2013 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor
In 2013, Haiti made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government adopted a new law to bring Haitian law into compliance with the Hague Convention on International Adoptions, which contains provisions that aim to prevent trafficking and other worst forms of child labor from occurring through Haiti's child adoption system. The Government continued to expand access to education and support livelihoods through social programs that provide cash transfers to defray tuition and the cost of school meals during the 2013 school year. However, children in Haiti continue to engage in child labor, including in domestic service and agriculture. Haiti lacks adequate legislation to address the worst forms of child labor, such as trafficking, and a clear, easily applicable minimum age for domestic service, and it has not yet approved a list of hazardous occupations prohibited to children. Inspectors and child protection agents lack sufficient resources, such as vehicles and fuel, to carry out inspections. Social protection programs to combat child labor are also insufficient to adequately address the extent of the problem.
Children in Haiti are engaged in child labor in domestic service and in agriculture, including on small subsistence farms.(1-6) Child labor in agriculture occurs throughout the country but is most prevalent in the South and Artibonite regions.(3-7) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Haiti. Data on some of these indicators are not available from the sources used in this report.
|Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):||29.0 (659,864)|
|School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):||81.2|
|Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):||27.5|
|Primary completion rate (%):||Unavailable|
Source for primary completion rate: UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2014. (8)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Demographic and Health Survey 2005. (9)
Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.
|Agriculture||Preparing land for planting, fertilizing fields, sowing, pruning, weeding, thinning and guarding in relation to the production of bananas,* beans,* corn,* peanuts,* peas,* rice,* cassava,* and yams* (5)|
|Raising cows,* donkeys,* goats,* pigs,* sheep,* and poultry* (5)|
|Fishing,* activities unknown (7, 10)|
|Processing produce, including removing shells and husks, removing stones, winnowing and drying* (5)|
|Industry||Construction, activities unknown* (7, 11)|
|Services||Domestic service* (2-4, 12, 13)|
|Selling goods and produce,* street vending,* shining shoes* (3, 7, 13-15)|
|Working in food kiosks* (7)|
|Washing and guarding cars, washing windows* (3, 7, 14)|
|Portering in public markets and bus stations* (7, 13, 14)|
|Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡||Street vending,* shining shoes,* washing windows†and agricultural work,†sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3, 4, 12-17)|
|Use by criminal groups as messengers and to carry weapons or transport drugs†(3, 17, 18)|
|Commercial sexual exploitation,* domestic service,* and begging,* sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (7, 11, 19)|
*Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
†Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3 (d) of ILO C. 182.
‡Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a) - (c) of ILO C. 182.
Some parents unable to care for their children send them to residential care centers (orphanages), or to relatives or strangers expected to provide food, shelter, and schooling to the children in exchange for housework.( 2-4, 12) In practice, some of these children receive care and an education, while many become domestic servants and are victims of labor exploitation and abuse.(3, 4, 12, 17)
While many Haitians' births are not registered, the 2010 earthquake and ensuing infrastructure destruction further exacerbated the lack of identity documentation.(3, 12, 15, 16, 18) Children lacking personal identification papers are particularly vulnerable to trafficking and other forms of labor exploitation; their legal status complicates their access to justice and other systems of government protection.(20, 21) Children are trafficked both internally and to the Dominican Republic.(3, 16) NGOs have reported that children crossing the border illegally are often accompanied by an adult who is paid to pretend to be the child's parent or guardian until they reach the Dominican Republic.(15) Some of these children are reunited with relatives in the Dominican Republic; whereas, others end up working, including in domestic service, agriculture or on the streets shining shoes, washing windows, and in organized begging.(12, 15, 16, 22, 23)
There are not enough public schools, and many teachers have little or no training and lack official teaching credentials. As a result, most Haitian children who attend school go to private schools that charge a tuition.( 2, 18) Many others simply do not attend school, especially in rural areas; as a result, they are at an increased risk of engaging in child labor or of becoming victims of human trafficking.( 2, 3, 18)
Haiti has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).
|ILO C. 138, Minimum Age||✅|
|ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor||✅|
|UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict||✅|
|UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography||✅|
|Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons||✅|
On April 30, 2014, Haiti ratified the UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict and the UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography.
