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Jamaica

2014 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Moderate Advancement

In 2014, Jamaica made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government conducted three assessments on child labor and released the Jamaica Multiple Cluster Survey report, which included information about children in the areas of health, education, child protection, and HIV/AIDS. Jamaica also expanded the Program for Advancement through Health and Education, a conditional cash transfer program, to reach more vulnerable families. In addition, the Government updated the curriculum for new police recruits by including an anti-trafficking training module. However, children in Jamaica are engaged in child labor, including in street work and in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation. Although the Government has laws prohibiting the use of children in some illicit activities, it does not prohibit the use of children for drug trafficking and production. In addition, programs to combat child labor are insufficient to adequately address the extent of the problem.

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I. Prevalence and Sectoral Distribution of Child Labor

Children in Jamaica are engaged in child labor, including in street work. Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation.(1-4) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Jamaica.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

5.4 (28,298)

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

99.4

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

6.2

Primary completion rate (%):

88

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2004, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2014.(5)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4, 2011.(6)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming activities,* activities unknown (1, 4, 7)

Fishing activities,* including diving* and cleaning fish* (8)

Industry

Construction,*† activities unknown (4)

Services

Garbage scavenging,* items include scrap metal* (4, 9)

Work in shops and markets* (4, 8)

Domestic work* (1, 4, 10, 11)

Street work, including as beggars and vendors (1, 2, 4, 12)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1-4, 7, 12, 13)

Used in the production of pornography* (14, 15)

Forced labor in domestic work* and street vending (1, 3, 4, 12)

Used in Illicit activities, including executing financial scams and serving as drug and gun couriers* (16-18)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3 (d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a) — (c) of ILO C. 182.

Children are commercially sexually exploited in Jamaica's resort areas. In Jamaica, trafficking victims are often young girls from low-income and single-parent homes.(2, 4, 10, 11) In 2014, the Government conducted three assessments in the township of May Pen and the capital of the Parish of Clarendon, which indicated that children were vulnerable to child labor in street, domestic, and agricultural work. The Government also reported that it conducted assessments in Savanna La Mar, Westmoreland, and Hanover.(19)



II. Legal Framework for the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Jamaica has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor, including its worst forms (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 34(1) of the Child Care and Protection Act (20, 21)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 34(3) of the Child Care and Protection Act (20, 21)

Prohibitions of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Article 34(3)(b) of the Child Care and Protection Act of 2004; Section 55 of the Factories Act: Docks (Safety Health and Welfare) Regulations; Section 18 of the Mining Act; Section 49 of the Factories Act: Building Operations and Works of Engineering Construction Regulations (20-24)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Section 4 of the Trafficking in Persons (Prevention, Suppression and Punishment) Act (25)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Section 10 of the Child Care and Protection Act (21)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Section 4 of the Trafficking in Persons (Prevention, Suppression and Punishment) Act; Section 3 of the Child Pornography (Prevention) Act; Section 40 of the Sexual Offences Act (12, 25-32)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Section 40 of the Child Care and Protection Act (21)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Section 18(2) of the Defense Act (33, 34)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

18

Section 20 of the Education Act (27)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Section 13 of the Jamaican Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms (27, 35)

* No conscription (34)

The Child Care and Protection Act establishes the minimum age for employment at 15, but allows children ages 13 to 14 to engage in light work; however, the list of occupations and hours considered light work has not been finalized by the Government. The draft list includes hair braiding, clerical work, newspaper vending, supermarket packing, and household chores.(20, 21, 36) Although the Government has some prohibitions on hazardous work for children in specific industries, in 2010 the Government drafted the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act that would introduce a comprehensive list of prohibitions on hazardous work for children but it has yet to be adopted. The list under review by Parliament would specify 45 hazardous occupations prohibited for children under age 18.(1, 30, 31, 36) The draft statute identifies those hazardous occupations to include, among others, fishing at sea, working on construction sites, participating in the production of pornography, and engaging in illicit activities that involve weapons. If adopted, the OSH Act will increase current fines for employers who illegally utilize child labor and will enable labor inspectors to access formerly prohibited workplace environments in the informal economic sector.(1, 2, 36) Although the Child Care and Protection Act prohibits the use of children in selling alcohol and tobacco, it does not prohibit the use of children in other illicit activities, including the production and trafficking of drugs.(37)

