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Nigeria

2014 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Moderate Advancement

In 2014, Nigeria made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government continues to fund and participate in programs that focus on the prevention and elimination of the worst forms of child labor. Law enforcement officials received child labor training, and the states of Ogun and Oyo approved Action Plans on Child Labor. The Senate and House of Representatives passed a bill to restrict the ability of judges to offer fines in lieu of prison time for human trafficking offenses. However, children in Nigeria are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture, and in the worst forms of child labor, including in armed conflict. The legal framework has inconsistencies regarding child labor, and the minimum age for work is below international standards. Due to budget constraints, the Government did not take actions to implement the 2013 National Action Plan on the Elimination of Child Labor.

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I. Prevalence and Sectoral Distribution of Child Labor

Children in Nigeria are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture. Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in armed conflict.(1-7) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Nigeria.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

31.1 (13,924,739)

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

76.2

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

26.8

Primary completion rate (%):

76.0

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2010, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(8)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4, 2011.(9)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of manioc/cassava, cocoa, and tobacco* (1-3, 10)

Herding livestock* (3, 5, 11)

Fishing,* activities unknown (1, 3)

Industry

Mining and quarrying granite and gravel and breaking granite into gravel (3, 12-15)

Harvesting sand (16)

Artisanal gold mining and processing* (5, 17-19)

Construction,* activities unknown (3, 5)

Services

Domestic service (3, 5, 14, 20)

Auto repair* (1, 5)

Conducting minibuses* (3, 14)

Street hawking (3, 5, 12, 14, 20, 21)

Street begging, including by almajiri (1, 3, 22)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 3-5, 10, 23)

Begging, domestic service, street hawking, mining and quarrying gravel and granite, and work in agriculture, including in cocoa, as a result of human trafficking (1, 3-5, 12, 21, 23-25)

Used in illicit activities for armed groups, sometimes as a result of forced recruitment, including participating in extortion, intimidation, armed robbery, and drug trafficking (3, 5, 10, 22)

Used in armed conflict, sometimes as a result of forced recruitment, including as messengers, transporters, informants, spies, and suicide bombers (4-7, 23, 26, 27)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a) — (c) of ILO C. 182.

In northern Nigeria, many families send children from rural to urban areas to live with and receive a Koranic education from Islamic teachers known as mallams. These children, known as almajiri, may receive lessons, but teachers often force them to beg on the streets and surrender the money they collect.(1, 4, 22, 28) In December 2010, the Ministerial Committee on Madrasah Education estimated that Nigeria had about 9.5 million almajiri.(5)

Nigeria is a source, transit, and destination country for child trafficking.(4, 29) Children in Nigeria are trafficked internally to work in agriculture, begging, domestic service, mining, quarrying, and street hawking.(4, 23, 24) Children from Nigeria are trafficked to Equatorial Guinea, where they may be forced to work as domestic servants, market laborers, vendors, and launderers.(30) Nigerian children are also trafficked to Saudi Arabia and forced to work as beggars and street vendors.(28, 31) Girls from Nigeria are trafficked to Europe for commercial sexual exploitation.(4, 23)

Children from Benin, Ghana, and Togo are trafficked to Nigeria, where many are forced to work in granite mines.(4) Boys from Niger are subjected to forced labor, including forced begging in Nigeria, by corrupt mallams.(28, 32)

Pervasive poverty, coupled with mass unemployment and a poor education system, has created an atmosphere in which youth are susceptible to participation in armed conflict with various groups, including ethnic-based militia organizations, criminal gangs, extremist groups, and partisan political organizations, such as party "youth wings."(22, 33-35) Children as young as age 8 are recruited, and sometimes forced, into such groups. Street children are most at risk for recruitment.(22) Research did not find reports of children being used in the Government's armed forces.