The Government has established relevant laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).
|Minimum Age for Work||Yes||15** 14†||Article 335 of the Labor Code (24)|
|Minimum Age for Hazardous Work||Yes||18||Article 333 of the Labor Code (24)|
|List of Hazardous Occupations Prohibited for Children||No|
|Prohibition of Forced Labor||Yes||Article 2 of the Act on the Prohibition and Elimination of All Forms of Abuse, Violence, Ill Treatment, or Inhuman Treatment Against Children of 2003 (Act of 2003) (24)|
|Prohibition of Child Trafficking||Yes||Article 2 of the Act of 2003 (24)|
|Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children||Yes||Article 2 of the Act of 2003; Articles 279 to 280 of the Penal Code (24, 25)|
|Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities||Yes||Article 2 of the Act of 2003 (24)|
|Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment||N/A*|
|Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service||N/A*|
|Compulsory Education Age||Yes||11||1987 Constitution (26, 27)|
|Free Public Education||Yes||1987 Constitution (26)|
**Labor Code Article 335 states children must be 15 years old to work in industrial, agricultural, or commercial enterprises.
†At time of ILO C. 138 ratification, the Government specified 14 as the minimum age for admission to employment or work.(29)
*No conscription or no standing military.(27, 28)
Haiti's Labor Code Article 335 sets the minimum age at 15 for work in industrial, agricultural, and commercial enterprises. In its ratification of ILO C. 138, Haiti specified the minimum age of work to be 14.(29) The ILO Committee of Experts has noted that, as permitted under Article 5 of the Convention, Haiti excluded from Convention coverage the activities of children ages 12 and older in family enterprises, particularly in the informal and agricultural sectors, for up to 3 hours per day outside of school hours under MAST supervision. Therefore, the minimum age for work outside the three sectors referenced in the Labor Code and the allowable 3 hours per day in family enterprises is 14. The Labor Code allows children age 14 to be contracted apprentices, although children ages 14-16 may not work as apprentices more than 25 hours a week.(29, 30) The Labor Code also provides penalties for failure to follow procedures, such as obtaining work authorization to employ minors ages 15-18 legally, but does not provide penalties for the employment of underage children. The limited penalties, usually between $68 and $111, are not sufficient deterrents to protect children against labor exploitation.(7, 24) Pursuant to Article 5 of ILO C. 138, the ILO Committee of Experts requested the Government of Haiti to provide additional information about children excluded from ILO C. 138's coverage at ratification and about the Government's efforts to provide broader protections for this group.(24, 29)
The Act on the Prohibition and Elimination of All Forms of Abuse, Violence, Ill Treatment, or Inhuman Treatment Against Children of 2003 (Act of 2003) effectively annulled Chapter 9 of the Labor Code that had set a minimum age for domestic service and had provided for protections for domestic workers and fines in cases of violations.(24, 30) Though the ratification of ILO C. 138 sets the legal minimum age for domestic work at 14, the Act of 2003's repeal of the minimum age for domestic service leaves practical ambiguity about the Government's application of a minimum age for domestic service.( 13, 24, 29)
The Labor Code prohibits children ages 15-18 from working at night in industrial jobs and in establishments where alcohol is served. The Labor Code also contains prohibitions against minors performing work that is dangerous or harmful to their physical or moral health. A more specific list of hazardous child labor activities has been developed but was not approved during the reporting period.(24, 30) Even though the Act of 2003 also contains a general prohibition against work that harms the health, security, or morality of a child, the Act establishes no penalties for employing children in these activities.(24) Articles 278-282 of the Penal Code prohibit prostitution and the corruption of minors. Research was inconclusive about whether this includes the use of children in pornographic performances. Articles 281-282 provide relevant penalties and leave open the possibility that a person committing these crimes could be punished with only 6 months of imprisonment.(25)
