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Honduras

2014 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Moderate Advancement

In 2014, Honduras made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government signed the Alliance for Prosperity in the Northern Triangle, a development initiative that includes among its many goals increasing educational and vocational training opportunities for youth and combating human trafficking. The Government also created a Prosecutorial Task Force to investigate and prosecute human trafficking and the smuggling of unaccompanied migrant youth. In addition, the Government created the Directorate of Childhood, Adolescence, and Family (DINAF) to better monitor children's rights and implement national plans concerning children and their families. However, children in Honduras are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture, and in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation as a result of human trafficking. The Government's procedures for enforcement of child labor laws do not sufficiently deter employers from using child labor, and both labor inspectors and criminal investigators lack the resources they need to effectively carry out their mandates.

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I. Prevalence and Sectoral Distribution of Child Labor

Children in Honduras are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture. Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation as a result of human trafficking.(1-10) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Honduras.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

7.8 (153,536)

Working children by sector, ages 5 to 14 (%)

 

Agriculture

65.3

Industry

12.3

Services

22.4

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

84.6

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

4.4

Primary completion rate (%):

100.1

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2012, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(11)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Encuesta Permanente de Hogares de Propósitos Múltiples (EPHPM) Survey, 2013.(12)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of melon, coffee, and sugarcane* (1, 13-19)

Fishing,* including working as divers' assistants† and diving for lobster† (3, 4, 6, 19, 20)

Industry

Quarrying limestone*† and production of lime*† (21)

Artisanal mining*† (1, 4, 10, 18, 20)

Sale and production of fireworks*† (4, 22, 23)

Construction,† activities unknown (4, 24)

Services

Street begging and vending† (1, 20, 21, 25)

Washing car windows† and performing at traffic lights† (1, 8, 24, 26)

Scavenging in garbage dumps† (1, 4, 18-21, 25)

Domestic service† (1, 4, 8, 16, 18, 27)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation as a result of human trafficking (8, 9, 28)

Forced begging (24, 29)

Used in illicit activities, including by gangs in committing homicides, extortion, and selling and trafficking drugs (1, 24, 26, 28, 30)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a) — (c) of ILO C. 182.

In 2014, Honduras, like El Salvador and Guatemala, was a principal source of the high numbers of unaccompanied children from Central America migrating to the United States. Such children often lack economic and educational opportunities, and are vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor, including commercial sexual exploitation and recruitment by gangs into illicit activities such as committing homicides and drug trafficking.(31, 32) Children often emigrate to escape violence and extortion by gangs, in addition to searching for economic opportunities and family reunification. Once en route, they are also vulnerable to human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation.(31, 32)

In Honduras, children are sometimes trafficked from rural areas into commercial sexual exploitation in urban and tourist destinations, such as the Bay Islands, La Ceiba, San Pedro Sula, and Tegucigalpa. In addition, reports indicate that Honduran children are trafficked to other Central American countries and North America for commercial sexual exploitation.(28, 33)

In Honduras, access to education is often limited. Reports indicate that approximately 220,000 children between the ages of 5 and 17 lack access to the educational system in practice.(17) More than 75 percent of these children live in rural areas, where lack of funding for schools and, in many cases, lack of any secondary schools remain a problem.(17) In urban areas, access to education is often hindered by widespread violence and the recruitment of children into gangs. In addition, school completion rates are low; many children fail to complete primary education and, according to 2011 national data, only 50.5 percent of girls and 37.5 percent of boys completed secondary school.(9, 34)



II. Legal Framework for the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Honduras has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 120 of the Code on Childhood and Adolescence; Article 15 of the Executive Agreement STSS-211-01; Article 32 of the Labor Code; Article 124 of the Constitution (35-38)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 1 and 122 of the Code on Childhood and Adolescence; Articles 2 and 10 of the Executive Agreement STSS‑211-01; Article 1 of the Executive Agreement STSS-097-2008 (36, 37, 39)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Article 1 of the Executive Agreement STSS-097-2008; Article 8 of the Executive Agreement STSS‑211-01 (36, 39)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 6 and 52 of the Law Against Trafficking in Persons (Decree 59-2012); Articles 2 and 10 of the Executive Agreement STSS‑211-01; Article 192 of the Penal Code; Articles 68 and 127 of the Constitution (35, 36, 40, 41)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 6 and 52 of the Law Against Trafficking in Persons (Decree 59-2012); Articles 2 and 10 of the Executive Agreement STSS‑211-01; Article 8 of the Legislative Decree 35-2013 that adds Article 179E to the Penal Code (36, 40, 42)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 134 of the Code on Childhood and Adolescence; Articles 6 and 52 of the Law Against Trafficking in Persons (Decree 59-2012); Articles 2 and 10 of the Executive Agreement STSS‑211-01; Articles 148 and 149A-E of the Penal Code (36, 37, 40, 41)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 134 of the Code on Childhood and Adolescence; Article 10 of the Executive Agreement STSS‑211-01; Articles 6 and 52 of the Law Against Trafficking in Persons (Decree 59-2012); Article 8 of the Legislative Decree 35-2013 that adds Article 179F to the Penal Code (36, 37, 40, 42)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Articles 2 and 12 of the Executive Agreement STSS‑211-01; Article 276 of the Constitution (35, 36)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