The terrorist group Jama'atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda'awati wal-Jihad, commonly known as Boko Haram, recruited and used child soldiers during the reporting period.(7, 22, 25-28, 37) Boys as young as 11 years old were reportedly forced to fight, plant bombs, spy, and act as suicide bombers.(7) Girls have been abducted by Boko Haram for domestic labor, sexual exploitation, and to act as suicide bombers.(25, 28, 38) Borno State's Civilian Joint Task Force (CJTF) works with security forces by identifying and helping to arrest suspected Boko Haram members.(39) Research found that children as young as 14 years old have joined the CJTF and other civilian vigilante groups, either voluntarily or forcibly, to man checkpoints, gather intelligence, and participate in armed patrols.(22, 27, 28, 39) Although it is unclear whether the CJTF forcibly recruited children under age 18 during the reporting period, the Nigerian military has reportedly told the group not to allow children to join.(22, 28)

Boko Haram has continued to carry out regular attacks on primary and secondary schools in Northeast Nigeria. Boko Haram shot and burned to death 59 boys at a secondary school in Buni Yadi, Yobe State, in February 2014.(6, 36, 37) In April 2014, Boko Haram abducted 276 girls from a secondary school in Chibok, Borno State.(6, 7) In addition to targeted attacks, Boko Haram threatens and intimidates teachers and students to keep them from going to school.(6, 7) This insecurity has led to mass school closures in the Northeast and the withdrawal of many students, especially girls, from school.(3, 6, 7, 38, 39)

Although free and compulsory education is federally mandated by the 2004 Compulsory, Free Universal Basic Education Act, little enforcement of compulsory education laws occurs at the state level.(5) While some states do offer free education, free universal compulsory education does not yet fully exist in Nigeria.(3) School fees are often charged, and the cost of books, uniforms, and other supplies can be prohibitive for low-income families.(5) Under financial strain, many families choose to send girls to work and boys to school.(3)



II. Legal Framework for the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Nigeria has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

Nigeria has ratified the African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa (Kampala Convention).(40) The Convention prohibits armed groups from recruiting children, or otherwise permitting them to participate in conflict, and engaging in sexual slavery and trafficking, especially of women and children.(41)

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

12

Article 59 of the Labour Act; Articles 28 and 29 of the Child's Right Act, 2003 (42, 43)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 59 of the Labour Act; Articles 28 and 29 of the Child's Right Act, 2003 (42, 43)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Article 59 of the Labour Act (42)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 34 of the Constitution; Article 28 of the Child's Right Act, 2003 (43, 44)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 13-15 and 22 of the Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Law Enforcement and Administration Act, 2003; Article 30 of the Child's Right Act, 2003 (43, 45)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 13-15 of the Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Law Enforcement and Administration Act, 2003; Articles 30 and 32 of the Child's Right Act, 2003 (43, 45)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 15 of the Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Law Enforcement and Administration Act, 2003; Article 30 of the Child's Right Act, 2003 (43, 45)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Article 28 of the Armed Forces Act; Article 34 of the Child's Right Act, 2003 (43, 46)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Articles 2 and 15 of the Compulsory, Free Universal Basic Education Act, 2004; Article 15 of the Child's Right Act, 2003 (43, 47)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 3 of the Compulsory, Free Universal Basic Education Act, 2004; Article 15 of the Child's Right Act, 2003; Article 18 of the Constitution (43, 44, 47)

* No conscription (48)

The Federal 2003 Child's Right Act (CRA) codifies the rights of children in Nigeria and must be ratified by each state to become law in its territory.(5, 43) There were no new adoptions of the CRA during the reporting period.(5) To date, 23 states and the Federal Capital Territory have ratified the CRA, with 12 of the remaining 13 states located in northern Nigeria.(5, 20)

Nigeria's laws regarding minimum age for employment are inconsistent. (7) The CRA states that the provisions related to young people in the Labour Act apply to children under the CRA, but also that the CRA supersedes any other legislation related to children. The CRA restricts children under the age of 18 from any work aside from light work for family members; however, Article 59 of the Labour Act, which is in force in all 36 states of Nigeria, sets the minimum age of employment at 12 years.(43, 49, 50) The Act also permits children of any age to do light work alongside a family member in agriculture, horticulture, or domestic service.(42, 50, 51) This language makes it unclear what minimum ages apply for certain types of work in the country.

