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List of Products Produced by Forced or Indentured Child Labor

ILAB maintains a list of products and their source countries which it has a reasonable basis to believe are produced by forced or indentured child labor, pursuant to Executive Order 13126. This List is intended to ensure that U.S. federal agencies do not procure goods made by forced or indentured child labor. Under procurement regulations, federal contractors who supply products on the List must certify that they have made a good faith effort to determine whether forced or indentured child labor was used to produce the items supplied.   Read More


Current Countries and Products

 

Afghanistan

BRICKS

There are reports that children as young as age four in Afghanistan are working in conditions of forced labor and in debt bondage at brick kilns.  Based on the most recently available data from non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and media sources, up to 200 children were working at each of the 90 kilns in the Surkhrod District and more than 2,200 children were working as debt bonded laborers in 38 brick factories in Nangarhar Province in eastern Afghanistan.  These children are bound by their parents' debt and work alongside their families making bricks.  The bonded families are required to work under a contract between the families and the kiln owners; under the contracts, workers can be bought and sold among kiln owners.  Some children are held at the kiln as collateral for their parents' debt, and will inherit their parents' outstanding debt.




Argentina

GARMENTS

There are reports that children from Bolivia are forced to produce garments in informal workshops in the city of Buenos Aires and its surrounding municipalities.  According to media outlets, NGOs, and government officials, some children from Bolivia are victims of deceptive recruitment and trafficking with false promises of decent working conditions and fair wages.  Once in Argentina, these children have restricted freedom of movement, their identity documents are confiscated, they live and work within locked factories, and they are too fearful to leave due to threats of imprisonment.  Some end up in conditions of bonded labor, in debt for fees that were charged for transport to Argentina, and are prohibited from leaving their workplaces for years until the debt is paid through wage deductions.  These children suffer physical and verbal abuse from their employers, and are only given one meal per day.  Some children are forced to work excessive hours, up to 20 hours per day.




Bangladesh

DRIED FISH

There are reports that children, mostly boys between the ages of 5-17, are forced to work in the production of dried fish in Bangladesh.  According to the most recently available government data, close to 1,900 children, or about 24 percent of children working in the dried fish industry, are working under conditions of force.   This forced child labor is found in the coastal districts of Borguna, Patuakhali, Chittagong, and Cox's Bazar of the Bay of Bengal, with the highest proportion of children in forced labor working in Bagherhat.  According to the Government's data, some of the children work as bonded labor, often in exchange for advanced payments that have been made to their parents.  These children are not free to leave the workplace, and some are not allowed any contact with their family.  Some children are also forced to work under threat of physical violence and wage deductions.




Benin

COTTON

There are reports that children ages 6-17 are forced to produce cotton in Benin.  Cotton is grown primarily in the north, such as in Banikoara, and according to NGOs and international organizations, many of the children are trafficked or migrate to this area from other parts of the country, or from Burkina Faso or Togo.  Some children are lured by traffickers with false promises about working conditions or terms.  Some children work on year-long contracts and are not allowed to leave until the end of the year.  They are paid only at the end of the contract, once the cotton is sold, but most children report that they do not receive their full payment, and some are not paid at all.  Children usually live with their employer, and do not receive sufficient food.




Bolivia

BRAZIL NUTS / CHESTNUTS

There are reports that children are forced to harvest Brazil nuts in Bolivia.  Forced child labor in the production of Brazil nuts is known to be found in the Amazon region in particular, and migrant workers are particularly vulnerable.  According to international organizations, NGOs, and the U.S. Department of State, many children are forced to work, often with their families, under conditions of bonded labor.  Often entire families, including children, are given an advance payment to work in the harvest, and then incur more debt during the harvest.  The families are prohibited from leaving, even once the harvest is complete, until their debts are paid off.  Sometimes identity papers and wages are withheld as a means to restrict freedom of movement.

SUGARCANE

There are reports that children are forced to produce sugarcane in Bolivia.  Based on the most recently available data from the ILO, it is estimated that almost a quarter of the migrants working in the sugarcane harvest are children under age 14, of which many are working in conditions of forced labor  Many children work with their families under conditions of bonded labor.  Entire families, including children, live in accommodations provided by the employer; this dependence on the employer increases their vulnerability to forced labor.  The families receive little payment if any, and lodging and food expenses are deducted from their paychecks.  Some children inherit the debt of their parents if their parents pass away or stop working, and remain bonded and able to be sold to a different employer.