In November 2013, the Government adopted a new law to bring Haiti into compliance with the Hague Convention on International Adoptions. Its provisions prohibit exploitation and trafficking through Haiti's child adoptions system.(7, 13, 31) The new law reinforces the powers of the Institute of Social Welfare and Research (IBESR), a specialized agency of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labor (MAST), as the supervisory body for adoption issues.(7) There is no law penalizing all types of trafficking; however, a trafficking law that would include criminal penalties recently passed both houses of Parliament and is awaiting promulgation.(7, 10-12, 31) Research found no penalties in Haitian law for forced labor or the use of children in illicit activities, although such conduct is prohibited by the Act of 2003.(24, 30)
It appears that children in Haiti are only required to attend school until age 11, which makes children ages 12-14 particularly vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor, as they are neither required to be in school nor are able to work legally, except in the limited circumstances specified above.(3, 27, 32) The Constitution guarantees free primary education, but most public schools charge fees for books, uniforms, enrollment, and teacher salaries; the cost of these expenses is prohibitive for many families.( 2, 13, 18)
The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).
|Ministry of Social Affairs and Labor (MAST)||Enforce child protection and child labor laws. MAST labor inspectors investigate Labor Code infractions, including those regarding child labor, in the formal sector. MAST's Institute of Social Welfare and Research (IBESR) agents perform inspections, with a focus on child protection, and help enforce the Act of 2003. IBESR's role involves some monitoring of work of children age 12 and older who work in family enterprises.(29, 31, 33) In cases of potential criminal violations, MAST labor inspectors and IBESR agents transfer cases to juvenile courts for prosecution, while children are receive services from IBESR.(3, 7, 11) Collaborate with the Brigade for the Protection of Minors (BPM) to investigate cases of crimes against children and apply the Penal Code to punish those responsible.(7, 11, 31)|
|Haitian National Police's (HNP) BPM||Lead anti-child trafficking efforts and investigate Penal Code infractions against children.(11, 15) Conduct investigations upon reports of child or forced labor, or in conjunction with routine police patrols.(7, 31) Operate in public places where children can be in physical or moral danger and victims of certain crimes. BPM agents gather and submit information to judicial and/or social protection authorities to allow criminal prosecution for crimes against minors or to provide social protection and placement services (as needed) for victims.(34)|
Law enforcement agencies in Haiti took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.
Labor Law Enforcement
Each of the MAST's 11 regional offices employs at least one MAST/Labor Inspectorate child labor inspector, but the total number of MAST inspectors is unknown. All MAST labor inspectors are required to monitor and ensure compliance with all Labor Code provisions during their inspections, including on child labor.(11, 15) MAST inspectors found no child labor violations in the formal sector inspections they carried out in 2013, but the number of MAST inspections conducted is unknown and details regarding inspection methodology unclear. For cases of children under age 15 found working in formal sector enterprises, there appears to be no written protocol as to whether inspectors should issue fines, issue warnings, and/or refer the children to IBESR.(24)
There have also been delays in penalizing violations of the Labor Code, because labor inspectors cannot directly fine employers and must transfer cases of violations to labor tribunals for their review and, if appropriate, sanction.The labor courts are often slow to act and delay the imposition and collection of fines.(24) MAST inspectors lack training and sufficient resources to adequately enforce the law, including means of transportation, fuel, and appropriately equipped work places.(7)
In 2013, IBESR's 150 employees, working in all of Haiti's geographic departments, included 77 child inspectors and approximately 20 social workers to handle protection cases including those involving child labor.(7) Each IBESR regional bureau includes a child protection section that employs five to seven inspectors. In 2013, IBESR also conducted a comprehensive reclassification of its staff by revising the terms of reference for each position, reinforcing a standardized hiring process, and providing training.(7) However, the amount of training provided was insufficient, in large part due to lack of funding.(7, 31) IBESR responds to complaints, but does not have a system with sufficient reach or standard protocols to conduct inspections effectively in the informal sector, including on small subsistence farms where most child labor occurs.(34, 35) IBESR inspectors also lack means of transportation, fuel, and appropriately equipped workplaces.(3, 7, 11) In 2013, IBESR carried out 2,578 child labor inspections, including along the Haitian-Dominican border and in nightclubs, the commercial sector, and family-owned farms and shops.(7, 31) IBESR found approximately 50 forced child labor violations and transferred 37 of them to judicial authorities. Children involved in such cases were transferred either to residential care centers or to host families.(10) There is no information available on the total number of working children identified as a result of these inspections, of cases transferred to judicial authorities and fines ultimately assessed, and about whether these children received social services.(7)