III. Enforcement of Laws on the Worst Forms of Child Labor



III. Enforcement of Laws on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MLSS) — Child Labor Unit and the Occupation Safety Health Department

Enforce and administer child labor laws, including monitoring of violations under related laws, in the formal economy.(1, 2, 38) Develop flow charts to facilitate multiple-agency responses. Share information with all other agencies involved in child labor issues.(38)

Child Development Agency (CDA)

Enforce child labor laws, monitor related violations, and oversee efforts to address the problem.(1, 2)

Office of the Children's Advocate (OCA)

Enforce and protect children's rights, including maintaining records of complaints, conducting investigations, providing legal services for children, and educating the public on the office's services.(3, 39)

Jamaica Constabulary Force (JCF)

Enforce criminal laws, including those related to the worst forms of child labor. Includes a Trafficking in Persons Unit that investigates and prosecutes cases of child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation.(2, 14, 40)

Centre for the Investigation of Sexual Offences and Child Abuse

Investigate and prosecute sexual offenses and child abuse. Work in victim rehabilitation and conduct public education programs. Branch of the JCF.(41)

Office of the Children's Registry (OCR)

Receive complaints about child abuse, including criminal violations of child labor laws.(3, 39)

Law enforcement agencies in Jamaica took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2014, the Ministry of Labor and Social Security's (MLSS) Child Labor Unit (CLU) is responsible for child labor enforcement monitoring and inspection efforts. The Office of the Children's Advocate (OCA) serves as a monitoring and public awareness — raising agency, while the Office of the Children's Registry (OCR) is the repository for mandatory reports of child abuse.(8) The MLSS's Occupation Safety and Health Department (OSHD) employed 16 inspectors assigned to investigate labor issues, including child labor.(8) Evidence indicates that the number of inspectors is inadequate. Additionally, the OSHD is charged with referring child labor issues to the relevant child advocacy agencies, such as the CLU and the Child Development Agency (CDA). The OSHD reported that it conducted child labor training for labor inspectors and police officers throughout the year.(8) For fiscal year 2013-2014, the Government allocated approximately JM $41,619,000 to the OSHD, and between January and June of 2014, the OSHD carried out 464 inspections.(19) No cases of child labor were found and, as a result, no penalties or fines were issued. Inspections are performed in the formal sector, in factories, building sites, docks, and ships and not in the informal sector in urban and rural communities.(19) In addition, the labor inspectorate does not grant authority to labor inspectors to issue fines.(8)

The Government has established a system to file and respond to complaints about child labor. The OCR maintains a 24-hour hotline to report offenses against children, including child labor, child abuse, and human trafficking.(8) During the year, the OCR published the Child Abuse Report Statistical Bulletin, which included data on the percentage of children who were reported as victims of physical and sexual abuse, trafficking, and child labor.(42, 43) Advertisements for the hotline and public service announcements were broadcasted across country in high trafficked areas and occasionally on television and radio. Reports received by the hotline are relayed to the Jamaica Constabulary Force (JCF) and the CDA.(8) The high visibility of this hotline has increased awareness of labor exploitation issues and services available to victims.(8)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2014, research found no information on the number of criminal investigators responsible for addressing the worst forms of child labor. The JCF has the independent authority to enforce laws related to the worst forms of child labor. Both the MLSS and the JCF collaborate with the CDA, the OCA, and the OCR to carry out investigations and report violations.(8) During the reporting period, the JCF developed an anti-trafficking module for the curriculum used to train new police recruits; the module was designed by the lead human trafficking investigator.(8) In 2014, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs reported that there were two child labor prosecutions, but both cases are still pending. As a result, there were no convictions during the year.(8)



IV. Coordination of Government Efforts on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

MLSS's Program for the Elimination of Child Labor

Coordinate the Government's child labor policies and programs and identify gaps in legislation across ministries. The MLSS collaborates with the other ministries such as the Ministry of Youth and Culture (OCA, OCR, CDA), the Ministry of Justice (National Task Force Against Trafficking in Persons), and the Ministry of National Security to address the legislative gaps.(3, 19, 42)

National Task Force Against Trafficking in Persons

Facilitate information exchanges between government agencies and external stakeholders, and create momentum for counter-trafficking efforts. Oversee the implementation of the country's National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking.(31, 40) Led by the Ministry of Justice and includes representatives from the Ministries of National Security and Foreign Affairs, the JCF, and the Department of the Public Prosecutor, as well as representatives from the Ministries of Health, Education, Labor, and Youth and Culture.(2, 3) Meets regularly with the JCF, Director of Public Prosecutions, and other ministries.(38) Held a 4-day training seminar in January 2014.(44)



V. Government Policies on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government of Jamaica has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).