Burkina Faso

COTTON

There are reports of children ages 10-17 producing cotton under conditions of forced labor in Burkina Faso.  According to an NGO report containing the most recently available data on the eastern region of the country, it is estimated that as many as 50 percent of all boys aged 10 and above migrate or are trafficked to work for a year; most work on cotton farms in Tapoa or Kompienga.  Children are also trafficked from around the country to work on cotton farms in Houet and Tuy provinces.  Some children are forced to sow, weed, and harvest the cotton in hazardous conditions; some work under threats of abuse or withholding of payment.  They usually live with their employer, and do not receive sufficient food.  These children are lured by recruiters or traffickers with false promises of payment or gifts such as a bicycle.  The children work on 12 or 17 month contracts and are prohibited from leaving to return home until the end of the contract.  They are paid only when the cotton is sold and they have completed their contract, but most report that they do not receive their full payment, and some receive no payment at all.

GOLD

There are reports that children are forced to mine gold in the Sahel region of Burkina Faso.  According to a report by the ILO containing the most recently available data, in the combined Sahel regions of Burkina Faso and Niger, up to 30-50 percent of the gold mine workforce is comprised of children; most are under the age of 15, and some work under conditions of forced labor.  Some children from around the country are trafficked to mines in the country's Ioba, Oudalan, Passore, and Sissili provinces.  These children work in small informal mines that are located in remote rural areas and mostly operate on a seasonal basis.  The children, beginning between ages 12 and 14, are forced to work in hazardous conditions digging, breaking rocks, transporting, washing, and pounding the gold, including work underground in narrow shafts.  These children receive little or no payment, with many receiving wage deductions for lodging and food expenses.




Burma

BAMBOO

There are reports that children as young as age 10 are forced to work in the production of bamboo in Burma.  According to the ILO and NGOs, forced child labor is pervasive, particularly in Karen, Shan, and Arakan States near military camps, with children constituting up to 40 percent of forced laborers being used for a variety of activities, including the production of bamboo.  Some of these children are sent by their families to fulfill a mandate imposed by the military that requires each household in a village to undertake specified forced labor activities.  Villagers, including children, are forced by local officials and the military to work cutting bamboo for the military camps.  The forced child laborers are not paid for their work, and face physical violence or other punishment if they refuse to work.

BEANS

There are reports that children ages 15-17 work under conditions of forced labor in the production of beans in Burma.  An NGO study documents children, as well as adults, forced by the military to work on rotation year round, planting and harvesting beans for the military camp.  Local officials and the military enforce these work orders; the children cannot refuse to work, even if sick.

BRICKS

There are reports that children are forced by the military to work in the production of bricks in Burma.  According to NGOs, forced child labor in brick production is pervasive, particularly in Northern Rakhine State and near military camps.  In some cases, children are recruited into the military and forced to live in barracks and work for years in brick production; in other cases, children are sent by their families on rotation to fulfil the military's forced labor mandate for their household.  The children are not paid for their work, and they face physical abuse and other punishments for refusing to work or for producing work that is considered of unacceptable quality.

RICE

There are reports that children as young as age nine are forced to work in the production of rice in Burma.     According to NGOs, villagers, including children, are forced to work planting and harvesting rice for the military camps.  These children are forced to work on rotation year-round for the military, although most rice paddy cultivation occurs during the rainy season.  Local officials and the military enforce the work orders, and workers cannot refuse to work, even if sick.  The forced child laborers are not paid for their work, and the children are beaten if their work is considered to be of unacceptable quality.

RUBBER

There are reports that children as young as age nine are forced to work in the production of rubber in Burma.  According to reports by NGOs, villagers, including children, are forced to work cultivating rubber plants in nurseries and on plantations for the military camps.  Local officials and the military enforce the work orders.  The forced child laborers are not paid for their work, and endure physical violence or other punishment if they refuse to work.

SUGARCANE

There are reports that children are forced to work in the production of sugarcane in Burma.  Forced child labor is found in the Thaton District, and particularly in areas near military camps.  An NGO study documents villagers, including children, mobilized by the dozens each day from multiple villages to work during labor intensive times of the sugarcane production.  The children are forced to cut trees and dig out the stumps to prepare the fields, plant the sugarcane, then mill and boil the sugarcane after it is harvested.  They are not paid for their work.

TEAK

There are reports that children are forced to work in the production of teak in Burma.  Forced child labor is found on teak plantations in the Thaton District, and particularly in areas near military camps.  An NGO study reports that villagers, including children, from multiple villages are regularly mobilized by the military for forced labor to cultivate teak and other crops.  The forced laborers are not paid for their work.




China

BRICKS

There are reports that children, ages 8-17, are forced to produce bricks in China, with concentrations in the Shanxi and Henan provinces.  Victims are from provinces across China; some children are abducted or trafficked through coercion and sold to work in brick kilns.  Information from media sources and a research study indicate that the children are forced to work without pay under threat of physical violence, held against their will, watched by guards, and denied sufficient food.