Criminal Law Enforcement
The Haitian National Police's (HNP's) Brigade for the Protection of Minors (BPM) maintained a staff of 80 agents, of whom 50 are trained HNP officers and 30 are civilians. The BPM did not hire additional staff in 2013 due to lack of funding.(7) It carried out 100 criminal child labor investigations.(10) This number does not include routine human trafficking controls at border crossings and airports, as such information was unavailable.(10) The investigations found evidence of 93 child sexual abuse cases, but it is unknown to what extent this number included commercial sexual exploitation of children.(7) The BPM arrested and transferred a total of 108 suspected offenders to prosecutors.(7) Information about the results of such criminal investigations and about any possible convictions and sentences imposed on the perpetrators of these crimes related to the worst forms of child labor, including forced labor, was not found; however, the BPM assisted a total of 601 children in 2013, of whom 555 were transferred to IBESR, and 46 were returned to their parents.(7)
Prosecutions of crimes related the worst forms of child labor are rare. Local judges are not sensitized enough to child protection issues, nor are they sufficiently aware of international standards regarding the worst forms of child labor. Although efforts were also made during the reporting period to systematically train law enforcement and judiciary officials in human trafficking, not all them were trained; more training is needed.(7,11,15, 31)
The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).
|Coordinating Body||Role & Description|
|National Commission for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor||Develop national plan of action to combat child labor.(17, 36) Members include labor unions, civil society representatives, the Ministry of Justice, and the MAST.(11)|
|Inter-ministerial working group on trafficking||Coordinate all executive branch initiatives on human trafficking.(10, 15)|
In 2013, the Commission implemented a campaign to raise public awareness about ILO C. 138 and ILO C. 182.(7, 31) The draft trafficking law calls for the establishment of a new interagency committee to combat trafficking in persons. Research did not determine if the existing inter-ministerial working group was active during the reporting period.(10)
The Government of Haiti has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).
|National Strategic Development Plan (Plan Stratégique de Développement d'Haïti) (PSDH)||Articulates four pillars-Economic, Social, Territorial, and Institutional-for sustained economic growth in Haiti, which includes the goal to end child labor. Built on 2010 Action Plan for National Recovery and Development, which outlined key initiatives to address structural causes of Haiti's underdevelopment in order to make Haiti an "emerging country" by 2030.(37-39) The 2010 Action Plan outlined plans to rebuild the country's infrastructure, economy, and state institutions. Also mapped plans to improve the country's living standards by increasing employment; providing housing; addressing food insecurity; and providing access to basic services such as health care, education, water, and sanitation. PSDH expands and provides further detail on these plans.(37, 39)|
|National Action Strategy for Education for All*||Aims to enroll 1.5 million students in school by 2016.(40) Launched in 2011, overseen by the Ministry of Education, and supported by international donors. Subsidizes school fees for both public and private schools, provides school feeding programs, and offers teacher training to increase the number of qualified teachers.(40, 41)|
|2010 Protocol of Action to Protect Vulnerable Haitian Children*||Sets mandatory procedures for governmental and nongovernmental institutions to provide support to Haitian children. Consequently, many Haitian children who had relocated to the Dominican Republic after the 2010 earthquake have received care or were sent back to Haiti to be reunited with their families.(42)|
*The impact of this policy on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
In 2013, the Government of Haiti participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).