Table 7. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Plan of Action on Child Labor

Aims to strengthen current legislative frameworks to address all forms of child labor, specifically focusing on children engaged in domestic service, prostitution, forced labor, and hazardous work within the agricultural and fishing industries. Identifies four primary objectives: to collect current and reliable data on child labor, to establish public awareness and sensitize the Jamaican people to the problem, to improve the Labor Ministry's personnel capacity to be able to identify child laborers, and to work with trade unions, as well as the Jamaican Employers' Federation, to raise awareness among employees.(2, 18, 45)

National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking (2012 — 2015)

Targets law enforcement officials to address the commercial sexual exploitation of children, conducts public awareness campaigns, and implements outreach programs.(46)

Declaration of the Regional Initiative: Latin America and the Caribbean Free of Child Labor†

Aims to increase regional cooperation on eradicating child labor by 2020 through signatories' efforts to strengthen monitoring and coordination mechanisms, government programs, and South-South exchanges. Reaffirms commitments made in the Brasilia Declaration from the Third Global Conference on Child Labor (October 2013) and signed by Jamaica at the ILO's 18th Regional Meeting of the Americas in Lima, Peru (October 2014).(47-49)

Compulsory Education Policy*

Ensures that all children between the ages of 3 and 18 have access to a learning institution or vocational training program. Includes the Career Advancement Program, which provides 16- to 18-year-olds with two additional years of schooling upon completion of the 11th grade.(50)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.
† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

The Government has drafted a National Policy on Child Labor in an effort to implement the National Plan of Action on Child Labor and address some of the current challenges, but it continues to be under review.(27, 31, 42) Implementation of the current National Plan of Action of Child Labor has faced difficulties, including the lack of adequate resources and an institutional tracking system.(18, 51) The Government drafted a Plan of Action to Combat Human Trafficking in Persons (2012 — 2015) in an effort to strengthen current priority areas and ensure that shelters are available to victims. The Plan is implemented by the National Task Force Against Trafficking in Persons; the task force meets regularly and implements the Plan through three subcommittees: the Prevention, Protection, and Prosecution subcommittees.(31, 42, 52) In 2014, the Government published a new standard operating procedure (SOP) to guide local law enforcement officers on counter-trafficking initiatives, including child labor trafficking victims. The SOP covers topics including use of special investigating techniques, arrests and presentation of human trafficking cases before the courts, and assessment of local intelligence.(8)



VI. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

In 2014, the Government of Jamaica funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms. The Government has other programs that may have an impact on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Tackling Child Labor through Education Project (2008 — 2015)

Jointly launched by the European Commission and the ILO to combat child labor through education in 12 African and Caribbean countries and the Pacific group of states.(53) The Government worked closely with NGOs RISE and Children First to provide direct support to children engaging and at risk of engaging in child labor activities.(54, 55)

Program for Advancement through Health and Education (PATH)‡

Funded by the Government of Jamaica and the World Bank, the conditional cash transfer program helps to reduce child labor by requiring participants to attend school at least 85 percent of the academic days within a month.(56-58) Recent evaluations of the PATH program reveal that children at the primary and secondary levels are not likely to reach that target.(19, 58) In 2014, the Government expanded the program and serviced 330,000 beneficiaries. The education compliance rate was 81 percent boys and 85.5 percent girls at the primary level and 73.5 percent for boys and 80 percent for girls at the secondary level.(8) PATH beneficiaries received a total of $70 million in payments throughout 2014, an increase of 15 percent over the previous year.(8)

Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development

USDOL-funded research project implemented by the ILO to increase the knowledge base around child labor by collecting new data, analyzing existing data, and building capacity to conduct research in this area.(59)

Shelters‡

Government shelters to aid women and children trafficking victims.(2, 27, 30, 46)

‡ Program is funded by the Government of Jamaica.

