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Guinea

2013 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Moderate Advancement

In 2013, Guinea made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. Despite political turmoil in Guinea, the National Transition Council approved a new labor code. The Government also extended the National Plan of Action to Combat Trafficking in Persons for an additional 2 years and issued decrees to protect children from violence in schools and work in gold mines. The Government funded a center to protect victims of child trafficking. However, children in Guinea continue to engage in child labor in agriculture and the worst forms of child labor as a result of human trafficking. The Government lacks coordination among existing government committees and implements a limited number of social programs to address child labor. The Government's capacity to enforce child labor laws is limited.

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I. Prevalence and Sectoral Distribution of Child Labor

Children in Guinea are engaged in child labor in agriculture and the worst forms of child labor as a result of trafficking.(1, 2) According to the National Survey on Child Labor and Trafficking (2010), more than 40 percent of children ages 5 to 17 were engaged in child labor in Guinea.(3, 4) In addition, more than 76 percent of children ages 5 to 11 and 88 percent of children ages 12 to 15 years were performing hazardous work.(4) The survey also revealed that the incidence of child labor was higher in rural areas than in urban areas.(4) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Guinea.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education
Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population): 38.8 (1,118,519)
Working children by sector, ages 7 to 14 (%):  
Agriculture 76.2
Industry 5.3
Services 18.5
School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%): 60.1
Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%): 24.5
Primary completion rate (%): 61.5

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2012, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2014. (5)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Enquete Nationale sur le Travail des Enfant Survey, 2010. (6)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity
Sector/Industry Activity
Agriculture Production of cashews, cocoa, and coffee (7-9)
Farming, clearing and preparation of land, and carrying heavy loads (4, 10)
Harvesting lumber, peanuts,* coconuts,* cotton,* bananas,* and mangos* (2, 3, 9, 11)
Herding livestock, activities unknown* (4)
Fishing,* activities unknown (4, 12-14)
Industry Quarrying stone*†(11)
Mining†gold and diamonds (4, 9, 11, 12, 15)
Manufacturing, activities unknown (4, 8)
Services Begging, petty trading, and polishing shoes in the streets* (8, 12, 14, 16-18)
Vending water, sweets, biscuits, coconuts, and gadgets in markets and on the streets (8, 18, 19)
Working in restaurants and informal cottage industries, activities unknown (4, 8, 20)
Domestic service and domestic waste collection (4, 17, 21-24)
Transportation, activities unknown (4, 12)
Construction, activities unknown* (4, 12, 14, 25)
Collecting scrap metal* and refuse* (2)
Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡ Commercial sexual exploitation (8, 25)
Forced begging (12, 13, 16, 17, 19, 21, 26)
Domestic service, herding, fishing,* and working in fields on farms, plantations, and gardens, as a result of human trafficking (1, 12, 21)
Vending in shops, kiosks, and markets, as a result of human trafficking (1, 12)
Forced Mining (1, 12)

*Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
†Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a) - (c) of ILO C. 182.

In Guinea, it is a traditional practice to send boys, called talibés, to Koranic teachers to receive an education, which may include vocational training or an apprenticeship.(27, 28) While some boys receive lessons, some are forced by their teachers to beg or work in fields and are sometimes beaten or otherwise mistreated if they fail to meet daily quotas.(27, 29) In addition, through the system of confiage, children from rural areas are sent to cities to work or to attend school.(12, 17, 30) These children may work in domestic service, in which they may be beaten and sexually exploited.(4, 17)

A large number of children live and work in the streets, especially in the capital, selling goods illegally for traders who pay them piece rates.(16) However, research has not been conducted to measure the extent of the problem.(13)

Children are sent to the coastal region of Boke for forced labor on farms and to Senegal for education in

Koranic schools where some may be forced to beg.(1, 13) Some Guinean boys and girls are subjected to forced labor in gold mining, including in Senegal and Mali.(1) Girls may be trafficked into domestic servitude and sex trafficking in Nigeria, Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Senegal, Greece, and Spain.(1, 4, 13)

Although education is free in Guinea, various factors prevent children from attending school, including long distances between rural schools and homes; the lack of school infrastructure; the cost of school fees, uniforms, and supplies; and reported school violence.(4, 9, 13, 27) Additional barriers to education include a lack of textbooks and other teaching materials as well as a shortage of teachers.(13) Children also drop out of school because of unhygienic and poor school conditions.(13, 27) Additionally, a significant number of Guinean children are not registered at birth, which may impede their access to education because the age of the children must be proven before they are allowed access to state-sponsored education.(8, 13, 20, 24, 31)