While the Labour Act forbids the employment of youth under age 18 in work that is dangerous to their health, safety, or morals, it allows children to participate in certain types of work that may be dangerous by setting different age thresholds for various activities.(42) For example, the Labour Act allows children ages 16 and older to work at night in gold mining and the manufacturing of iron, steel, paper, raw sugar, and glass.(42) Furthermore, the Labour Act does not extend to children employed in domestic service. Thus, children are vulnerable to dangerous work in industrial undertakings, underground, with machines, and in domestic service. In addition, the prohibitions established by the Labour Act and the CRA are not comprehensive nor specific enough to facilitate enforcement.(51, 52) In 2013, the National Steering Committee for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Nigeria (NSC) validated the Report on the Identification of Hazardous Child Labor in Nigeria. Currently, the report is with the Ministry of Labor and Productivity (MOLP) for the promulgation of guidelines for operationalizing the report.(10, 28)

States may also enact additional provisions to bolster protection for working children within their territory. Some states within Nigeria have taken such action and closed gaps in the law.(53) The 2006 Abia State Child's Rights Law prohibits all children under age 18 from engaging in domestic service outside of the home or family environment.(54) The state governments of Anambra, Bayelsa, and Lagos have prohibited children from all street trading, while Delta State only prohibits children from street trading during the school day. Kano State has initiated a prohibition against almajiri begging on the street.(10)

Some states that apply Shari'a (the moral code and religious law of Islam) treat children as offenders rather than victims. The Shari'a Penal Code of Zamfara State defines an offender as anyone who "does any obscene or indecent act in a private or public place, or acts or conducts himself/herself in an indecent manner."(52) Treating child victims of commercial sexual exploitation as offenders contradicts internationally accepted standards for the treatment of such children.(52)

Although the 2003 Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Law Enforcement and Administration Act prohibits human trafficking for forced or compulsory recruitment in armed conflict, the legal framework does not proscribe punishments for non-state armed groups that recruit and use children.(22, 55)

The 2003 Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Law Enforcement and Administration Act prescribes penalties of 5 to 15 years' imprisonment for labor and sex trafficking offenses; however, the law also allows convicted offenders to pay a fine in lieu of prison time.(4) For sentences that only include a fine, penalties are not sufficiently stringent to deter violators. By March 2014, the House of Representatives and Senate passed a bill that would amend the anti-trafficking law to restrict the ability of judges to offer fines in lieu of prison time. However, the bill is awaiting approval by the President.(4, 23, 28)



III. Enforcement of Laws on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Productivity (MOLP), Inspectorate Division

Enforce federal child labor laws. Labor inspectors are deployed across 36 state labor offices and the Federal Capital Territory, including Abuja, and are responsible for investigating all labor law violations, including those related to child labor.(1, 56, 57)

National Agency for the Prohibition of Traffic in Persons and Other Related Matters(NAPTIP)

Enforce anti-human trafficking legislation. Have the power to conduct investigations to determine whether any person has committed an offense under the anti-trafficking law.(58) Officials turn over rescued children to state-level agencies.(56)

Nigeria Police Force

Enforce all laws prohibiting forced child labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Support MOLP and collaborate with NAPTIP on trafficking enforcement.(10)

Nigerian Immigration Service

Collaborate with NAPTIP to enforce laws against trafficking in children.(10)

Law enforcement agencies in Nigeria took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2014, MOLP employed 258 factory inspectors and 402 labor officers, a decrease of 222 inspectors from 2013.(5) Evidence indicates that the number of inspectors is inadequate to deal with the wide-scale problem of child labor.(5) In April 2014, 93 MOLP labor inspectors participated in child labor inspection workshops to develop monitoring and reporting tools.(59) MOLP provided 3 hours of training on child labor to new labor inspectors.(28) In 2011, MOLP collected data from state governments on the prevalence of child labor, but the data have not been made publicly available.(10)

Information on the number of child labor law inspections, violations, and citations issued during the reporting period is not available.(10) Inspections can be unannounced, are conducted through site visits, and tend to focus on large businesses such as factories.(60) MOLP typically sends letters of caution to employers, encouraging them to resolve violations, and then conducts follow-up inspections.(5) It is unclear whether this system sufficiently encourages compliance with labor laws. The Labor Inspectorate director can also halt employer operations, but information is not available as to whether this occurred during the period.(5)

There are no labor inspectors available to conduct inspections on seafaring vessels.(61) Since the Labour Act states that children ages 15 and older may work onboard these vessels, children are unprotected by the country's enforcement framework.(42) Additionally, research did not find mechanisms to enforce existing protections for street children.