Although Jamaica has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem of children working in domestic work and street work, as well as in the worst forms of child labor.



VII. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Jamaica (Table 9).

Table 9. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Enact the new Occupational Safety and Health Act that would specify prohibitions on hazardous occupations and activities for children under age 18.

2009 — 2014

Determine the specific light work activities and hours permissible for children between the ages of 13 to 14 to facilitate enforcement.

2014

Ensure that legislation prohibits the use of children for all illicit activities, including drug trafficking and production.

2009 — 2014

Enforcement

Increase the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor in order to provide coverage of the workforce.

2014

Ensure that labor inspections are conducted in not just the formal sector (factories, building sites, docks, and ships) but also in the informal sector in urban and rural communities. 

2014

Ensure that labor inspectors have authority to issue fines and determine penalties for child labor law violations to facilitate enforcement of child labor laws. 

2014

Ensure information is made publicly available on the number of criminal investigators employed to address the worst forms of child labor.

2014

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the Compulsory Education Policy.

2014

Ensure that the National Plan of Action of Child Labor is implemented by providing adequate resources and an institutional tracking system.

2010 — 2014

Social Programs

Conduct research to determine the activities carried out by children who are working, especially for children working in agriculture and construction.

2013 — 2014

Expand programs that assist children in the worst forms of child labor and develop programs to aid children in domestic labor and street work.

2013 — 2014



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2.U.S. Embassy- Kingston. reporting, February 28, 2011.

3.U.S. Embassy- Kingston. reporting, February 20, 2013.

4.U.S. Department of State. "Jamaica," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; Feburary 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2013&dlid=220454.

5.UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed February 10, 2014]; http://www.uis.unesco.org/Pages/default.aspx?SPSLanguage=EN. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

6.UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4, 2011. Analysis received February 20, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

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8.U.S. Embassy- Kingston. reporting, January 30, 2015.

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13.U.S. Embassy- Kingston. reporting, Februrary 20, 2014.

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17."Study: Inner-City Children Dangerously Caught in Border Divisions." The Jamaica Observer, Kingston, February 19, 2010. http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/news/bodies-panos-fri-15_7433537.

18.Reid, T. "No Tracking System for Child Labourers." The Gleaner, Kingston, February 20, 2011. http://jamaica-gleaner.com/gleaner/20110220/lead/lead5.html.

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20.Government of Jamaica. Response to Report: Form 2012. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (November 26, 2012) "Request for information on Efforts by Certain Counrties to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Kingston; September 2012.

21.Government of Jamaica. Child Care and Protection Act enacted 2004. http://www.moj.gov.jm/laws/statutes/The%20Child%20Care%20and%20Protection%20Act.pdf.

22.Government of Jamaica. The Factories Act: The Docks (Safety, Health, and Welfare) Regulations 1968, 315/69, enacted May 27, 1968. http://www.ilocarib.org.tt/cariblex/jamaica_act4.shtml.

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24.Government of Jamaica. Mining Act, enacted October 13, 1947. http://moj.gov.jm/sites/default/files/laws/Mining%20Act.pdf.

25.Governent of Jamaica. Trafficking in Persons (Prevention, Supression, and Punishment) Act, enacted August 4, 1971. http://www.cda.gov.jm/sites/default/files/content/Trafficking%20in%20Persons%20(Prevention,%20Suppresion%20and%20Punishment)-1.pdf.

26.ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Jamaica (ratification: 2003) Submitted: 2011; accessed December 17, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/pdconv.pl?host=status01&textbase=iloeng&document=27072&chapter=9&query=%28Jamaica%29+%40ref&highlight=&querytype=bool&context=0.

27.Government of Jamaica. Response of the Government of Jamaica to the Findings of the 2011 Report of the U.S. Department of Labour on the Worst Forms of Child Labour Pertaining to Jamaica. Submitted in response to the U.S. Department of Labor letter to the Embassy of Jamaica (December 14, 2012) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Washington, DC; January 8, 2013.