COTTON

There are reports that children are forced to pick cotton in China.  Reports from an NGO and the U.S. Government indicate that children in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region and in Gansu province are mobilized through schools and required by provincial regulations to work during the autumn harvest.  According to the most recently available estimates, between 40,000 and 1 million students are mobilized annually for the harvest, beginning as early as the third grade.  Most children are paid little if at all, after deductions for meals, transportation, and payments to the school.  These students are required to pick daily quotas of cotton or pay fines, and performance in the cotton harvest is assessed for the students' promotion to higher grade levels.

ELECTRONICS

There are reports that children ages 13-15 are forced to produce electronics in China.  Based on the most recently available data from media sources, government raids, and NGOs, hundreds of cases of forced child labor have been reported in factories in Guangdong province, but the children are often from Henan, Shanxi, or Sichuan provinces.  In some cases, children are forced to work in electronics factories through arrangements between the factories and the schools that the children attend in order to cover alleged tuition debts.  The forced labor programs are described as student apprenticeships; however, the children report that they were forced to remain on the job and not allowed to return home.  Half of the students' wages are sent directly to the schools, and the children receive little compensation after deductions are made for food and accommodations.  In other cases, children are abducted or deceived by recruiters, sent to Guangdong, and sold to employers.  Some children are held captive, forced to work long hours for little pay.

TOYS

There are reports that children, mostly ages 13-16, are forced to produce toys in China.  The most recently available data from an NGO study indicates that hundreds of children are exploited in this manner.  Reports indicate children from Sichuan, Guangxi, and other provinces are sent to work primarily in Guangdong to make toys.  Some of these children are trafficked after being recruited through deceptive promises, and others are forced to work by teachers through work-study programs.  Children of the Yi ethnic minority in Liangshan prefecture of Sichuan are particularly vulnerable.  The children report being forced to work long hours under threat of financial penalty and being fined for any mistakes in their work.  Some children state that teachers withhold wages for “tuition” and management fees.  In addition, employers withhold wages for months to prevent children from leaving.




Colombia

COCA

There are reports that children in Colombia as young as 11 years old are forced to cultivate and pick coca, and to scrape coca leaves.  The Government, NGOs, media, and the ILO indicate that some children are forcibly recruited by non-state armed groups, such as the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, the National Liberation Army, and criminal groups to pick coca.  Others are forced by drug traffickers.  Criminal and illegal armed groups use threats of torture or death to prevent children from attempting to escape.




Côte d’Ivoire

COCOA

There are reports that children from within Côte d'Ivoire, as well as migrant children from Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Mali, Nigeria, and Togo, are working under conditions of forced labor on Ivoirian cocoa farms.  Based on the most recently available estimate from Tulane University, over 4,000 children work in conditions of forced labor in the production of cocoa in Côte d'Ivoire.  Some children are sold by their parents to traffickers, some are kidnapped, and others migrate willingly but fall victim to traffickers who sell them to recruiters or farmers, where they end up in conditions of bonded labor.  Some farmers buy the children and refuse to let them leave the farm until the debt of their purchase has been worked off.  The children are frequently not paid for their work; some of their wages are paid to the recruiter or trafficker.  These children are held against their will on isolated farms, are locked in their living quarters at night, and are threatened and beaten if they attempt to escape.  They are punished by their employers with physical abuse.  They are forced to work long hours, including overtime, and are required to work even when they are sick.  Some children are denied sufficient food by their traffickers and employers.  Some children are forced to perform dangerous tasks, including carrying heavy loads, using machetes and sharp tools, and applying pesticides and fertilizers.

COFFEE

There are reports that children ages 14-17 and younger in Côte d'Ivoire are forced to work on coffee plantations.  Based on a research study, thousands of children are involved in this type of labor.  Some children are forcibly recruited, or recruited through deceptive means, and transported to coffee plantations in Côte d'Ivoire from nearby countries including Benin, Mali, Togo, and Burkina Faso.  These children are sold to traffickers.  Other children leave their home countries or communities voluntarily, but end up in situations where they are not paid and have no means to return home.  Some children are forced to work for three or four years before receiving payment or returning home.  Others are forced to work, even if sick, and prevented from leaving the plantations through threat of physical violence, withheld payments, or denial of food.