17

Articles 8, 13, and 21-23 of the Fundamental Law of Education; Articles 36 and 39 of the Code on Childhood and Adolescence (37, 43)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Articles 7, 13, and 21-23 of the Fundamental Law of Education; Article 36 of the Code on Childhood and Adolescence; Article 171 of the Constitution (35, 37, 43)

* No conscription (36, 44)

The Constitution states that children 16 years old or younger may not work unless it is necessary to sustain his or her family and the work does not interfere with schooling. Honduran statutes build upon the protections in the Constitution.(35) The Labor Code and the Code on Childhood and Adolescence allow children ages 14 through 16 to work only with written parental consent and authorization from the Secretariat of Labor and Social Security (STSS).(37, 38) The Code on Childhood and Adolescence states that children ages 14 and 15 may work no more than four hours per day and that children ages 16 and 17 may work no more than 6 hours per day; children ages 16 and 17 can also receive special permission from the STSS to work in the evening if it does not affect their schooling.(7, 37, 38)

Article 120 of the Code on Childhood and Adolescence and Article 15 of the Executive Agreement STSS-211-01 set the minimum age for work at 14 in all undertakings and without exception for their size.(36, 37) Article 32(1) of the Labor Code also prohibits children under the age of 14 from working. However, children working in agricultural and stock-raising undertakings that do not permanently employ more than 10 workers are not covered by the Labor Code's minimum age protections because Article 2 of the Labor Code excludes these undertakings from its scope.(38) The ILO has recommended that the Government harmonize the Labor Code with the Code on Childhood and Adolescence to ensure that no child under age 14 is permitted to work, including in agriculture and stock-raising.(45)

Article 8 of the Executive Agreement STSS-211-01 and Article 122 of the Code on Childhood and Adolescence both prohibit children under age 18 from engaging in dangerous activities. However, Article 22 of the Executive Agreement STSS-211-01 and Article 122(v) of the Code on Childhood and Adolescence both allow the STSS to authorize minors ages 16 and 17 to perform dangerous activities if they have successfully completed relevant technical training at the National Institute of Vocational Training or a similar specialized technical institute and upon STSS verification that such minors are fully protected in these activities.(6, 36, 37)



III. Enforcement of Laws on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Secretariat of Labor and Social Security (STSS)

Inspect labor conditions and enforce child labor laws.(9, 24)

Public Ministry's Office of the Special Prosecutor for Children (OSPC)

Prosecute crimes against children, including trafficking in children, hazardous labor, forced labor, and commercial sexual exploitation. Coordinate with Honduran National Police to investigate crimes and protect victims.(9, 24)

Public Ministry's Technical Criminal Investigative Agency (ATIC)*

Investigate and technically support criminal prosecutions conducted by the Public Ministry, including by the OSPC, such as human trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, and child pornography.(10, 24)

Ministry of Justice and Human Rights

Receive and prosecute cases of child trafficking through its Human Trafficking Unit.(9)

Prosecutorial Task Force to Combat Criminal Smuggling of Unaccompanied Children and Trafficking in Persons*

Investigate and prosecute criminal organizations that engage in the illegal smuggling of unaccompanied children and trafficking in persons. Created in 2014 and overseen by the Special Prosecutor Against Organized Crime and the Special Prosecutor for Children.(29, 46)

Directorate of Childhood, Adolescence, and Family (DINAF)*

Formulate, coordinate, and implement national plans that concern children, adolescents, and their families; monitor children's rights according to national legislation and other statutes; and coordinate state efforts in conjunction with civil society and religious institutions to protect children.(47, 48) Created in 2014 through the Executive Decree PCM-27-2014 to replace the Honduran Institute for Children and the Family (INHFA), and overseen by the Secretariat of Development and Social Inclusion (SEDIS).(47, 48)

* Agency responsible for child labor enforcement was created during the reporting period.

Law enforcement agencies in Honduras took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2014, the STSS employed 141 inspectors to conduct all labor inspections, including inspections for child labor. This is the same number of inspectors employed in 2013.(10, 24) Reports indicate that this number of inspectors is inadequate to inspect for child labor violations nationwide.(24) The STSS reported that although labor inspectors did not receive training on child labor during the reporting period from either the Government or international organizations, inspectors were nevertheless prepared to conduct inspections for child labor.(10, 24)

In 2014, the STSS dedicated approximately $1.5 million to salaries of employees in the General Inspection Service.(10, 24) The STSS, labor union confederations, and human rights organizations have indicated that the level of funding and resources for the General Inspection Service, which includes limited office space, telephones, computers, vehicles, and fuel for vehicles, is insufficient for inspectors to adequately perform their responsibilities.(24)