Agencies at the state level are responsible for enforcing the CRA.(10) States may also undertake other measures that aid in the enforcement of labor provisions. In Edo State, for example, labor officers work alongside the transportation industry to prevent children from working as bus conductors during the school day.(10)

MOLP refers cases of children gravely in danger to the National Agency for the Prohibition of Traffic in Persons and Other Related Matters (NAPTIP); however, research did not find other referral mechanisms between MOLP and social welfare services.(60)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2014, the number of investigators responsible for enforcing criminal laws on the worst forms of child labor was inadequate.(28) From March to April 2014, representatives from NAPTIP participated in workshops with other Government and NGO officials to focus on improving the transitional services provided to children in or at high risk of child labor, and enhance the development and adherence to child protection standards and codes of conduct.(59) NAPTIP received a $9.4 million budget from the Government, a slight increase from the previous year's budget of $8.9 million.(23)

The Nigeria Police Force (NPF) does not receive training on state laws and may not have knowledge of state laws that protect children from the worst forms of child labor within a specific state. This limits the capacity of the NPF to enforce the laws protecting children from the worst forms of child labor.(62)

During the reporting period, NAPTIP investigated 236 cases of human trafficking involving children, including 99 for child labor.(5) Information on the number of prosecutions and convictions is unavailable.(5, 63) During the reporting period, a Government official was investigated for allegedly violating child labor laws.(4, 28)

Although NAPTIP coordinates the National Referral Mechanism to provide rehabilitation and other social services to trafficked children, research did not find a referral mechanism for children found in other worst forms of child labor, including armed conflict.(5, 23) Research found that Government armed forces arrested and detained boys as young as age 9 for suspected alliance with Boko Haram. Additionally, the military arrested girls as young as age 13 who were married to senior Boko Haram members.(64)



IV. Coordination of Government Efforts on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Steering Committee for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Nigeria (NSC)

Coordinate efforts to combat child labor. Represented on the NSC are MOLP; Ministry of Women's Affairs and Social Development; and Ministries of Mining and Metal Production, Agriculture, Foreign Affairs, and Education — along with NAPTIP and the National Bureau of Statistics.(5) Additionally, includes representatives from ILO-IPEC, UNICEF, NGOs, and faith-based organizations that work on child labor issues.(10)

Ogun and Oyo State Steering Committees on Child Labor (SSC)

Facilitate each state's Action Plan for the elimination of child labor and enhance collaboration among agencies. Include officials from State-level MOLP, Ministry for Women Affairs and Social Development, Ministry of Education, NAPTIP, Nigeria Police Force, Nigeria Immigration Service, and NGOs.(65, 66) Meet regularly throughout the year.(66)

Presidential Task Force on Trafficking in Persons

Coordinate child labor issues related to human trafficking. Chaired by NAPTIP, which is primarily responsible for social services to children and repatriation of trafficked children to their families.(5)

State Level Child Labor Taskforces

Ensure that children attend school. Established in Akwa Ibom, Delta, Lagos, Ogun, Ondo, and Oyo States.(10, 67)

MOLP reported that the NSC did not meet in 2014 due to funding constraints.(5)



V. Government Policies on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government of Nigeria has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).

Table 7. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Policy on Child Labor

Aims to significantly reduce prevalence of child labor in Nigeria by 2015 and achieve total elimination by 2020.(68)

National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor in Nigeria (2013 — 2017)

Provides a roadmap for implementation of the National Policy on Child Labor in Nigeria.(69)

Ogun and Oyo State Action Plans on Child Labor (2014 — 2017)†

Guides implementation of the National Policy on Child Labor in Ogun and Oyo States.(66, 70, 71)

National Policy on Protection and Assistance to Trafficked Persons in Nigeria

Outlines protection and rehabilitation services for trafficking victims.(72, 73) NAPTIP developed Guidelines on National Referral Mechanism for Protection and Assistance to Trafficked Persons in Nigeria to coordinate and improve service provision for trafficking victims.(63)

Five-Year Strategic Plan for NAPTIP (2012 — 2017)

Provides an organizing framework for mobilizing NAPTIP and all stakeholders involved in combating human trafficking within Nigeria and internationally. Structured around six main areas: organizational development; research and assessment; prevention, protection, return, and re-integration measures; legal, prosecution, and law enforcement; monitoring and evaluation; and international cooperation.(74)

ECOWAS Regional Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor

Aims to eliminate worst forms of child labor in ECOWAS member states by 2015.(75) ECOWAS conducted its first peer review to evaluate efforts to combat child labor at the country level. With Côte d'Ivoire, Nigeria reviewed Ghana's efforts to combat child labor and provided preliminary findings and recommendations.(76, 77)