In 2013, political violence in Guinea ensued, including opposition protests, violent demonstrations, and regional tensions in the lead-up to the country's elections.(2, 32-34) Unrest in Guinea resulted in inadequate allocations of financial resources to state structures, as well as limited funding to procure working vehicles and equipment for inspections, which may have impacted the government's ability to address child labor effectively.(2, 34) The National Assembly was seated on January 13, 2014, following the September 2013 elections.(2)



II. Legal Framework for the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Guinea has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor
Convention Ratification
ILO C. 138, Minimum Age
ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor
UN CRC
UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict  
UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution, and Child Pornography
Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The Government has established relevant laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor
Standard Yes/No Age Related Legislation
Minimum Age for Work Yes 16 Article 5 of the Labor Code; Article 412 of the Child Code (35, 36)
Minimum Age for Hazardous Work Yes 18 Articles 2 and 4 of Order 2791/MTASE/ DNTLS/96 Working Conditions for Employees Aged Under 18 Years (25)
List of Hazardous Occupations Prohibited for Children Yes Yes Articles 415-418, 425-427 of the Child Code; Articles 2 and 4 of Order 2791/MTASE/ DNTLS/96 Working Conditions for Employees Aged Under 18 Years; Article 135 of the Mining Code (25,36, 37)
Prohibition of Forced Labor Yes Yes Article 337 of the Penal Code; Article 2 of the Labor Code; Article 397 of the Child Code (35,36, 38)
Prohibition of Child Trafficking Yes Yes Article 337 of the Penal Code; Article 385 of the Child Code (36, 38)
Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children Yes Yes Article 329 and 331 of the Penal Code; Articles 356-360 of the Child Code (36, 38)
Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities Yes Yes Article 383 of the Child Code (36)
Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment N/A*    
Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service Yes 18 Article 429 of the Child Code (36)
Compulsory Education Age Yes 13 Articles 18 and 23 of the Constitution; 2011 Ministry of Education Act for Pre-University Education (8, 21, 36, 39)
Free Public Education Yes   Articles 18 and 23 of the Constitution

*No conscription or no standing military.

In January 2014, the National Transition Council approved a new labor code, which includes sections on child labor.(2) Research did not uncover a public version of the labor code for review.(2, 3) During the reporting period, the Ministry of Education issued a ministerial decree, which encourages children and their parents to file complaints in the event of any violent treatment at school. Local prefectures have also issued decrees prohibiting children from gold mining.(40)

However, Guinean law is not completely consistent with international standards regarding child labor. Because Article 5 of the Labor Code applies only to formal employment relationships, its protections do not apply to children under age 18 who do not have a formal employment contract, including those who do unpaid or temporary work in agriculture or domestic service.(21, 23, 24, 35) The Child Code also allows children under age 16 to work with written parental permission, which is contrary to the provisions of ILO C. 138; it is unclear whether steps have been taken to implement the Child Code.(3, 8, 13, 24, 36) In addition, Article 135 of the Mining Code allows children younger than age 16 to work in mines and quarries as assistants. However, the role of assistant is not defined, which leaves open the possibility for children to work as assistants inside mines or in other hazardous activities.(37)

By law, education is free and compulsory for six years.(8, 41) There are conflicting reports on the age to which education is compulsory. The Government reported that education is compulsory beginning at age 5, while other sources like the UNESCO Institute of Statistics state age 6 or 7.(3, 13, 27, 42) Based on this information, the approximate age at which a child is no longer required to go to school is 12 or 13.(1, 3, 8) Currently, the age of completion of compulsory schooling does not coincide with the minimum age for employment. Children who finish their schooling before reaching the legal working age are particularly vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor and are at greater risk of entering exploitative work.(13, 21)



III. Enforcement of Laws on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement
Organization/Agency Role
Ministry of Labor's (MOL's) Labor Inspection Service Monitor the implementation of ILO C. 182, provide advice to workers and employers, and conduct studies and research on social issues upon the request of the Ministry.(14, 35)
Ministry of Social Affairs' National Committee Against Trafficking (CNLTP) Enforce child trafficking laws.(1, 2, 14)
MOL's Child Labor Monitoring and Surveillance System Coordinate child labor. Composed of the National Coordination Unit in the National Directorate of Employment, a prefectural coordination unit and village, and prefectural committees.(14)
Office for the Protection of Gender, Children and Morals (OPROGEM) Special Police Unit Focus on crimes against children and women. Special unit of the national police, which includes a division of 30 officers that focuses solely on the fight against trafficking in persons and child labor. Also a member of CNLTP.(1, 2, 8)