The official process for labor inspections includes a preliminary visit, which may be unannounced, and through which inspectors identify and inform employers of violations but do not issue fines or citations.(7, 24) Employers have three days to remedy the identified violations.(7, 49) Inspectors then conduct a reinspection to determine whether the violations have been remediated. If violations are found during reinspection, inspectors recommend that the Inspector General issue penalties.(49) Reports indicate that if violations involving underage children or children working in hazardous conditions are found during a preliminary inspection, inspectors immediately report them to their supervisors.(50) This two-tiered inspection process puts an additional strain on the limited human and financial resources of the inspectorate and may not sufficiently deter employers from exploiting children in the workplace, particularly in remote, rural areas where conducting reinspections is especially challenging. Furthermore, a lack of publicly available information on the results of preliminary and subsequent inspections, including whether child labor violations are ultimately remedied, prevents a complete understanding of how effective this inspection system is in practice in enforcing child labor laws.(51)

During the reporting period, the STSS conducted 3,694 comprehensive labor inspections and 7,164 complaint-driven inspections. This is a significant decrease from the 6,037 comprehensive inspections and the 11,506 complaint-driven inspections conducted in 2013.(24) The STSS and civil society partners have reported that the overall number of inspections is insufficient to address the scope of labor violations in the country, including child labor violations.(24) Moreover, most of the inspections take place in the urban areas of Tegucigalpa and San Pedro Sula. Inspections in rural areas and in indigenous communities, where hazardous activities in agriculture and fishing or diving are concentrated, have been insufficient to address the scope of the problem.(7, 8, 52) Complete information on the full range of economic sectors and localities in which inspections were carried out does not appear to be publicly available.

In 2014, the STSS reported that, in addition to the comprehensive labor inspections and complaint-driven inspections mentioned above, it conducted 170 child labor inspections in the commercial, agricultural, and mining sectors of Tegucigalpa, San Pedro Sula, La Ceiba, and Choluteca.(10, 24) Out of those inspections, inspectors found 60 child labor violations. In 59 of those cases, violations were corrected and a total of 58 children were removed from child labor; one case remains under investigation.(10, 24) This is a significant decrease from the 795 children the STSS reported removing from child labor in 2013; research could not determine the cause for this decline.(8) While the newly formed Directorate of Childhood, Adolescence, and Family (DINAF) is responsible for ensuring that victims of child labor receive Government services, there does not appear to be a formal mechanism by which the STSS refers victims to the DINAF. It is also not known how many of the 58 rescued children received comprehensive services beyond medical evaluations provided for some children by the Occupational Health Service.(24) Information on the sanctions or fines imposed for child labor violations does not appear to be publicly available.

Although it is not known whether the number of working minors who are legally eligible to work has decreased, the STSS reported that it authorized 416 minors to work in 2014, compared with the 550 minors it authorized in 2013.(51)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2014, the Public Ministry's Office of the Special Prosecutor for Children (OSPC) coordinated investigations of criminal cases involving the worst forms of child labor. The OSPC employed two prosecutors to work with two Public Ministry analysts, three Public Ministry investigators, and six police officers to investigate crimes.(24) The OSPC reported that its operational budget for 2014 was approximately $173,000.(10) Both Government representatives and NGOs have stated that this budget is insufficient to fulfill OSPC's mandate. The OSPC reported that in 2014 more than 920 justice officials, including Public Ministry officials, youth, and civil society representatives, received training on the Law Against Trafficking in Persons and on procedures to prevent the re-victimization of trafficking survivors.(24)

In 2014, the OSPC reported that there were 18 trafficking in persons (TIP) cases under investigation,
9 TIP cases in the judicial process, and 1 TIP sentence issued. It also reported that there were 18 cases of commercial sexual exploitation under investigation, 3 cases of commercial sexual exploitation in the judicial process, and 5 sentences issued for crimes of commercial sexual exploitation.(24) Sentences ranged from 5 to 22 years in prison. However, the number of investigations, prosecutions, and convictions is not considered sufficient.(24) Victims of the worst forms of child labor, including child trafficking, are now referred to the DINAF for services.(24) Information on how many children were rescued from the worst forms of child labor and how many children received services in 2014 was not publicly available.



IV. Coordination of Government Efforts on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Commission for the Gradual and Progressive Eradication of Child Labor

Coordinate all matters related to child labor. Members include the STSS, the Supreme Court, the Social Security Administration, the Public Ministry, DINAF, and other Government entities.(51, 53, 54) Operates through a Technical Committee for the prevention and eradication of child labor and through an Executive Unit for Public Policy.(10, 24)

Inter-Institutional Commission Against Exploitation and Commercial Sex Trafficking (CICESCT)

Coordinate the efforts of Government institutions and civil society groups to combat commercial sexual exploitation and trafficking, including of children.(26, 53) Consists of representatives from 52 organizations, including several Government ministries and various NGOs.(26, 40, 53)

Unaccompanied Children Task Force (UAC Task Force)*

Provide for the safe repatriation of unaccompanied migrant children and coordinate their reintegration into their communities of origin. Led by the First Lady and comprised of officials from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; DINAF; the Ministry of Human Rights, Justice, Governance, and Decentralization; the Migration Institute; and the Public Ministry, with specialized services for returnees provided by the Ministries of Labor, Education, Health, and Development and Social Inclusion.(29, 51)

Ministry of Social Development

Coordinate social protection policies and the provision of services to vulnerable populations, including child and adolescent victims of violence, trafficking, and sexual and economic exploitation.(9)

* Mechanism to coordinate efforts to address child labor was created during the reporting period.