Democratic Republic of the Congo

CASSITERITE (TIN ORE)

There are reports that children ages 5-17 are forced to work in the production of cassiterite, or tin ore, in some mines in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.  Reports from NGOs and the U.S. Department of State indicate that many children have been identified working in conditions of forced labor in the mines in Eastern Congo, particularly in North and South Kivu.  Some children are forced to work at the mines with their families in situations of bonded labor, while other children are sent away to the mines by their parents to pay off the family's debt.  These children are paid little, if at all.  In addition, many mines are controlled by military officers or armed groups, which are known to round up villagers, including children, at gunpoint and force them to work with threats of violence.  These forcibly-recruited children do not have freedom of movement and do not receive payment for their work.

COLTAN (TANTALUM ORE)

There are reports that children ages 5-17 are forced to work in the production of coltan, or tantalum ore, in some mines in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.  Reports from the U.S. Department of State and NGOs state that many children have been identified working in conditions of forced labor in the mines in Eastern Congo, particularly in North and South Kivu.  Some children are forced to work at the mines with their families in situations of bonded labor, while other children are sent away to the mines by their parents to pay off the family's debt.  These children are paid little, if at all.  In addition, many mines are controlled by military officers or armed groups, which are known to round up villagers, including children, at gunpoint and force them to work with threats of violence.  These forcibly-recruited children do not have freedom of movement and do not receive payment for their work.

GOLD

There are reports that children ages 10-16 are forced to work in the production of gold in some mines in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.  Based on the most recently available NGO evidence, thousands of children are working in conditions of forced labor in the mines in Eastern Congo, particularly in North and South Kivu.  Some children are forced to work at the mines with their families in situations of bonded labor, while other children are sent away to the mines by their parents to pay off the family's debt.  Child miners are paid little if at all.  Many mines are controlled by military officers or armed groups which force children to work.  Some children are abducted to work in the mines.

WOLFRAMITE (TUNGSTEN ORE)

There are reports that children ages 5-17 are forced to work in the production of wolframite, or tungsten ore, in some mines in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.  Based on estimates from NGOs and the U.S. Department of State, hundreds of children are working in conditions of forced labor in the mines in Eastern Congo, particularly in North and South Kivu.  Some children are forced to work at the mines with their families in situations of bonded labor, while other children are sent away to the mines by their parents to pay off the family's debt.  These children are paid little, if at all.  In addition, many mines are controlled by military officers or armed groups, which are known to round up villagers, including children, at gunpoint and force them to work with threats of violence.  These forcibly-recruited children do not have freedom of movement and do not receive payment for their work




Ethiopia

TEXTILES (HAND-WOVEN)

There are reports that children, mostly boys as young as seven years old, produce woven textiles under conditions of forced labor in Ethiopia.  These children typically work in Addis Ababa, however many come from the south, including Gamo Gofa and Wolaita zones, some of them as victims of trafficking.  The trafficked children are often sold to recruiters, and the parents and children are deceived with false promises about the wages and opportunities for education while working.  Some of the children sleep at the worksites, held in captivity and isolation, and are not provided with sufficient food.  They are punished with physical abuse.  Some children are forced to work long hours and overtime, and receive little, if any, pay.




Ghana

FISH (INCLUDING TILAPIA)

There are reports that children ages 5-17 in Ghana are forced to work in the fishing industry, assisting primarily in the catching of tilapia, but also of such fish as mudfish, silverfish, catfish, latefish, and electric fish.  According to the most recently available data from universities, NGOs, government raids, and international organizations, hundreds of children in the Lake Volta region have been rescued from the fishing industry, in which they were forced to undertake such tasks as diving to untangle fishing nets from underwater tree stumps.  Children are often trafficked from the Volta, Central, Eastern, or Ashanti regions to Tato and other Lake Volta communities to work.  Some of the children forced to work in the fishing industry are working in bonded labor after being sold or sent by their parents under a one- to three-year contract, for which the parents are promised payment on agreed-upon intervals.  The children frequently are paid little, if at all, and are forced to work long hours.  The children forced to work in the fishing industry often live with their employers, where they face physical violence and are not provided with sufficient food.




India

BRICKS

There are reports of children working under conditions of forced labor to produce bricks in India's kilns.  The most recently available information from a trade union report indicates that in the State of Haryana alone, as many as 40,000 children, many of them forced laborers, are working in brick kilns. Bonded labor in the brick industry is found across India, including in Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh.  The kilns use a system of bonded labor in which children often work alongside other members of their debt-bonded families.  Some of these children are forced to work as a guarantee for loans to their parents.  Families take an advance payment from recruiters and then are forced to work to pay off the debt; the debt rolls over from one year to the next, binding the worker in a cycle of debt bondage.  Children in scheduled castes, a socially disadvantaged class in India, and of migrant families, are particularly vulnerable to forced labor.  Some children are forced to work under threat of physical violence.  Some children and their families are not paid regularly, do not receive the promised wages, and are prohibited from leaving the worksite.