Criminal law enforcement agencies in Guinea took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.(2) However, research found no evidence that labor law enforcement agencies took such actions during the reporting period.(2) Information on the number of inspections and citations is not available.(2)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2013, the Ministry of Labor's Inspection Service employed at least 62 people, some of whom enforced labor regulations and monitored labor law compliance and site inspectors posted across the country.(2, 43) The role of site inspectors is not clear.(2) Labor inspections typically are limited to large firms in the formal employment sector. The majority of children work outside the formal sector, including in agriculture.(2) The Government lacks a mechanism to monitor child labor in the informal sector. In 2013, the Government allocated $27,000 for inspections.(2) Reports indicate there is a lack of trained staff, equipment, transportation, and funding to conduct effective child labor inspections and legal proceedings.(2, 12) Inspectors also reportedly lack training on child labor.(2)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2013, the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Security's Office for the Protection of Children and Morals (OPROGEM) investigated four cases of child trafficking and three cases of child labor.(2) Of these seven cases, one child trafficking case and one child labor case were referred for prosecution; however, the Ministry of Justice has not brought these cases to trial.(2, 23)

Trafficking cases are sent to Guinea's "Cour d'Asise" for high crimes, due to the heavy penalties assessed for trafficking violations.(2) Although the court was supposed to meet three times a year, it met only once in 2013 due to a lack of funding.(2) This created a significant backlog of cases.(2, 8) OPROGEM received $17,270 for fuel and office equipment during the reporting period.(2) OPROGEM investigators were trained on child labor, child trafficking, and child-related crimes.(43) Reports indicate a lack of political will and a lack of coordination between government agencies responsible for child labor.(2)



IV. Coordination of Government Efforts on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Research found no evidence that the Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms. The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child trafficking (Table 6).

Table 6. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor
Coordinating Body Role & Description
National Committee Against Trafficking (CNLTP) Coordinate anti-trafficking efforts, including for children. Led by the Ministry of Social Affairs. The CNLTP comprises secretariat member representatives from the Ministry of Social Affairs for the Promotion of Women and Children, the Ministry of Justice, and the Ministry of Security's OPROGEM; as well as various members of governmental agencies, including the MOL, the police, NGOs, and other stakeholders involved in trafficking issues.(1, 2, 44)
Committee for Monitoring, Protection, and Defense of the Rights of the Child Coordinate actions taken with regard to children's rights across the country.(13, 20)

Coordination, including between the central and local levels, is inadequate due to the absence of formal protocols between coordinating actors.(45) The Ministry of Social Affairs for the Promotion of Women and Children coordinates through local representatives in each of Guinea's prefectures. Even though reports suggest that the Government established a committee on child labor in 2012, research found no evidence that this committee is active, and Guinea currently lacks a child labor coordinating mechanism.(2) The National Committee Against Trafficking (CNLTP) held two meetings in January, 2014.(2, 43) Officials from OPROGEM and CNLTP reported that they are working to improve inter-ministerial coordination.(2)



V. Government Policies on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government of Guinea has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).

Table 7. Policies Related to Child Labor
Policy Description
National Plan of Action to Combat Trafficking in Persons (2009-2013)* Provides the strategy to combat trafficking, including for children, in Guinea.(1, 2, 12)
A World Fit for Children* Assists children and provides general protections and objectives involving child labor, mistreatment, exploitation, and violence.(46)
Education Sector Program/Programme Sectoriel de l'Education (PSE) Addresses the welfare of children, which includes initiatives regarding health, education, legal protection, access to clean water, and protection from child labor in its worst forms.(47-49)
National Policy on Birth Registration* Registers 100 percent of children under age 8 by 2015.(50)

*The impact of this policy on child labor does not appear to have been studied.