In 2014, the Inter-Institutional Commission Against Exploitation and Commercial Sex Trafficking (CICESCT) was granted its first official budget and convened state authorities and civil society organizations to inaugurate a public awareness campaign to combat human trafficking.(24, 55-57)



V. Government Policies on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government of Honduras has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).

Table 7. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Second National Plan of Action to Prevent and Eradicate Child Labor (NPAPECL II) (2008 — 2015)

Aims to prevent children from dropping out of school before they can legally work, to withdraw children who are currently engaged in the worst forms of child labor, and to ensure that the laws that protect children are enforced.(9, 53, 54) Establishes regional subcommittees in Choluteca, Comayagua, Danlí, El Progreso, Juticalpa, La Ceiba, and San Pedro Sula to oversee local implementation of NPAPECL II.(25) Specific components for 2012-2014 include working with the Municipal Association of Honduras (AMHON) to develop a checklist of indicators for certifying a municipality as free from child labor; working through the regional subcommittees to arrange for surprise, nighttime inspections in locations known for child labor; and building new educational centers in Santa Barbara, Ocotepeque, Copan, Lempira, Intibuca, and La Paz to provide more educational opportunities for at-risk children.(10, 24)

Roadmap for the Eradication of Child Labor in Honduras

Aims to improve coordination of the Government's responses to child labor issues. Works at the national, regional, and sub-regional levels and incorporates issues related to poverty, education, health, and social mobilization.(9, 53, 58) Implemented by the STSS.(9)

First Public Policy and National Action Plan on Human Rights

Aims to implement the Government's national and international human rights commitments, including those addressing child and forced labor. Approved by the President's Council of Ministers in January 2013.(24) In 2014, representatives from various ministries signed an Inter-Institutional Agreement of Cooperation regarding the implementation of this policy.(24)

National Strategy to Reduce Poverty (ERP) (2001 — 2015)

Seeks to reduce poverty nationwide by fostering economic development and assisting vulnerable populations. Prioritizes the elimination of child labor and increased school attendance, recognizing that both are necessary to national development.(59)

Alliance for Prosperity in the Northern Triangle†

Aims to create economic growth, increase educational and vocational training opportunities for youth, and reduce violence in Honduras, Guatemala, and El Salvador, in part to reduce the number of unaccompanied minors who leave Honduras and other Central American countries for the United States and who are vulnerable to human trafficking. Signed by the presidents of each country in 2014.(60-62)

Education for All Plan (2002 — 2015)

Seeks to increase school attendance to ensure that all Honduran children complete primary schooling, recognizing that a lack of schooling both contributes to and is a consequence of child labor.(59)

Executive Decrees PCM‑011‑2011; PCM 056-2011

Mandates that all Secretariats and their dependencies incorporate the issue of child labor elimination and prevention into their institutional strategic planning in accordance with the framework of the National Plan.(3, 4, 63-65)

Country Vision (2010 — 2038) and National Plan (2010 — 2022)

Guides national policy to reduce extreme poverty. Both Plans address education, the creation of social protection systems, and child labor.(7, 58, 66)

Declaration of the Regional Initiative: Latin America and the Caribbean Free of Child Labor (2014 — 2020)†

Aims to increase regional cooperation on the eradication of child labor by 2020 through signatories' efforts to strengthen monitoring and coordination mechanisms, Government programs, and South — South exchanges. Reaffirms commitments made in the Brasilia Declaration from the Third Global Conference on Child Labor (October 2013), and signed by Honduras at the ILO's 18th Regional Meeting of the Americas in Lima, Peru (October 2014).(67-69)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.



VI. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

In 2014, the Government of Honduras funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms. The Government has other programs that may have an impact on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Voucher 10,000‡

Government conditional cash transfer program that aims to reduce poverty by providing financial assistance to the head of household when children meet educational and health requirements.(53, 70) Objectives include the elimination of child labor.(8) In 2014, the number of beneficiaries served was 270,000.(24)

School Meal Program*

Ministry of Education program, implemented with support from the WFP and in conjunction with the Office of the First Lady, that provides school lunches to students to improve nutrition and bolster attendance. In 2014, the program reached 1,220,000 students.(24, 51)

My First Job Program*‡

STSS program that connects disadvantaged youth with vocational opportunities.(26, 53, 71) Includes job skills and vocational training, internships, job placement, and public — private partnerships to support on-the-job training.(7, 24, 26)

Program to Combat Child Forced Begging†‡

DINAF program to identify and rescue children who are subjected to forced begging. Includes a media campaign to raise awareness of child forced begging.(24)