|Child and social protection hotlines*‡||Government program that maintains hotlines to receive complaints of situations requiring child protection.(11) BPM manages the "188" hotline, while IBESR manages the "133" hotline. In 2013, BPM received 5,423 phone calls leading to 295 investigations, but number of calls involving child labor is unknown.(7, 10, 31) IBESR handled 93 cases through its social protection hotline, including 11 cases of children in domestic service.(7, 31)|
|Government Child Shelter Census and National Child Protection Database*||Government programs to support child protection. IBESR reinforces the Government's regulatory framework for residential care centers (orphanages), collects information on vulnerable children, and tracks them through the National Child Protection Database.(31) In 2013, IBESR updated its census of children's shelters, thus identifying 756 residential care centers housing more than 34,000 vulnerable children.(7) In 2012 and 2013, IBESR closed 40 residential care centers for violations of international standards. In 2013, IBESR identified 754 children in domestic service and either reintegrated them with their families or placed them with foster families.(31)|
|USAID's Protecting the Rights of Children, Women, and Youth in Haiti (Aksyon Kolektif pou Sekirite kont Eksplwatasyon) (AKSE)||$22.5 million USAID-funded, 5-year project that supports a partnership between the Government and private sector to promote children's rights and child protection services. Supports efforts by governmental organizations; NGOs; and community-based organizations to assist victims of gender-based violence, trafficking, prostitution, sexual exploitation, forced domestic service, and recruitment into criminal activity. Strengthens institutional capacity to prevent abuse and address challenges faced by at-risk children, youth, and women.(43, 44)|
|Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues||USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016 established by the Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. In Haiti, project aims to build the capacity of the national government and works to develop strategic policies to eliminate child labor and forced labor, as well as strengthen legal protections and social service delivery for child domestic workers.(45)|
|Protecting Children from Child Labor during the Early Recovery Phase||$1 million United States- and Brazil-funded, 36-month project, implemented by ILO-IPEC to protect children from child labor during Haiti's earthquake recovery and reconstruction phases. Part of a larger recovery program developed by the Government of Haiti and supported by the UNDP and other UN and NGO partners to protect children, including by combating the worst forms of child labor and protecting the rights of adolescents to safe and decent work.(36)|
|Help People (EDE-PEP) Program*‡||Government social program that assists poor families through 16 government- implemented projects, with a focus on improving children's well-being.(31) Projects include the Ti Manman Cheri project, the Kore Etidyan project, and the Aba Grangou project, among others. Ti Manman Cheri project has provided 105,704 low-income mothers with monthly cash transfers for their children's tuition.(7) Kore Etidyan project provided monthly grants to 27,000 students during the 2012-2013 school year and continues to provide financial assistance to students in 2013-2014.(31) Aba Grangou project, financed with $30 million from Venezuela with additional financial support from the Government of Haiti, aims to cut the number of people suffering from hunger partly by reaching 2.2 million children through a school food program that has distributed 1,332,000 meals since January 2012.(7, 46)|
|National Free Education program*‡||Government program that aims to increase poor children's access to education by expanding free public school education. Program includes school grants intended to eliminate school fees and accelerated learning programs for students who are behind in school (44) In 2013, the Government enrolled more than 1 million school-age children. This is a significant increase from 200,000 children enrolled through this program in 2012.(10, 13, 47)|
|Children's Summer Enrichment Program*†||Office of the Citizen Protector program provided training and ran summer programs for children, with the support of the AKSE program. Assisted approximately 100 children from Cité Soleil in Port-au-Prince by raising their awareness of Haiti's child protection institutional framework and mechanisms.(7, 10)|
|IBESR's National Week of the Child*†||IBESR awareness-raising campaign launched in 2013, funded by international NGOs, to increase public understanding of children's rights and the barriers they face to secure those rights. Engaged local and international NGOs on issues of forced child labor, child trafficking, and sexual abuse and exploitation.(31)|
*The impact of this program on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
†Program was launched during the reporting period.