The Government does not appear to have a comprehensive policy specifically to combat the worst forms of child labor.(2) It extended the National Plan of Action to Combat Trafficking in Persons (2009-2011) through 2013.(14) This plan includes strategies to combat trafficking in persons based on prevention, protection, prosecution, coordination, and cooperation.(1) The timeframe for the completion of the Education Sector Program activities was also extended due to delays experienced during the political transition.(48, 49) The Government implements the PSE in partnership with UNICEF and the World Bank. During the reporting period, the Government provided annual education statistics, rehabilitated school classrooms, and increased enrollment in primary schools.(48, 49) Research did not identify updates on Guinea's efforts to implement A World Fit for Children.



VI. Social Programs to Address the Worst Forms of Child Labor

In 2013, the Government of Guinea participated in and funded programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Social Programs to Address Child Labor
Program Description
Plan Guinea-Conakry Program* Program that changes attitudes and behaviors that are preventing children from realizing their rights. Strengthens the capacity of key actors to respect children's rights in the areas of education, survival, and protection.(17)
Country Program-Guinea*† World Food Program-funded, 4-year program that improves elementary school attendance through the provision of 100,000 meals to students and the promotion of girls' education.(51) Provides school meals to 735 government-run rural schools nationwide-this represents 21 percent of all rural schools in Guinea.(27, 51, 52)
Center in Ratoma, Conakry*†‡ Government program that helps vulnerable children reintegrate into society.(2)
Eliminating the Worst Forms of Child Labor in West Africa and Strengthening Sub-Regional Cooperation through ECOWAS I & II USDOL-funded regional projects that supported ECOWAS to strengthen its role in combating the worst forms of child labor in the West Africa sub-region by providing policy and capacity-building support to all ECOWAS states.(53-56)

*The impact of this program on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
†Program was launched during the reporting period.
‡Program is funded by the Government of Guinea.

The Country Program in Guinea was launched during the reporting period.(51) With the exception of the Center in Ratoma, there are no government-funded social protection programs for victims of child trafficking in Guinea, including children working in agriculture, mining, and domestic service.(2, 3) There was a plan to establish a new government-funded transition center, with support from UNICEF, UNDP, and the Government of Germany, but it was not completed during the reporting period.(2, 3)



VII. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Guinea (Table 9).

Table 9. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including Its Worst Forms
Area Suggested Action Year(s) Suggested
Laws Increase the minimum age for compulsory education to correspond with the minimum age for work. 2009 - 2013
Ensure full implementation of the Child Code. 2009 - 2013
Ensure laws are consistent with international standards for child labor, including the Labor Code, Mining Code, and Child Code. 2010 - 2013
Extend protections to children in unpaid, temporary, or noncontract work. 2009 - 2013
Ensure that all children are prohibited from participating in hazardous mining, including by defining the role of assistant. 2010 - 2013
Ratify the CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict. 2013
Enforcement Ensure labor inspections are conducted in all sectors, including those with a high prevalence of child labor. 2010 - 2013
Effectively enforce free public education legal provisions. 2013
Ensure adequate transportation, equipment, finances, and trained staff to conduct child labor inspections. 2012 - 2013
Assess budgetary priorities, with a view toward providing resources to conduct effective labor inspections and legal proceedings concerning the worst forms of child labor. 2009 - 2013
Ensure all cases of child labor are investigated and prosecuted appropriately. 2010 - 2013
Compile and publish information on child labor-related investigations, prosecutions, convictions, and criminal punishments. 2011 - 2013
Coordination Establish coordinating mechanisms to combat child labor, including its worst forms. 2010 - 2013
Clarify the roles and responsibilities of various committees charged with addressing the worst forms of child labor, including child trafficking, with coordination between the CNLTP and OPROGEM. 2011 - 2013
Ensure that the CNLTP holds required quarterly meetings. 2011 - 2013
Government Policies Set targets and establish concrete outcomes for A World Fit for Children and other policies related to child labor. 2009 - 2013
Assess the impact that existing policies may have on addressing the worst forms of child labor. 2010 - 2013
Provide more in-depth research, including on whether children are engaged in dangerous work on the street, in order to inform policy and program design, and on child labor-related health, occupational safety, or other risks. 2012 - 2013
Conduct research to determine the activities carried out by children in herding, fishing, manufacturing, working in restaurants and informal cottage industries, transportation, and construction to inform policies and programs. 2013
Social Programs Expand social programs to provide services to children engaged in or at risk of entering into the worst forms of child labor, particularly the informal sector, agriculture, trafficking, mining, and domestic service. 2009 - 2013
Ensure the appropriate systems are in place to transfer children from government authorities to social protection programs. 2010 - 2013
Assess the impact that existing social programs may have on addressing child labor. 2011 - 2013
Scale up efforts to implement the birth registration policy. 2011 - 2013
Take measures to ensure children have access to quality education and to ensure children's safety in schools, including through efforts to address barriers to education, such as the lack of teachers, textbooks, instructional materials, and poor school infrastructure. 2010 - 2013



1. U.S. Department of State. "Guinea," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2013. Washington, DC; June 19, 2013; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2013/215473.htm.