Better Life Program‡

Secretariat of Development and Social Inclusion (SEDIS) program that seeks to assist 800,000 of the poorest families by improving their housing conditions with cement flooring, water filters, and private bathrooms. Targets many of the families whose children are engaged in begging on the streets.(24, 51)

Program to Prevent Sex Tourism Involving Children and Adolescents‡

Government program that aims to raise awareness and provide information, training, and a code of conduct for the tourism industry. Implemented by the Honduran Tourist Board, the Ministry of Tourism, and the Tourism Institute.(9, 72)

Promoting Respect for the Rights and Social Integration of Children Working in Refuse and Street Work‡

Government program implemented by local organizations that targets children working in garbage dumps and on the streets in San Pedro Sula and Tegucigalpa. Targets approximately 600 children and provides them with educational services.(73, 74)

The Friendly Hand Program‡

SEDIS program that targets young people working in garbage dumps in San Pedro Sula and Tegucigalpa. Offers a holistic approach to removing these young people from the worst forms of child labor and offers training for children's family members.(27, 75-77)

Program for Working Children

Network of Institutions for Children's Rights program that targets 2,500 children working in the streets. Provides rehabilitation programs for child workers and to child victims of commercial sexual exploitation.(73, 78)

Civic Saturdays‡

Ministry of Education program that reintroduced a Saturday school day in 2013, in part to help reduce child labor. Topics covered during classes are Honduran culture, laws pertaining to children, and recreational activities.(8, 24, 79) In 2014, components also included tutoring in math and reading.(24)

Decent Work Country Program for Honduras (2012 — 2015)

Works to ensure that workers' rights and Honduran labor laws are upheld. For the period 2013 — 2015, seeks to implement measures from the Roadmap to help Honduras become child labor-free.(59)

Bright Futures (2014 — 2018)†

$7 million, USDOL-funded, 4-year project implemented by World Vision to address child labor and improve labor rights and working conditions in Honduras, particularly in Valle, Choluteca, and the San Pedro Sula area.(80) Works with the Honduran Government, industry, civil society organizations, and other stakeholders to build the Ministry of Labor's capacity to ensure remediation of labor law violations related to child labor, freedom of association, acceptable work conditions, and the right to organize and bargain collectively. Targets 5,150 children and youth for improved educational and livelihood opportunities.(80)

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues Project

USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016, established by the Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to improve the evidence base on child labor and forced labor through data collection and research in Honduras.(81, 82)

Honduran Youth Alliance

USAID-funded project that focuses on long-term gang prevention, including social reintegration of former gang members. Works at the national and local levels with civil society and the private sector to advocate for policy reform, run public awareness campaigns, and provide support for outreach centers for vulnerable youth in high-risk communities, including through recreational, educational, and vocational opportunities.(83)

Strengthening Local Capacity to Build a Culture of Peace (FORPAZ)

USAID-funded project that aims to improve citizen security by turning schools into community centers that provide extracurricular activities for at-risk youth, as well as develop a media campaign that promotes a culture of peace.(83)

Improving Education for Work, Learning, and Success (METAS)

USAID-funded project that aims to increase educational opportunities for at-risk youth through alternative education programs that provide basic education skills and workforce development training. Promotes increased access to educational opportunities for youth residing in areas known for drug trafficking and gang activity.(83)

Education and Monitoring Program for the Eradication of Child Labor (2012 — 2014)

$1.3 million, Government of Spain — funded, 2-year project implemented by ILO-IPEC that aims to strengthen public policies and government capacity to combat child labor in 19 countries in the Americas, including Honduras. Includes the objective of developing information systems on the worst forms of child labor.(84)

Elimination of Child Labor in Latin America (Phase 4) (2011 — 2015)

$4.5 million Government of Spain-funded, 4-year project implemented by ILO-IPEC to combat child labor in 19 countries, including Honduras.(84)

* The impact of this program on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
† Program was launched during the reporting period.
‡ Program is funded by the Government of Honduras.

Although the Government of Honduras funds or participates in social programs that aim to eliminate child labor in street work, garbage dumps, commercial sexual exploitation, and the illegal recruitment of children into gang-related activities, research did not identify programs that specifically target children working in other dangerous activities, such as agriculture, fishing, mining, and domestic service.



VII. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Honduras (Table 9).

Table 9. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that minimum age protections in the Labor Code extend to agricultural and stock-raising undertakings that do not permanently employ more than 10 workers to ensure consistency with the protections provided in the Code on Childhood and Adolescence.

2013 — 2014

Enforcement

Ensure adequate funding for the STSS, including resources for sufficient numbers of labor inspectors and inspections in areas where child labor is prevalent, such as rural areas and indigenous communities where children engage in hazardous activities in agriculture and fishing or diving.

2010 — 2014

Ensure all labor inspectors receive training in child labor law enforcement issues.

2014

Ensure that the two-tiered inspection system does not undermine effective child labor law enforcement and consider how the system may strain the limited resources of the inspectorate.

2011 — 2014

Make information publicly available on all the sectors and localities in which inspections were carried out, as well as on the sanctions imposed for child labor violations.