28.Government of Jamaica. Cyber Crimes Act, enacted March 17, 2010. http://moj.gov.jm/sites/default/files/laws/Cybercrimes%20Act.pdf.

29.Government of Jamaica. Sexual Offences Act, Act 12, enacted 2009.

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31.Government of Jamaica. Report filed with the ILO under Article 22 of the ILO Constitution for the period ending August 31, 2012 in reference to the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182)

Kingston; September 4, 2012. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:11110:0::NO:11110:P11110_COUNTRY_ID:103236.

32.Government of Jamaica. Child Pornography (Prevention) Act, enacted October 21, 2009. http://www.japarliament.gov.jm/attachments/341_The%20Child%20Pornography%20Act.pdf.

33.Child Soldiers International. "Appendix II: Data Summary Table on Recruitment Ages of National Armies," in Louder than Words: An Agenda for Action to End State Use of Child Soldiers. London; 2012; http://www.child-soldiers.org/global_report_reader.php?id=562.

34.Government of Jamaica. The Defence Act, enacted July 31, 1962. http://moj.gov.jm/laws/defence-act.

35.Dunkley, A. "PASSED!-51 MPs Vote in Favour of Charter of Rights Bill." The Jamaica Observer, Kingston, March 23, 2011. http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/news/PASSED-51-MPs-vote-in-favour-of-Charter-of-Rights-Bill_8569370.

36.ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Jamaica (ratification: 2003) Submitted: 2011; accessed December 12, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/pdconv.pl?host=status01&textbase=iloeng&document=26567&chapter=9&query=%28Jamaica%29+%40ref&highlight=&querytype=bool&context=0.

37.ILO-IPEC. Jamaica: Child Labour Legislative Gap Analysis. Geneva; 2012 http://www.ilo.org/ipec/projects/global/tackle/jamaica/WCMS_204258/lang--en/index.htm.

38.U.S. Embassy- Kingston. reporting, January 24, 2014.

39.Office of the Children's Registry. The Mandate of the OCR, Government of Jamaica, [online] [cited December 19, 2013];
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43.Office of the Children's Registry. Child Abuse Reports: Statistical Bulletin. Kingston; September 28, 2012. Report No. 3.
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46.Ministry of Justice. Combatting Trafficking of Persons in Jamaica. online. Kingston; 2013. http://moj.gov.jm/stophumantrafficking.

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48.Iniciativa Regional América Latina y el Caribe. Declaración de Constitución de la Iniciativa Regional América Latina y el Caribe Libre de Trabajo Infántil, signed at the ILO's 18th Regional Meeting of the Americas; October 14, 2014. https://iniciativaregionalcontraeltrabajoinfantil.files.wordpress.com/2014/10/declaracic3b3n-ir_espac3b1ol.pdf.

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51.ILO-IPEC. Assessment of Implementation and Enforcement Machinery to Combat Child Labour in Jamaica. Geneva; February 2010.

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53.ILO-IPEC. Tackling Child Labour through Education in African, Caribbean and the Pacific (ACP) States (TACKLE), ILO, [online] February 27, 2014 [cited May 2, 2014]; http://www.ilo.org/ipec/projects/global/tackle/jamaica/lang--en/index.htm.

54.ILO-IPEC. Tackle Child Labor through Education: Moving Children from Work to School in 11 Countries. Geneva; June 2008. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=8511.

55.JIS News. "Tackle Project Gets $25 Million to Combat Child Labour." jis.gov.jm [online] September 8, 2011 [cited December 20, 2013];
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56.Ministry of Labour and Social Security. PATH: What is PATH?, Government of Jamaica, [online] [cited February 27, 2014]; http://www.mlss.gov.jm/pub/index.php?artid=23.

57.Ministry of Labour and Social Security. PATH: Beneficiary Responsibilities, Government of Jamaica, [online] [cited February 27, 2014]; http://www.mlss.gov.jm/pub/index.php?artid=55.

58.Lamanna, F. Jamaica: Social Protection Project (PATH). Implementation Status and Results Report. Washington, DC, The World Bank; October 15, 2012. Report No. ISR8023. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2012/10/16830792/jamaica-social-protection-project-p105024-implementation-status-results-report-sequence-09.

59.ILO-IPEC. Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (MAP). Geneva; 2014.

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