2. U.S. Embassy- Conakry. reporting, January 17, 2014.

3. U.S. Embassy- Conakry. reporting, January 31, 2013.

4. ILO-IPEC. Rapport de L'Enquete Nationale Sur le Travail et la Traite des Enfants en Guinee de 2010. Guinea; November 2011. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=21016.

5. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed February 4, 2014]; http://www.uis.unesco.org/Pages/default.aspx?SPSLanguage=EN . Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

6. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Enquete Nationale sur le Travail des Enfants, 2010. Analysis received February 13, 2014. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

7. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Guinea (ratification: 2003) Submitted: 2011; accessed July 18, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:11003:0::NO:::.

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9. Macro International. Independent Midterm Evaluation of Stop Exploitive Labor and Educate Children for Tomorrow (SELECT). Calverton; January 2011. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/sub-saharan_africa/Guinea_SELECT_meval.pdf.

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11. World Education. SELECT - Stop Exploitive Labor and Educate Children for Tomorrow. Project Document. Boston; September 2010.

12. International Confederation of Free Trade Unions. Internationally Recognized Core Labour Standards in Mauritania and Guinea: Report for the WTO General Council Review of the Trade Policies of Mauritania and Guinea . Geneva; September 28 and 30, 2011. http://www.ilo.org/public/libdoc/igo/2011/466485.pdf.

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14. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Guinea (ratification: 2003) Published: 2013; accessed January 26, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:11003:0::NO:::.

15. World Education. SELECT - Stop Exploitive Labor and Educate Children for Tomorrow. Technical Progress Report. Boston; January 2012.

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18. "Guinée: société, des enfants exposés à l'exploitation." guineeinfos.org [previously online] June 18, 2013 [cited March 10, 2014]; [source on file].

19. Mouvement Africain des Enfants et Jeunes Travailleurs. Protection des enfants en mobilité par des enfants et jeunes organisés. Dakar; December 2011.

20. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Summary record of the 1764th meeting: Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention, second periodic report of Guinea . Geneva; May 24, 2013. Report No. CRC/C/SR1764. http://tb.ohchr.org/default.aspx?country=gn.

21. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Guinea (ratification: 2003) Published: 2013; accessed Jaunary 26, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:11003:0::NO:::.

22. La travail domestique in Guinee, Votresalaire.org, [online] [cited March 17, 2014]; http://www.votresalaire.org/guinee/home/droit-du-travail/travail-domestique/le-travail-domestique-en-guinee.

23. ILO Committee of Experts. Report of Committee of Experts on Application of Conventions and Recommendations. Geneva; February 25, 2013. http://www.ilo.org/ilc/ILCSessions/102/reports/reports-submitted/WCMS_205472/lang--en/index.htm.

24. Thorsen, D. Child Domestic Workers: Evidence from West and Central Africa. Dakar, UNICEF West and Central Africa; April 2012. http://www.unicef.org/wcaro/english/overview_6585.html.

25. Government of Guinea. Conditions de travail des salariés âgés de moins de 18 ans, Arrêté n°2791/MTASE/DNTLS/96, enacted April 22, 1996. http://www.droit-afrique.com/images/textes/Guinee/Guinee%20-%20Travail%20des%20mineurs.pdf.

26. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention: Guinea. Geneva; April 18, 2012. Report No. CRC/C/GIN/2. http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G12/420/61/PDF/G1242061.pdf?OpenElement.

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28. Thorsen, D. Children Begging for Qur'ānic School Masters: Evidence from West and Central Africa. Dakar, UNICEF West and Central Africa; April 2012. http://www.unicef.org/wcaro/english/overview_6585.html.

29. Balde, A. The Case of Talibe Children: Unveiling one of the Faces of West African Poverty; May 2010. http://erd.eui.eu/media/2010/Balde.pdf.