National Framework for the Development and Integration of Almajiri Education into the Universal Basic Education Scheme

Provides guidelines for state governments to regulate almajiri schools in order to more effectively address the challenges that the traditional Islamic education sector faces on itinerancy and begging.(10, 78-80) Outlines Government plans to build about 400 schools for almajiri by 2015.(10, 81) By August 2014, the Government completed construction of 152 schools, an increase of 29 schools from the previous reporting period.(5)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

The Government reported there was no action to implement the National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor in 2014 due to funding constraints.(5)



VI. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

In 2014, the Government of Nigeria funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms. The Government has other programs that may have an impact on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Akwa Ibom State*‡

State government provides free primary education.(5)

Anambra*‡

State government initiated programs to raise public awareness of its ban of children in street trading.(5)

Borno State*‡

Governor has instituted programs that provide funds, buses, and lunch to vulnerable children to help them attend school.(67)

Delta State*‡

State government provides compulsory, free primary education.(82)

Kano State*†‡

State government provides free primary education, free school meals, and some free transportation for children to attend school. State is introducing kindergarten classes.(5) In 2014, the U.S. Embassy worked with the Kano State Government and two NGOs to launch an advocacy campaign designed to combat labor exploitation of almajiri.(28, 83)

Katsina State*‡

State government program that provides free primary and secondary education.(5)

Ogun State

USDOL-funded pilot program implemented by the ILO that aims to provide education and skills training to 500 children previously engaged in child labor or at risk of doing so. The program also improves the income-generating capacity of families.(5)

Ogun State‡

State Government-implemented program for labor officers to initiate awareness-raising programs for parents of children working in stone quarries.(7)

Osun Elementary School Feeding and Health Program *‡

State government established a free lunch program for elementary school students. In October 2014, Osun State officials claimed that the program was feeding 252,000 students and was responsible for a 25 percent increase in enrollment.(5)

Rivers*‡

State government provided free primary education to all children.(5, 67)

Sokoto and Niger States*†

United Kingdom's Department for International Development — funded program in collaboration with the Government and UNICEF to provide cash transfers to pay for textbooks and other school-related costs. The program aims to reach 23,000 girls ages 6 to 15.(84)

Eliminating the Worst Forms of Child Labor in West Africa by Strengthening Sub-Regional Cooperation through ECOWAS (ECOWAS I)

USDOL-funded, $7.95 million, 5-year project implemented by the ILO with direct interventions to accelerate progress on the elimination of the worst forms of child labor in Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Nigeria. Supports ECOWAS to strengthen its role in combating the worst forms of child labor in the West Africa sub-region by providing policy and capacity-building support for all ECOWAS states.(85, 86) In Nigeria, the project supported national- and state-level efforts to eliminate worst forms of child labor in the country, including the identification of hazardous work for the National Hazardous Child Labor List.(87)

Eliminating the Worst Forms of Child Labor in West Africa by Strengthening Sub-Regional Cooperation through ECOWAS (ECOWAS II)

Linked to the ECOWAS I project, a $5 million, USDOL-funded, 4-year project implemented by the ILO with direct intervention in Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Nigeria. Supports ECOWAS to strengthen its role in combating the worst forms of child labor in the West Africa sub-region by providing policy and capacity-building support for all ECOWAS states.(85, 86) The project provided educational services to 779 children in Ogun and Oyo States and livelihood services to 326 households.(59)

NAPTIP shelters for human trafficking victims‡

Government-funded program that operates nine shelters in Nigeria with a total capacity for 313 victims.(4) NAPTIP and the Ministry of Women's Affairs and Social Development coordinate social services for trafficked children and repatriation to their families.(10) In 2014, the Abuja shelter was refurbished with funding from the EU. It now has the capacity to accommodate 38 victims of human trafficking, provide counseling and rehabilitation services, and offer vocational services.(88)

Safe Schools Initiative*†‡

Government-funded program with support from the UN that aims to provide remedial education and pilot 10 safe education facilities in northeastern Nigeria, specifically in Borno, Yobe, and Adamawa States. The initiative combines school-based interventions, community interventions to protect schools, and special measures for vulnerable populations.(6, 89)

* The impact of this program on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
† Program was launched during the reporting period.
‡ Program is funded by the Government of Nigeria.