‡Program is funded by the Government of Haiti.
In November, the Government participated in the XVIII Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor to foster continued dialogue and cooperation on labor issues throughout the Americas. The joint declaration of the Conference promotes social dialogue to address child labor and reaffirms the country participants' commitment to work with civil society organizations to advance efforts toward the eradication of child labor.(48)
The hotlines operated by the BPM and IBESR function exclusively in Port-au-Prince, which makes reporting cases involving child exploitation more difficult in rural areas, where hotlines are nonexistent. Despite IBESR's efforts to collect information in the National Child Protection Database, it does not fully capture information on the number of displaced street children and of children in domestic service.(11) Although Haiti has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to address the extent of the problem fully, particularly in agriculture and domestic service.
Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Haiti (Table 9).
|Area||Suggested Action||Year(s) Suggested|
|Laws||Amend the law to-
||2009 - 2013|
|Amend the Act on the Prohibition and Elimination of All Forms of Abuse, Violence, Ill Treatment or Inhuman Treatment Against Children of 2003 to include civil and criminal penalties for all violations of the Act.||2011 - 2013|
|Adopt a trafficking law and ensure it includes criminal penalties for child trafficking and sexual exploitation of children.||2011 - 2013|
|Enforcement||Enforce free and compulsory education for all children as mandated by the Haitian Constitution.||2012 - 2013|
|Collect and make publicly available the number of MAST inspectors.||2013|
|Collect and make publicly available information on the number of inspections conducted by the MAST/Labor Inspectorate inspectors and the number of inspections conducted by MAST/Labor Inspectorate child labor inspectors.||2013|
|Make information publicly available about the number of violations of the Labor Code's child labor provisions identified as a result of inspections by the IBESR and the MAST/Labor Inspectorate, the number of such cases transferred to judicial authorities, the number of those ultimately sanctioned, the number of working children identified as a result of such inspections, and the number of working children referred to or receiving social services.||2013|
|Expedite review in labor tribunals of child labor violations specified in the Labor Code, and impose and collect timely fines for such violations.||2013|
|Establish formal enforcement protocols to clarify-
|Establish an IBESR inspection system with sufficient reach in the informal and subsistence farm sectors to protect children against violation of the Act of 2003.||2013|
|Provide sufficient training and resources to increase the capacity of the MAST, IBESR, PNH's BPM, and judiciary officials to ensure effective enforcement of child labor laws.||2009 - 2013|
|Report on investigations, prosecutions, and convictions of crimes related to the worst forms of child labor, including forced labor and trafficking, disaggregating data on cases involving children.||2009 - 2013|
|Coordination||Ensure that the Government has a functioning committee or working group to address human trafficking issues.||2013|
|Government Policies||Assess the impact of existing education and child protection policies on addressing the worst forms of child labor.||2009 - 2013|
|Social Programs||Conduct research to determine specific activities related to children's work in construction and in the informal sector in order to inform policies and programs.||2013|
|Expand hotlines operated by the BPM and IBESR to facilitate reporting of child exploitation cases in areas beyond Port-au-Prince, including rural areas, and track cases of child labor reported to hotlines.||2013|
|Continue to implement and expand the National Child Protection Database to reduce children's vulnerability to trafficking and to further identify displaced street children and children in domestic service.||2010 - 2013|
|Continue to prioritize resources to build an educational system that provides access to free quality education for all children, with a focus on educational opportunities in rural areas, where children are particularly vulnerable to trafficking and domestic service.||2009 - 2013|
|Assess the potential impact of existing social protection programs on child labor.||2010 - 2013|
|Implement programs to address child labor in agriculture and increase programming addressing child domestic service.||2010 -2013|
1. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Haiti (ratification: 2007) Published: 2013; accessed November 25, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO::.