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34. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Application de la Convention relative aux droits de l'enfant, Liste de questions à prendre en liaison avec la considération du deuxième rapport périodique de la Guinée, adopté par le groupe de travail pré-session Additif: Réponses écrites du Gouvernement de la Guinée . Geneva; December 7, 2012. Report No. CRC/C/GIN/Q/2/Add.1. http://daccess-ods.un.org/TMP/9863681.19716644.html.

35. Government of Guinea. Code du travail de la République de Guinée, enacted January 28, 1988.

36. Government of Guinea. Loi Portant Code de l'Enfant (L/2008/011), enacted August 2008.

37. Government of Guinea. Code Minier: L/95/036/CTRN constituting the mining code of the Republic of Guinea, enacted 1995. http://www.droit-afrique.com/images/textes/Guinee/Guinee%20-%20Travail%20des%20miniers.pdf.

38. Government of Guinea. Penal Code, Loi 98/036, enacted December 31, 1988. http://www.protectionproject.org

39. Government of Guinea. Loi Fondamentale, enacted 2004. http://www.ceniguinee.org/doc/Guinee_loifondamentale.pdf.

40. Region Administrative de Faranah Prefecture de Dinguiraye. Decision no. 17 Portant inderdiction de la frequentation des enfants dans les mines d'or, enacted 2011.

41. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Early Childhood Care and Education Programs. Paris; 2012. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001480/148025e.pdf.

42. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Compulsory Education. Paris; 2012.

43. U.S. Embassy- Conakry official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 13, 2014.

44. U.S. Embassy- Conakry official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 18, 2011.

45. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the second periodic report of Guinea, adopted by the Committee at its sixty-second session (14 January - 1 February 2013) . Geneva; June 13, 2013. Report No. CRC/C/GIN/CO/2. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=4&ved=0CFAQFjAD&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww2.ohchr.org%2Fenglish%2Fbodies%2Fcrc%2Fdocs%2Fco%2FCRC_C_GIN_CO_2.doc&ei=gO_vUvPhC-jlsASmpYCICg&usg=AFQjCNGrYid-iz4OElkTdZHVL2Sn6Miiow&sig2=yO7Tx2x4tPzxhpM_e9N2Kg.

46. A post-2015 World Fit for Children: UNICEF Key Messages on the Post-2015 Development Agenda, UNICEF, [online] [cited March 20, 2014]; http://www.unicef.org/post2015/.

47. Government of Guinea. Description du Programme Secoriel de l'Education (PSE) 2008-2015. Conakry, Ministere de l'Education National et de la Rechereche Scientifique; October 2007. http://bit.ly/y8S5PM.

48. The World Bank. Education For All-Fast Track Initiative Program (P111470). Washington, DC; December 30, 2013. http://www.worldbank.org/projects/P111470/education-all-fast-track-initiative-program?lang=en.

49. Global Partnership for Education (ex- Education for All Fast Track Initiative): Guinea's Education Sector Plan Activities, Third Interim Utilization Report Submitted to the Global Partnership for Education Secretariat , UNICEF, [previously online] February 2012 [cited March 20, 2014]; https:// www.globalpartnership.org/content/guinea-implementation-progress-reporthttps://www.globalpartnership.org/content/guinea-implementation-progress-report [source on file].

50. Child Rights Information Network. Children's Rights References in the Universal Periodic Review. London; May 4, 2010. http://www.crin.org/resources/infodetail.asp?id=22296.

51. World Food Programme. Country Programme - Guinea (2013-2017). Washington, DC; 2013. http://www.wfp.org/content/country-programme-guinea-2013%E2%80%932017.

52. World Food Programme. School Feeding Programmes in Guinea. Washington, DC; January 2014. https:// www.wfp.org/content/school-feeding-programmes-guinea.

53. ILO-IPEC. Eliminating the Worst Forms of Child Labor in West Africa and Strengthening Sub-Regional Cooperation through ECOWAS II. Project Document. Geneva; October 2011.

54. ILO-IPEC. Eliminating the Worst Forms of Child Labour in West Africa and Strengthening Sub-Regional Cooperation through ECOWAS. Project Document. Geneva; September 25, 2009.

55. USDOL. Eliminating the Worst Forms of Child Labor in West Africa by Strengthening Sub-Regional Cooperation through ECOWAS. Project Document. Washington, DC; 2009.

56. USDOL. Eliminating the Worst Forms of Child Labor in West Africa by Strengthening Sub-Regional Cooperation through ECOWAS II. Project Document. Washington, DC; 2010.

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