws addressing the worst forms of child labor.||2010 - 2013|
|Establish referral mechanisms between Nigeria's enforcement, judicial, and social service agencies.||2013|
|Social Programs||Publish results of the data collected on child labor in 2011.||2011 - 2013|
|Assess the impact that existing programs may have on addressing child labor.||2013|
|Establish and expand programs that prevent and remove children from child labor in agriculture and domestic service and from the worst forms of child labor in commercial sexual exploitation, forced labor, illicit activities, and armed conflict.||2009 - 2013|
3. Shepler, S. Analysis of the Situation of Children Affected by Armed Conflict in the Niger Delta and Northern Region of Nigeria. Washington, DC, Search for Common Ground; 2012. https:// www.academia.edu/Download.
4. Human Rights Watch. "Nigeria: Boko Haram Abducts Women, Recruits Children." hrw.org [online] November 29, 2013 [cited February 2, 2014]; http://www.hrw.org/news/2013/11/29/nigeria-boko-haram-abducts-women-recruits-children.
5. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed February 10, 2014]; http://www.uis.unesco.org/Pages/default.aspx?SPSLanguage=EN . Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.
6. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from MICS4, 2011. Analysis received February 13, 2014. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.
7. International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC). Report for the WTO General Council Review of the Trade Policies of Nigeria. Geneva; June 30, 2011. http://www.ituc-csi.org/report-for-the-wto-general-council,9354.html.
8. Kassim Adekunle Akanni, and Alfred Olayinka Dada. "Analysis of Labour-Use Patterns among Small-Holder Cocoa Farmers in South Western Nigeria." Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, B(2)(2012); http://www.davidpublishing.com/davidpublishing/Upfile/3/23/2012/2012032309828459.pdf
10. Akioye, S. A New Form of Child Labour is Slowly Emerging in Oyo State Tobacco Growing Communities, [blog] May 27, 2009 [cited May 5, 2009]; http://nigerianationaltobaccocontrolbill.blogspot.com/2009/05/childs-slavery-in-bats-farm.html.
11. Macro International Inc. Children Working in Riverine Communities in Nigeria- Task 3: Research & Data Collection International Child Labor Issues. Project Document. Calverton, Maryland; August 24, 2007.
12. U.S. Department of State. "Nigeria," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2013&dlid=220146.
20. Beaubien, J. "Nigeria Pressured To Clean Up Lead-Contaminated Villages." npr.org [online] December 6, 2012 [cited February 14, 2013]; http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2012/12/06/166651255/nigeria-pressured-to-clean-up-lead-contaminated-villages?ft=1&f=.
23. Kure, I. "Despite Bans, Child Labor Prevalent in Nigeria." voanews.com [online] September 10, 2013 [cited January 29, 2014]; http://www.voanews.com/content/child-labor-still-common-in-parts-of-nigeria/1747147.html.
24. Simon, L. "Poverty and Girl-Child Hawking in the North." Nigerian Tribune, Lagos, August 3, 2011. http://tribune.com.ng/index.php/gamji-features/26025-poverty-and-girl-child-hawking-in-the-north.
25. O.R. Ashimolowo, A.K. Aromolaran, and S.O. Inegbedion. "Child Street-Trading Activities and Its Effect on the Educational Attainment of Its Victims in Epe Local Government Area of Lagos State." Joumal of Agricultural Science, 2(No. 4)(2010); www.ccsenet.org/jas.
26. Abubakar, A. "Nigeria Struggles to Curb Rise in Child Beggars." The Telegraph, London, November 18, 2009. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/expat/expatnews/6596232/Nigeria-struggles-to-curb-rise-in-child-beggars.html.
27. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention: Concluding Observations: Nigeria. Geneva; June 21, 2010. Report No. CRC/C/NGA/CO/3-4. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/treaty/CD_Concl_Obs_2010/CRC/54th%20session/CRC-C-NGA-CO-3-4%20(e).pdf.
31. Integrated Regional Information Networks. "Nigeria: Trafficking Convictions up but Progress Slow." IRINnews.org [online] March 15, 2010 [cited May 15, 2012]; http://www.irinnews.org/PrintReport.aspx?ReportId=88424.
38. Parker, G. "Nigeria Reels from Extremist Violence." globalpost.com [online] January 8, 2012 [cited January 30, 2012]; http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/regions/africa/nigeria/120108/nigeria-islamic-extremists-increase-violence.