2012 — 2014

Ensure that there is a formal referral mechanism through which the DINAF receives child labor victims, designates a service provider, and monitors comprehensive services to victims of child labor, including its worst forms, and publicly report on the number of children rescued and the number of children who receive services.

2014

Ensure that minors who work have authorization from the STSS.

2011 — 2014

Ensure adequate funding is provided to the OSPC to effectively investigate and prosecute all crimes concerning the worst forms of child labor.

2014

Social Programs

Increase access to education by increasing funding to schools and building more schools, in particular in rural areas.

2014

Assess the impact of social programs, such as My First Job and the School Meal Program, on reducing child labor.

2010 — 2014

Create Government programs that aim to eliminate child labor in dangerous activities, such as agriculture, fishing, mining, and domestic service.

2009 — 2014



1.Casa Alianza. El trabajo infantil en Honduras: Diagnostico situacional de algunas de las peores formas de trabajo infantil en Honduras. online. Tegucigalpa, Casa Alianza; October 2011. http://www.casa-alianza.org.hn/images/documentos/Observatorio/trabajoinfantil-honduras.pdf.

2.El Heraldo. "Más de 400,000 niños laboran en Honduras." El Heraldo, Tegucigalpa, Dec. 6, 2011; País. http://archivo.elheraldo.hn/Pa%C3%ADs/Ediciones/2011/06/13/Noticias/Mas-de-400-000-ninos-laboran-en-Honduras.

3.Secretaria de Estado en los Despachos de Justicia y Derechos Humanos. Trabajo Infantil en Honduras. Tegucigalpa; February 14, 2012. http://www.sjdh.gob.hn/sites/default/files/20120920%20-%20Informe%20Trabajo%20Infantil%20en%20Honduras.pdf.

4.Gobierno de la República de Honduras, Secretaría de Trabajo y Seguridad Social. Día Mundial Contra el Trabajo Infantil 2011 Secretaría de Trabajo y Seguridad Social, [online] June 8, 2011 [cited March 25, 2013];
http://www.trabajo.gob.hn/prensa-y-difusion/dia-mundial-contra-el-trabajo-infantil-2011-1.

5.Centinela Economico. "Unos 500.000 niños son víctimas de explotación laboral en Honduras." centinelaeconomico.com [online] October 7, 2011 [cited March 27, 2013]; http://www.centinelaeconomico.com/2011/10/07/unos-500-000-ninos-son-victimas-de-explotacion-laboral-en-honduras/.

6.ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Honduras (ratification: 1980) Published: 2012; accessed March 27, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:20010:0::NO:::.

7.U.S. Embassy- Tegucigalpa. reporting, January 31, 2013.

8.U.S. Embassy- Tegucigalpa. reporting, January 18, 2014.

9.United Nations. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, Najat Maalla M'jid. Geneva; January 21, 2013. Report No. A/HRC/22/54/Add.2. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Children/Pages/CountryVisits.aspx.

10.Government of Honduras. Respuesta a Solicitud de Información Sobre Trabajo Infantil y sus Peores Formas en Honduras. source on file January 15, 2015.

11.UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed January 16, 2015]; http://www.uis.unesco.org/Pages/default.aspx?SPSLanguage=EN. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

12.UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Encuesta Permanente de Hogares de Propósitos Múltiples (EPHPM), 2013. Analysis received January 16, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

13.Agence France-Presse. "Honduran Coffee Harvest relies on Child Workers." rawstory.com [online] December 24, 2010 [cited February 15, 2013]; http://www.rawstory.com/rs/2010/12/24/honduran-coffee-child-workers/.

14.International Labor Rights Forum and COSIBAH. Women in the Honduran Melon Industry. Washington, DC; 2012. http://laborrights.org/creating-a-sweatfree-world/sweatshops-in-the-fields/melon-production-in-honduras/resources/women-in-.

15.Sandoval, E. "ONGs denuncian explotación infantil en la cosecha del café en Honduras." cnn.com [online] October 7, 2011 [cited March 27, 2013]; http://cnnespanol.cnn.com/2011/10/07/organizaciones-no-gubernamentales-denuncian-explotacion-infantil-en-honduras/.

16.UNICEF. Explotación laboral infantil [youtube video]. Honduras: UNICEF Honduras; May 12, 2012, 1 min. 36 sec., July 31, 2014; http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eeCwFNCKT7A.

17.Cotza, L. "Improving education standards in Honduras: A long road ahead." The Guardian, London, June 6, 2013. http://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/2013/jun/06/education-standards-honduras.

18.Casa Alianza. Jornada de capacitación sobre la situación de "Violencia contra la niñez y la adolescencia en Honduras, Casa Alianzia, [online] [cited March 21, 2014]; http://www.casa-alianza.org.hn/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=127:taller-sjdh&catid=35:casa-alianza.

19.Proceso Digital. "Conadeh denuncia que unos 220,500 niños están excluidos del sistema educativo." proceso.hn [online] June 11, 2012 [cited March 27, 2013]; http://proceso.hn/2012/06/11/Salud+y+Sociedad/Conadeh.denuncia.que/53107.html.