COTTONSEED (HYBRID)

There are reports that children, especially girls ages 6-14, are forced to produce hybrid cottonseed in India.  Cottonseed production, and cottonseed farms with bonded child laborers, are reported to be concentrated in the state of Andhra Pradesh.  According to NGO reports, between 400,000 and 450,000 children are working in the production of hybrid cottonseed, many working as forced or bonded labor.  Some of these children are bonded to their employer, forced to work to pay off the debt of advanced payments made to their parents.  Some children are forced to work with toxic pesticides.

EMBELLISHED TEXTILES

There are reports of children, many between the ages of 8-14, producing embellished textiles under conditions of forced labor in India.  Some children work under a system of debt bondage.  Most factories that produce zari, a type of embroidery, are concentrated in Mumbai and Delhi, but many children are trafficked from other locations such as Bihar.  According to government raids and an NGO report, between 125,000 and 210,000 children are working in Delhi embroidery workshops, and approximately 100,000 are working in zari embroidery and other textile embellishment workshops in Mumbai and elsewhere.  Some children are forced to work under threat of physical violence.  Some work long hours including overtime and do not receive payment for their work.

GARMENTS

There are reports that children, most between the ages of 8-17, are forced to produce garments in India.  Based on the most recently available data from NGOs, up to 100,000 children throughout the country are being forced to produce garments.  Recent reports suggest that forced child labor has shifted from factories to home-based production and from urban to suburban areas, particularly in southern India.  Dalit and scheduled caste children, a socially disadvantaged class in India, are particularly vulnerable to forced labor in this industry.  Many children are trafficked into garment production, recruited under deceptive terms, moved between employers without consent, and paid little or nothing for their work.  Some children, as young as age five, are recruited for work through an advance payment to their parents, creating a situation of debt bondage which the child must work to repay.  The children are isolated, often live at the worksite, and face restricted freedom of movement.  Some children are exposed to dye and toxic chemicals without protective equipment; and some are forced to work overtime, even when they are sick.  Some children are punished and threatened with verbal and physical abuse, financial penalty, and some are routinely deprived of food, water, and sleep.  The children are forced to perform tasks including stitching, dyeing, cutting, sewing buttons, and embellishing garments.

RICE

There are reports of children working under conditions of forced labor in rice mills in India, particularly in Tamil Nadu.  These children are forced to work producing rice through a system of bonded labor, often working with their families.  Children of the lower castes, socially disadvantaged classes in India, are particularly vulnerable.  According to an ILO study, over 1,000 families work in bonded labor in rice mills in one district of Tamil Nadu.  Families take an advance payment from recruiters and then are forced to work to pay off the debt.  Some children face harassment and restrictions on their movement from mill personnel.

STONES

There are reports that children in India are forced to quarry stones.  These children work in stone quarries, mines, and crushers under conditions of bonded labor.  According to an assessment by the ILO, as many as 500,000 stone quarry workers, including entire families, in Tamil Nadu were bonded laborers.  Families receive an advance payment and become bonded for generations to pay off the debt.  Some children are used as a guarantee for the loan and are forced to work to pay it off.  Some children inherit the debt of their parents and may be bought and sold between contractors.  Children of scheduled castes, a socially disadvantaged class in India, and migrant children, are particularly vulnerable.  The children live at the worksite and face isolation and restrictions on their movement.  Some children are forced to work under threat of financial penalties or physical violence, receive little pay, and are denied wages.




Malawi

TOBACCO

There are reports that children in Malawi are forced to work producing tobacco.  Tobacco estates are concentrated in the Mzimba, Kasungu, Mchinji and Mzimba districts.  According to the most recently available data from the ILO and NGOs, over 70,000 children work on tobacco plantations, some of them under conditions of bonded labor.  Families working on tobacco estates sometimes become bonded to their landlords, and their children are forced to work to repay their family debts.  Landlords charge these tenant workers for costs such as rent, fertilizer, and seeds; these costs often exceed the profit earned from the tobacco harvest and result in debt for the worker and his or her family.  Some children are also hired under deceptive terms of work and promised payment, and then are paid little, if at all, at the end of the season.  Some children are forced to work long hours, including overtime, and are forced to perform dangerous tasks, such as carrying heavy loads and using pesticides.  In addition, certain children work under threats and penalties including physical, verbal, and sexual abuse, and do not receive food or pay.