40. Gambrell, J. "Youth Rage Boils Amid North Nigeria Sect Attacks." Charlotte Observer, Charlotte, NC, January 25, 2012. http://www.charlotteobserver.com/2012/01/25/2956983/youths-overrun-bombed-north-nigeria.html.
43. Botelho, G. "Nigerian President Declares Emergency in 3 States during 'Rebellion'." cnn.com [online] May 14, 2013 [cited January 30, 2014]; http://www.cnn.com/2013/05/14/world/africa/nigeria-violence/.
45. Integrated Regional Information Networks. "Boko Haram Attacks Hit School Attendance in Borno State." IRINnews.org [online] May 14, 2013 [cited January 30,2014]; http://www.irinnews.org/report/98032/boko-haram-attacks-hit-school-attendance-in-borno-state.
46. Raghavan, S. "In Nigeria's North, Boko Haram Militia Aims to Mold the Schools through Violence." The Washington Post, Washington, DC, June 10, 2013. http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/africa/in-nigerias-north-boko-haram-militia-aims-to-mold-the-schools-through-violence/2013/06/09/0cc37d56-cd64-11e2-8573-3baeea6a2647_story.html.
47. Integrated Regional Information Networks. "African Convention on Internally Displaced Persons Comes into Force." IRINnews.org [online] December 7, 2012 [cited February 20, 2013]; http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/2012/dec/07/african-convention-internally-displaced-persons.
48. African Union. Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa (Kampala Convention), enacted October 23, 2009. http://au.int/en/content/african-union-convention-protection-and-assistance-internally-displaced-persons-africa.
49. Government of Nigeria. Labour Act (Chapter 198) (No. 21), as amended. Laws of the Federation of Nigeria (1990 Revised edition), Vol. X, Cap. 198, enacted 1990. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/42156/64980/E7RNGA01.htm#p3.
53. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29) Nigeria (ratification: 1960) Submitted: 2012; accessed January 29, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:::.
54. Child Soldiers International. "Appendix II: Data Summary on Recruitment Ages of National Armies," in Louder Than Words: An Agenda for Action to End State Use of Child Soldiers. London; 2012; http://www.child-soldiers.org/global_report_reader.php?id=562.
57. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (no. 138) Nigeria (ratification: 2002) Published: 2012; accessed October 31, 2012; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:::.
58. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) - Nigeria (ratification: 2002) Submitted: 2012; accessed January 30, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:::.
60. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Nigeria (ratification: 2002) Submitted: 2011; accessed May 15, 2012; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:::.
61. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Nigeria (ratification: 2002) Submitted: 2010; accessed May 15, 2012; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:::.
65. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81) Nigeria (ratification: 1960) Published: 2009; accessed May 15, 2012; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:::.
66. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) - Nigeria (Ratification: 2002) Submitted: 2012; accessed January 29, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:::.
67. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Labour Inspection (Seafarers) Convention, 1996 (No. 178) Nigeria (ratification: 2004) Submitted: 2011; accessed April 18, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:::.
68. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 44 of the Convention: Third and Fourth Periodic Report of States Parties Due in 2008: Nigeria . Geneva; January 5, 2009. Report No. CRC/C/NGA/3-4. http://www.unhchr.ch/.
79. ECOWAS. ECOWAS Regional Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labour Especially in the Worst Forms. Abuja; June 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---africa/documents/publication/wcms_227737.pdf.
82. Kaduna, SO. "Capacity Building for Almajiri Teachers, Our Priority Coordinator." punchng.com [online] January 6, 2012 [cited May 14, 2012]; http://www.punchng.com/education/capacity-building-for-almajiri-teachers-our-priority-coordinator/.
83. Universal Basic Education Commission. National Framework for the Development and Integration of Almajiri Education into the UBE Scheme. Abuja, Government of Nigeria; December 2010. http://ubeconline.com/almajiri/Almajiri%20Policy%20Thrust%20FINAL.pdf.
84. Adebowale, S. "Education Now Compulsory for School Age Children in Delta - Uduaghan." theeagleonline.com [online] 2013 [cited May 27, 2014]; http://theeagleonline.com.ng/education-now-compulsory-for-school-age-children-in-delta-uduaghan/.
Labor Rights in Nigeria
Learn what we are doing to to protect the rights of workers