20.Proceso Digital. "Denuncian que unos 500.000 niños son víctimas explotación laboral en Honduras." proceso.hn [online] October 7, 2011 [cited March 27, 2013]; http://proceso.hn/2011/10/07/Nacionales/Denuncian.que.unos/43174.html.

21.U.S. Department of State. "Honduras," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2012. Washington, DC; April 19, 2013; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper.

22.El Heraldo. "Niños comercializan cohetes en zonas prohibidas de Choluteca." El Heraldo, Tegucigalpa, December 22, 2011; Regionales. http://www.elheraldo.hn/Secciones-Principales/Regionales/Ninos-comercializan-cohetes-en-zonas-prohibidas-de-Choluteca.

23.La Prensa. "Se queman dos niñas tras explosión en fábrica de cohetes." La Prensa, Santa Rosa de Copán, September 24, 2013. http://www.laprensa.hn/sucesos/policiales/389667-96/se-queman-dos-ni%C3%B1as-tras-explosi%C3%B3n-en-f%C3%A1brica-de-cohetes.

24.U.S. Embassy- Tegucigalpa. reporting, January 15, 2015.

25.U.S. Embassy- Tegucigalpa. E-mail communication to USDOL official. July 20, 2011.

26.U.S. Embassy- Tegucigalpa. reporting, January 20, 2012.

27.ILO Committee of Experts. Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Honduras (ratification: 2001) Published: 2013; accessed March 20, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:20010:0::NO:::.

28.U.S. Department of State. "Honduras," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington, DC; June 20, 2014; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/226846.pdf.

29.U.S. Embassy- Tegucigalpa. reporting, February 17, 2015.

30.U.S. Embassy- Tegucigalpa. reporting, February 14, 2014.

31.United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. Mission to Central America: The Flight of Unaccompanied Children to the United States; November 2013. http://www.usccb.org/about/migration-policy/upload/Mission-To-Central-America-FINAL-2.pdf.

32.Dennis Stinchcomb and Eric Hershberg. Unaccompanied Migrant Children from Central America: Context, Causes, and Responses. Center for Latin American & Latino Studies, American University; 2014 November,. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2524001.

33.U.S. Department of State. "Honduras," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2013. Washington, DC; June 19, 2013; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2013/index.htm.

34.FHI 360. "Education Policy and Data Center (EPDC) Spotlight on Honduras." epdc.org [online] 2014 [cited February 17, 2015]; http://www.epdc.org/epdc-data-points/epdc-spotlight-honduras.

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38.Government of Honduras. Código del Trabajo y sus Reformas, No. 189, enacted July 15, 1959. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/29076/64849/S59HND01.htm#t4.

39.Government of Honduras. Acuerdo No. STSS-097-2008, Reforma por adicion articulo 8 del Reglamento sobre Trabajo Infantil en Honduras, enacted May 12, 2008. http://white.oit.org.pe/ipec/documentos/listados_tip_honduras.pdf.

40.Government of Honduras. Ley Contra la Trata de Personas (Decreto 59-2012), enacted July 6, 2012. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/90974/105243/F327431691/HND90974.pdf.

41.Government of Honduras. Código Penal, Decreto 144-83, enacted August 23, 1983 (includes updates from Decreto 234-2005). http://www.poderjudicial.gob.hn/juris/Codigos/C%C3%B3digo%20Penal%20(09).pdf.

42.Government of Honduras. Decreto Legislativo No. 35-2013, enacted September 5, 2013. http://www.lagaceta.hn/.

43.Government of Honduras. Ley Fundamental de Educación, No. 262-2011, enacted February 22, 2012. http://www.tsc.gob.hn/leyes/Ley%20Fundamental%20de%20Educaci%C3%B3n.pdf.

44.Child Soldiers International. "Appendix II: Data Summary on Recruitment Ages of National Armies," in Louder than Words: An Agenda for Action to end State Use of Soldiers. London; 2012; http://www.child-soldiers.org/global_report_reader.php?id=562.

45.ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Honduras (ratification: 1980) Published: 2013; accessed November 14, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:20010:0::NO:::.

46.U.S. Embassy- Tegucigalpa. reporting, October 15, 2014.

47.Government of Honduras. Decreto Ejecutivo PCM-27-2014, enacted June 6, 2014. http://melarayasociados.com/dmsdocument/508.

48.Government of Honduras. "Gobierno liquida el IHNFA y crea la DINAF para atender a la niñez y adolescencia." juanorlando.com [online] June 4, 2014 [cited November 14, 2014]; http://juanorlando.com/?p=720.

49.Inspección General del Trabajo- STSS. Colección Protocolos de Inspección- Honduras: Buena Prácticas, Verificación, Investigacion; October 1, 2008. [source on file].

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51.U.S. Embassy- Tegucigalpa official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 14, 2015.

52.ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989 (No. 169) Honduras (ratification: 1995) Published: 2014; accessed November 19, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:20010:0::NO:::.