Although Nigeria has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem. Research found no evidence of programs to specifically address children engaged in agriculture, commercial sexual exploitation, domestic service, forced labor, illicit activities, or armed conflict.



VII. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Nigeria (Table 9).

Table 9. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Increase the minimum age for regular work to at least age 14, in accordance with international standards; ensure that national legislation related to minimum age for work is consistent and that children working in all sectors are protected; ensure that provisions related to light work conform to international standards.

2009 — 2014

Ensure that all children under age 18 are protected from hazardous work and that legislation is comprehensive and specific enough to facilitate enforcement.

2009 — 2014

Ensure that those states applying Shari'a as the Penal Code do not penalize child victims of commercial sexual exploitation.

2009 — 2014

Adopt legislation to ensure that all children under the age of 18 are prohibited from recruitment for armed conflict, including by non-state armed groups.

2011 — 2014

Ensure that penalties given for child labor violations are sufficiently stringent to deter violators.

2014

Enforcement

Provide an adequate number of trained inspectors and investigators to effectively enforce labor laws, including laws related to the worst forms of child labor. Ensure that Nigeria Police Force officers have knowledge of state laws addressing the worst forms of child labor.

2010 — 2014

Make data on child labor law inspections, violations, citations, prosecutions, and convictions publicly available.

2009 — 2014

Ensure that child labor inspections occur on seafaring vessels and that a mechanism exists for enforcing existing protections for street children.

2010 — 2014

Establish referral mechanisms between Nigeria's law enforcement and social service agencies for all children found during labor inspections or criminal investigations.

2013 — 2014

Coordination

Ensure that the NSC has sufficient resources to coordinate efforts to combat child labor.

2014

Government Policies

Ensure that the National Action Plan to Eliminate Child Labor has sufficient resources to be implemented.

2014

Social Programs

Publish results from the 2011 MOLP study on child labor, and if necessary, conduct additional child labor research to determine activities of children working in fishing and construction.

2011 — 2014

Ensure that all states adopt programs to offer free education and expand existing programs that provide vulnerable children, especially girls, with funds to cover school fees and the cost of materials.

2014

Assess the impact that existing programs may have on addressing child labor.

2013 — 2014

Establish and expand programs that prevent and remove children from child labor in agriculture and domestic service and from the worst forms of child labor in commercial sexual exploitation, forced labor, illicit activities, and armed conflict.

2009 — 2014



1.International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC). Report for the WTO General Council Review of the Trade Policies of Nigeria. Geneva; June 30, 2011. http://www.ituc-csi.org/report-for-the-wto-general-council,9354.html.

2.Kassim Adekunle Akanni, and Alfred Olayinka Dada. "Analysis of Labour-Use Patterns among Small-Holder Cocoa Farmers in South Western Nigeria." Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, B(2)(2012); http://www.davidpublishing.com/davidpublishing/Upfile/3/23/2012/2012032309828459.pdf

3.U.S. Department of State. "Nigeria," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2013&dlid=220146.

4.U.S. Department of State. "Nigeria," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington, DC; June 20, 2014; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/226848.pdf.

5.U.S. Embassy- Abuja. reporting, January 23, 2015.

6.United Nations Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict (A/69/926 — S/2015/409); June 5, 2015. http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/69/926&Lang=E&Area=UNDOC.

7.Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict. "Who Will Care for Us?"; 2014. http://watchlist.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2111-Watchlist-Nigeria_LR.pdf.

8.UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed January 16, 2015]; http://www.uis.unesco.org/Pages/default.aspx?SPSLanguage=EN. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

9.UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4, 2011. Analysis received January 16, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

10.U.S. Embassy- Abuja. reporting, January 23, 2014.

11.Ibrahim Abdul 'Aziz. "The Inside Story of Adamawa Schools." Daily Trust, November 24, 2011. http://allafrica.com/stories/201111240632.html.

12.Natsa, RT. "Child Miner- Implications for Society." allafrica.com [online] December 14, 2011 [cited April 27, 2012]; http://allafrica.com/stories/201112140820.html.

13.Oseni, AL. "Women and Children Breaking Rocks for Survival." westafricainsight.org [online] October 2012 [cited May 2, 2013];
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