3. U.S. Department of State. "Haiti," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2012. Washington, DC; April 19, 2013; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2012&dlid=204458EXECUTIVE.
4. ICF International. Child Labor in Domestic Service ("Restaveks") in Port-au- Prince, Haiti: Mixed Methods Research on Child Labor and Forced Child Labor in the the Production of Goods . Calverton; 2012. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/media/reports/iclp/main.htm.
8. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed February 10, 2014]; http://www.uis.unesco.org/Pages/default.aspx?SPSLanguage=EN . Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.
9. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys, 2005. Analysis received February 13, 2014. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.
13. U.S. Department of State. "Haiti," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2013&dlid=220451
17. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Haiti (ratification: 2007) Published: 2013; accessed March 1, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO::.
20. UNICEF. A Child-Rights Approach on International Migration and Child Trafficking: A UNICEF Perspective. New York; July 18, 2014. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/events/pdf/3/P06_UNICEF.pdf.
21. Arhin, A. "Conceptualizing Child Labour Trafficking and Exploitation: The Case of Roma Children in Montenegro." Temida: Journal on Victimisation, Human Rights and Gender, 15(no. 3)(2012); https:// www.academia.edu/3250475/Conceptualizing_Child_Labour_Trafficking_and_Exploitation_The_Case_of_Roma_Children_in_Montenegro.
22. Moloney, A. IOM hopes landmark trial will stem child trafficking from Haiti, Thomson Reuters Foundation, [online] June 14, 2012 [cited May 15, 2014]; http://www.trust.org/item/?map=iom-hopes-landmark-trial-will-stem-child-trafficking-from-haiti.
23. Mar Cabra, and Melissa Sanchez. "Trafficking of Haitian Kids: Young, Desperate and Exploited," Haiti, Dominican Republic: El Nuevo Herald, Miami Herald; 2010; 6 min., 3 sec., television broadcast; http://youtu.be/TDWSJ1_dXVg.
24. Government of Haiti. Loi relative à l'interdiction et à l'élimination de toutes formes d'abus, de violences, de mauvais traitements ou traitements inhumains contre les enfants , enacted June 5, 2003. http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/population/trafficking/haiti.traf.03.doc.
29. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81) Haiti (ratification: 1952) Published: 2013; accessed November 25, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO::.
35. Structure organitionnelle de l'IBESR en 2014, IBESR, [online] [cited May 15, 2014]; http://www.ibesr.com/organigramme.html.
40. U.S. Department of State. Facts on U.S. Government's Work in Haiti: Education, United States of America Embassy, [online] January 26, 2012 [cited May 15, 2014]; http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/st/english/texttrans/2011/12/20111228155952su0.5099102.html#axzz1kbqhiQsL.
41. IDB approves $50 million grant for Haiti education plan, IDB, [online] November 23, 2010 [cited May 15, 2014]; http://www.iadb.org/en/news/news-releases/2010-11-23/idb-grant-for-haiti-education-reform-plan,8729.html.
47. Haiti Social_The Primature Rejects Conclusions, Haiti Libre, [online] October 23, 2013 [cited May 15, 2014]; http://www.haitilibre.com/en/news-9718-haiti-social-the-primature-strongly-rejected-the-conclusions-of-the-walk-free-foundation.html.
48. Proyecto de Declaración de Medellín de 2013, MinTrabajo, [online] November 12, 2013 [cited May 15, 2014]; http://www.mintrabajo.gov.co/noviembre-2013/2584-ministros-de-trabajo-de-america-le-dicen-si-a-pacto-por-la-equidad-y-la-inclusion.html.
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