53.U.S. Embassy- Tegucigalpa. reporting, February 8, 2011.

54.National Commission to Eradicate Child Labor. II Plan de Acción Nacional para la Prevención y Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil en Honduras 2008-2015. Tegucigalpa; 2009. http://white.oit.org.pe/ipec/pagina.php?pagina=102.

55.La Tribuna. "Honduras a combatir trata de personas." latribuna.hn [online] June 11, 2014 [cited November 17, 2014];
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56.Honduprensa. "Entradas etiquetadas como Comisión Interinstitucional Contra la Explotación Sexual Comercial y la Trata de Personas (CICESCT)." wordpress.com [online] September 24, 2014 [cited November 17, 2014]; Honduprensa. "Entradas etiquetadas como Comisión Interinstitucional Contra la Explotación Sexual Comercial y la Trata de Personas (CICESCT)." wordpress.com [online] September 24, 2014 [cited November 17, 2014]; https://honduprensa.wordpress.com/tag/comision-interinstitucional-contra-la-explotacion-sexual-comercial-y-la-trata-de-personas-cicesct/.

57.Government of Honduras. "JOH: 'Honduras será declarada territorio hostil para la trata de personas'." juanorlando.com [online] June 10, 2014 [cited November 17, 2014]; http://juanorlando.com/?p=752.

58.ILO-IPEC. Hoja de Ruta para hacer de Honduras un país libre de trabajo infantil y sus peores formas - Informe. Research and Policy Papers; June 2011. Report No. ATN/SF-10219-RG. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=17457.

59.UCW. Entendiendo los resultados del trabajo infantíl y el empleo juvenil en Honduras: Revisión de políticas y marcos legislativos; 2014. [source on file].

60.Governments of El Salvador Guatemala and Honduras. Plan of the Alliance for Prosperity in the Northern Triangle: A Road Map; September 2014. http://idbdocs.iadb.org/wsdocs/getdocument.aspx?docnum=39224238.

61.Inter-American Development Bank. "Presidentes de El Salvador, Guatemala y Honduras presentan plan de Alianza para Prosperidad en Triángulo Norte." iadb.org [online] November 14, 2014 [cited November 17, 2014]; http://www.iadb.org/es/noticias/comunicados-de-prensa/2014-11-14/presidents-del-triangulo-norte-presentan-plan,10987.html.

62.The White House - Office of the Press Secretary. "Fact Sheet: Support for the Alliance for Prosperity in the Northern Triangle." whitehouse.gov [online] March 3, 2015 [cited March 24, 2015]; https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2015/03/03/fact-sheet-support-alliance-prosperity-northern-triangle.

63.Secretaría de Trabajo y Seguridad Social. Ratifican lucha regional para erradicar el Trabajo Infantil, [[previously online]] [cited March 21, 2014];
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64.Goverment of Honduras. Decreto Ejecutivo PCM-011-2011, enacted February 15, 2011. http://www.sdp.gob.hn/sitio/transparencia/images/stories/documentos/DECRETO%20EJECUTIVO%20No.%20PCM-011-2011.pdf.

65.Goverment of Honduras. Decreto Ejecutivo PCM-056-2011, enacted August 23, 2011. http://www.sdp.gob.hn/sitio/transparencia/images/stories/documentos/DECRETO%20EJECUTIVO%20No.%20PCM-011-2011.pdf.

66.República de Honduras. Vision de País 2010-2038 y Plan de Nación 2010-2022. Tegucigalpa; 2010. http://www.plandenacion.hn/.

67.ILO. "18th American Regional Meeting - Latin America and Caribbean Sign a Declaration to Free the Region from Child Labour." ilo.org [online] October 17, 2014 [cited 2014]; http://www.ilo.org/caribbean/WCMS_314428/lang--en/index.htm.

68.UN News Centre. "At UN-backed forum, Latin American, Caribbean nations pledge robust efforts against child labour." un.org [online] October 15, 2014 [cited October 28, 2014]; http://www.un.org/apps/news/printnews.asp?nid=49082.

69.Declaración de Constitución de la Iniciativa Regional América Latina y el Caribe Libre de Trabajo Infántil, signed at the ILO's 18th Regional Meeting of the Americas, October 14, 2014. Lima, Peru. https://iniciativaregionalcontraeltrabajoinfantil.files.wordpress.com/2014/10/declaracic3b3n-ir_espac3b1ol.pdf.

70.Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo. "Honduras fortalecerá eficiencia y cobertura del programa Bono 10,000." iadb.org [online] May 30, 2013 [cited May 19, 2015]; http://www.iadb.org/es/noticias/comunicados-de-prensa/2013-05-30/proteccion-social-bono-10000-en-honduras,10462.html.

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72.UNICEF. Código de Conducta para la Protección de Niños, Niñas, y Adolescentes Contra la Explotación Sexual Comercial en el Sectore de Viajes y Turismo-Honduras. [preivously online]. Tegucigalpa. http://www.unicef.org/honduras/14350.htm [source on file].

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