Mali

RICE

There are reports that children are forced to work cultivating rice in Mali, particularly along the Niger River and in the Segou region.  According to a university study and the ILO, some children are trafficked in groups of 25 to 50, and an estimated 2,000 children have been forced to work in rice fields in Mali.  Some children are known to be recruited from villages in other parts of Mali to cultivate rice in Niono.  Boys are also trafficked from Burkina Faso to produce rice in Mali.  Some boys ages 10-15 from Burkina Faso and Mali are sent to work in rice fields by their Koranic teachers at religious schools.  Organized trafficking rings link the farmers with the teachers and the children.  These boys receive no pay for their work; the farmers pay the teachers and the recruiters for the boys' labor.




Nepal

BRICKS

There are reports that children ages 6-17 and some younger than age 5 are working under conditions of forced labor to produce bricks in Nepal.  According to available information from an NGO report, two-thirds of the children are male.  Brick kilns are concentrated in the Kathmandu Valley and Terai, and operate seasonally between October and June.  According to the most recently available NGO data, between 30,000 and 60,000 children work in Nepal's brick kilns, of which up to 39 percent are working as bonded labor.  Migrant families, members of certain castes – a socially disadvantaged class in Nepal – and ethnic minorities, such as Dalit, Janajati, and Madeshi, are particularly vulnerable to bonded labor in brick kilns.  Most of the children are from Nepal, however some are from West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh, India.  Many families take advance loans from brick kiln employers or brokers with a commitment to produce a specified quantity of bricks, and become bonded laborers.  Their children are bound by their parents' debt and work alongside their families making bricks.  The bonded families live at the kiln worksites, without access to safe water or sanitation facilities, and are prohibited from leaving until the debts are paid in full.  Some bonded children are forced to work 12 hours a day, and receive little, if any, payment after wage deductions to repay the family debt.  Some children are penalized by their employers with verbal or physical abuse.

CARPETS

There are reports that children are forced to produce carpets in Nepal.  Children age 14 and older are found in registered carpet factories, while children younger than 14 are found in informal, unregistered carpet factories.  Carpet factories are concentrated in the Kathmandu Valley.  Some children work alone or with their families as bonded laborers in the factories.  Most children do not receive payment for their work.  Some children work to pay off advance payments for their labor made by the employer to the recruiter or their families.  These children live in the factory or nearby in accommodations provided by the employer.  The children are not free to leave until the debt has been repaid.  Many of the children are forced to work long hours and overtime, up to 18 hours per day; many cannot leave the factory even after they have completed their long workday.  Such children are punished by employers for refusing to work, missing production quotas, falling asleep, or making mistakes.

EMBELLISHED TEXTILES

There are reports that children, mostly boys ages 7-17, are forced to produce embellished textiles in Nepal.  The factories are spread across the Kathmandu Valley and are concentrated in Thankot.  The child workers are mainly recruited from Sarlahi, Mohattari, and Dhanusha Districts.  Based on a research report, close to 7,500 children are working under forced labor conditions in the sector.  Factory owners often recruit certain boys to work on one- or two-year contracts, paying an advance to their parents for the boys' labor.  The boys are forced to work long hours without pay.  At the end of the contract, the factory owner offers another advance payment to the parents, and the boys then return to work for the factory.  During the subsequent contract, the children receive little or no wages after the initial advance payment as wages are deducted to repay the advance, and accommodation and food expenses are also deducted.  These children live at the worksite, and the factories are often locked, preventing the children from leaving.

STONES

There are reports that children as young as age five are forced to quarry stones in Nepal.  An NGO report and the media indicate that these children work as bonded laborers, often working alongside their parents and other family members in quarries and riverbeds across the country.  Families borrow money and are paid too little to escape their debt, remaining in debt bondage.  Some children, usually with their families, live at the worksite where they are watched by guards and forbidden from leaving.  The children are often forced to perform hazardous work, including carrying heavy loads.  Employers threaten to withhold food from the workers, including children.  Some children experience physical violence by their employers.




Nigeria

COCOA

There are reports that children are forced to produce cocoa in Nigeria.  The ILO, media pieces, and an academic report indicate that children are trafficked across Nigeria and from Burkina Faso by intermediaries and recruiters to produce cocoa.  Children from Cross River and Akwa Ibom states in southeastern Nigeria are particularly vulnerable.  Some children are sold by their parents to recruiters.  The recruiters are paid for their recruitment of the children; many children receive no pay for their work.  Some children are forced to work long hours, including during the hottest hours of the day, leaving them at substantial risk for heat-related illness.  The children are forced to perform dangerous tasks, such as using sharp tools, carrying heavy loads, and handling pesticides, without protective equipment.

GRANITE

There are reports that children, mostly boys ages 4-17, are forced to quarry granite in Nigeria.  Some children are abducted and trafficked from within Nigeria and from Benin to work in granite quarries and mines in the Federal Capital Territory, as well as the states of Ebonyi, Enugu, Ogun, Oyo, and Osun.   Reports from the United Nations (UN) and media indicate that between 5,000 and 6,000 children from Benin alone were forced to work in the granite quarries; multiple government rescue operations identified between 50 and 200 children engaged in this work at a time.  The children are forced to work up to 16 hours a day, even when they are sick.  Many are forced to work under threat of physical violence.  Children are often forced to sleep outside and are denied food.  Reports indicate that children frequently die while working, having been forced to work under extreme conditions.

GRAVEL

There are reports that children, mostly boys as young as age four, are forced to excavate and process gravel in Nigeria.   According to reports from the media and government raids, 5,000 children from Nigeria and Benin are working in forced gravel production in Nigeria.  The children are trafficked from Benin and forced to work, on average for a total of six years, in gravel pits in the Ogun, Osun, and Oyo states.  An NGO study revealed that hundreds of children had been trafficked from Zou province in Benin to work in gravel production; other reports have found that hundreds of children have been rescued from this forced labor and returned to other areas in Benin.  These children are forced to work excessive hours and to sleep in the bush near the pits.  They are threatened with physical violence and tortured by the work gang leaders, particularly if they fail to meet their daily work quotas.  The children are forced to work under extreme, sometimes fatal, conditions.




Pakistan

BRICKS

There are reports that children in Pakistan work under conditions of forced labor producing bricks.  According to the most recently available data from the media, the ILO, and a university study, there are hundreds of thousands of these children across Pakistan.  The brick industry uses a system of bonded labor under which children, from a very young age, often work alongside their debt-bonded families.  Because the debts are sometimes inherited, many children are born into the bonded labor.  Under the Pakistani “peshgis” bondage system, families are not free to leave the kiln, and are forced to produce quotas of 1,000 or more bricks per day under threat of physical violence or death.  Brick workers, including children, are forced to work without masks, goggles, gloves, shoes, or other safety equipment.

CARPETS

There are reports that children as young as age five are forced to work in the production of carpets, often through a system of bonded labor.  Based on reports from the ILO and the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), as many as half a million children have been producing carpets under conditions of forced labor throughout the country.  Children of migrants, refugees, and impoverished families are particularly vulnerable to this practice.  Typical of the Pakistani “peshgis” system, children are often sent to work to pay off their family's debt.  Families accept a loan in the form of advanced payment for a year of their child's work, and the child is prohibited from leaving the workplace until the debt is paid in full.  The children live in the workplace, away from their families, and do not have the freedom to leave.   Some children are forced to work without equipment to protect them from exposure to toxic chemicals and dust.  The children are paid little, and deductions are taken from their wages for food and shelter.   Some children are fined or beaten for any mistakes.

COAL

There are reports that children as young as age five are forced to work in coal mines in Balochistan, Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and the Northwest Frontier Province.  Some of these children work as bonded labor; under this arrangement, which is typical of the Pakistani “peshgis” system, children work alongside, or in place of, other members of their indebted families.  The children are forced to work without protective equipment.  Their work involves blasting rocks with dynamite and digging to extract coal in deep narrow shafts below ground.  The children are also forced to lead donkeys deep underground and lead them back out hauling the mined coal.




Russia

PORNOGRAPHY

There are reports that children are forced to engage in pornography in Russia.  According to reports from NGOs, tens of thousands of children were exploited in the production of pornography, and evidence suggests that many of them were forced to do so.  The production of child pornography is concentrated in big cities, particularly in St. Petersburg and Moscow.  Street children in both cities are particularly vulnerable to exploitation in this industry.  Some children are trafficked internally and from the former Soviet republics to engage in pornography in Russia.  These children are often subject to various forms of physical abuse while they are exploited in this form of forced labor.




Sierra Leone

DIAMONDS

There are reports that children, mostly boys ages 5-17, are forced to mine for diamonds in Sierra Leone.  Diamond mines are concentrated in Koidu, Kenema, and Kono districts in the Eastern Province.  Some children are trafficked from rural areas to work in diamond mines, or are sent by their families; these children are often recruited under deceptive terms.  The children are forced to work, without pay, in hazardous conditions underground in the mines for excessively long hours.  Some children are not provided with sufficient food.  In addition, some children of artisanal, independent, small-scale diamond miners work with their families as indentured servants, in debt to diamond dealers.




South Sudan

CATTLE

There are reports that children, especially boys, are abducted and forced to herd cattle in South Sudan.  Hundreds of abductions have been reported, particularly in communities in Jonglei and Eastern Equatoria states.  The children are abducted when rival tribes or ethnic groups enter communities to steal cattle, as well as during other inter-ethnic or inter-tribal disputes; some of these children are enslaved to herd cattle.




Tajikistan

COTTON

There are reports that children ages 14-17 and some as young as 7 are forced to work during the annual cotton harvest in Tajikistan.  Monitoring teams discover multiple cases of compulsory mobilization across several districts of the country each year.  In these cases, school officials mobilize classes to work in the harvest and teachers supervise them in the fields.  Some children receive threats regarding exams, grades, and even expulsion from school for refusal to work.  The children are typically sent to the fields after class hours.  Farmers negotiate directly with the schools to mobilize the students to work, and the schools may keep some or all of the children's wages.  Some of the children are required to pick a quota of 66 pounds of cotton daily.




Thailand

GARMENTS

There are reports that mostly girls as young as 11 are forced to produce garments in Thailand.  Migrant children from Laos and Burma are particularly vulnerable.  The ILO, media, trade unions, government raids, and NGOs report forced child labor in garment factories in Bangkok and along the Burma border in Mae Sai and Mae Sot.  Many children live at the worksite, and their freedom of movement is sometimes restricted through confiscation of identity documents and threats of arrest.  Children are often forced to work long hours and overtime, and are paid little, if at all.  Some are not provided sufficient food and are physically abused.  Mistakes made during the course of work are sometimes penalized with wage deductions.

SHRIMP

There are reports that children are forced to process shrimp in Thailand.  Burmese and Cambodian immigrants are particularly vulnerable to forced child labor in the shrimp industry.  A UN report identified approximately 150 children working, many alongside their mothers, in Klong Yai district near the Cambodia border.  Children are often forced to peel and sort shrimp.  Some are forced to work long hours without breaks, physically abused, and prohibited from leaving the worksite.  They frequently have their identity documents confiscated by their employers.   In some cases, child workers are paid little, if at all, and their wages are deducted to repay debts related to recruitment, food, and/or lodging.  The children often endure these conditions under the threat of dismissal and arrest by immigration police.




Uzbekistan

COTTON

There are reports that children in Uzbekistan are forced to harvest cotton through a government-controlled system of forced labor.  Based on the most recently available information from the ILO, U.S. Department of State, and NGOs, thousands of children are forced each year to work in the cotton fields.  In previous years, children as young as seven had been mobilized to harvest cotton.  However, since 2012, most of these children are ages 15-17, with a few reported instances of students as young as 10 sent to the fields.  This forced mobilization of children takes place in various areas of the country, including Tashkent and the Karakalpakstan region.   School officials, under the direction of government administrators, force the children to pick quotas of up to 130 pounds of cotton daily for several weeks each fall.  Some students who refuse to participate in the cotton harvest or fail to meet their quota risk physical abuse, police intimidation, low grades, or expulsion from school.  During the harvest, some children are forced to sleep close to the fields in repurposed public buildings, tents or sheds.  In addition, these children are paid little, if at all, after wage deductions for fines, food, and other expenses.




Vietnam

GARMENTS

There are reports of children ages 10-18 and some as young as six6 who work under conditions of forced labor producing garments in Vietnam.  The most recently available information from government raids, NGOs and media reports indicates that groups of children are found in small privately-owned factories and informal workshops.  These workplaces are located primarily in and around Ho Chi Minh City; however, many of these children have migrated, or have been trafficked, from the countryside and from central or northern provinces.  Many of the children live in the factories; employers prevent the children from leaving through force and/or by withholding their wages.  In some cases, employers pay the children only after a full year of work or at the completion of a multi-year contract.   Employers refuse to pay the children who leave before the end of the contract; some withhold a portion of the wages dues under the contract in order to force the children to remain an additional year.  The children are forced to work long hours, up to 18 hours per day, sometimes late into the night, and with few breaks.  Reports indicate that these children are beaten or threatened with physical violence by their employers.  In addition, there are reports of children as young as 12 years old found to be working while confined in government-run detention centers.  These children are forced to sew garments under threat of physical or other punishments and without pay.






Public Comments & Submissions

Each revision to the List is published first as an Initial Determination for public comment.  The Departments of Labor, State and Homeland Security consider all public comments before publishing a Final Determination to revise the List.
ILAB also accepts public submissions about the List on an ongoing basis, and reviews them as they are received.  To submit information, please send an email to eo13126@dol.gov; fax to 202-693-4830; or mail to ILAB, U.S. Department of Labor, c/o OCFT Research and Policy Unit, 200 Constitution Ave. NW, S-5317, Washington, DC 20210.