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Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

2013 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

No Advancement

In 2013, the Falkland Islands made no advancement in efforts to prevent the worst forms of child labor. Although no information suggests that the worst forms of child labor are a problem, the Government appears to lack a complete preventive legal framework to protect all children from trafficking for the purposes of labor exploitation. It also is unclear whether the Falkland Islands have established a more comprehensive list of hazardous work prohibited to children, and whether the use of children in illicit activities is prohibited. This leaves children vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor.

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I. Prevalence and Sectoral Distribution of Child Labor

Research found no evidence that child labor exists in the Falkland Islands.(1, 2)



II. Legal Framework for the Worst Forms of Child Labor

British Overseas Territories (OTs) are territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom (UK), but they do not form part of the UK. They are self-governing, except in the areas of foreign affairs and defense. Domestic UK Law does not generally apply to OTs, unless explicitly extended.(3)

The following conventions have been extended to the Falkland Islands (Table 1).

Table 1. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor
Convention Ratification
ILO C. 138, Minimum Age  
ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor
UN CRC
UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict  
UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography  
Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons  

The Government has established relevant laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 2).

Table 2. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor
Standard Yes/No Age Related Legislation
Minimum Age for Work Yes 16 Falkland Islands Employment of Children Ordinance (4)
Minimum Age for Hazardous Work Yes 18 Falkland Islands Employment of Children Ordinance (5, 6)
List of Hazardous Occupations Prohibited for Children Yes   United Kingdom Employment of Women, Young Persons, and Children Act (2, 5-7)
Prohibition of Forced Labor Yes   Falkland Islands Constitution Order 2008 (8)
Prohibition of Child Trafficking Yes   Sexual Offenses Act (9)
Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children Yes   Sexual Offenses Act (9)
Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities No    
Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment N/A*    
Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service Combat: No Non-Combat: Yes 18 16 UK Armed Forces Act 2006 (10-12)
Compulsory Education Age Yes 16 Education Amendment Ordinance of 2008;Falkland Islands Constitution Order of 2008 (5, 8, 13)
Free Public Education Yes   Education Amendment Ordinance of 2008 (5, 13)

*No conscription or no standing military

The UK Employment of Women, Young Persons, and Children Act makes it illegal to employ children in work that exposes them to physical, psychological, or sexual abuse. The Act protects children from work that is underground, underwater, at dangerous heights, or in confined spaces, as well as from work that requires using dangerous machinery, equipment, or tools without training and supervision, and prohibits work at night in any industry.(7) No information was found on whether the Government has developed a more comprehensive list of hazardous occupations prohibited to children, or if the law explicitly prohibits the use of children in illicit activities.(14, 15)

Although child trafficking has not been identified as having occurred in the Falkland Islands, the law does not appear to protect children, specifically young persons older than 16, from internal and cross-border trafficking for the purposes of labor exploitation.(8, 9, 15)

The UK Government has introduced systems to track ages and locations of individual soldiers, with the aim of preventing under 18s from being deployed into hostilities. Deployment of members of the armed forces who have not yet reached 18 years is permitted when there is a genuine need and the situation is urgent.(11, 12, 16, 17).



III. Enforcement of Laws on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

As there is no evidence of a problem, there appears to be no need for enforcement actions to address child labor, including its worst forms, in the Falkland Islands.



IV. Coordination of Government Efforts on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

As there is no evidence of a problem, there appears to be no need for coordinating mechanisms to address child labor, including its worst forms, in the Falkland Islands.



V. Government Policies on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

As there is no evidence of a problem, there appears to be no need for policies to address child labor, including its worst forms, in the Falkland Islands.



VI. Social Programs to Address the Worst Forms of Child Labor

As there is no evidence of a problem, there appears to be no need for social programs to address child labor, including its worst forms, in the Falkland Islands.



VII. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the continued prevention of child labor, including its worst forms, in the Falkland Islands (Table 3).

Table 3. Suggested Government Actions to Prevent Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area Suggested Action Year(s) Suggested
Laws Ensure that the list of hazardous activities prohibited to children is comprehensive. 2012 - 2013
Ensure the law prohibits the use of children in illicit activities. 2013
Clarify whether the law protects all children under 18 from trafficking for any purpose, including labor exploitation. 2012 - 2013



1. U.S. Embassy- London. reporting, January 21, 2014.

2. U.S. Embassy- London. reporting, January 16, 2009.

3. U.S. Embassy Official. e-mail May 9th, 2014.

4. ILO Committee of Experts, C. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) 2012. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO::P13100_COMMENT_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_NAME,P11110_COMMENT_YEAR:2700646,103639,Falkland%20Islands%20(Malvinas),2011 [source on file]

5. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Overseas Territories and the Isle of Man: Responses to the list of issues raised in connection with the consideration of the third and fourth periodic report of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland . Geneva; 2008. Report No. CRC/C/GBR/4. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/docs/AdvanceVersions/CRC.C.GBR.Q.4.Add.2.doc.

6. ILO. "Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work: From Commitment to Action," in Office IL, editor. International Labour Conference, 101st Session 2012; Geneva; p. 17; http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---relconf/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_176149.pdf.

7. Government of the United Kingdom. Employment of Women, Children and Young Persons Act, enacted 1920.

8. Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. South Atlantic Territories: The Falkland Islands Constitution Order 2008, enacted November 5, 2008. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2008/2846/pdfs/uksi_20082846_en.pdf.

9. Kingdom, U. UK Sexual Offences Act. 2003. [source on file].

10. Central Intelligence Agency. The World FactBook: Falkland Islands; accessed 02/13/2014; https:// www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/fk.html [copy on file].

11. Child Soldiers International. "Appendix II: Data Summary on Recruitment Ages of National Armies," in Louder than Words: An Agenda for Action to End State Use of Child Soldiers. London; September 2012; http://www.child-soldiers.org/global_report_reader.php?id=562 [source on file].

12. Kingdom, U. UK Army Act of 1955. 1955. [source on file].

13. Government of the Falkland Islands. Education, [previously online] [cited February 13, 2012]; http://www.falklands.gov.fk/Education.html [source on file].

14. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) accessed March 5, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO::P13100_COMMENT_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_NAME,P11110_COMMENT_YEAR:2700646,103639,Falkland%20Islands%20(Malvinas),2011 [source on file]

15. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Falkland Islands (ratification: 2008) Published: 2014 ; accessed 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3145578 [source on file].

16. Jonathan Owen. One in Six Recruits to Army is Aged 16. The Independant. London: [Accessed: March 2014] 2011. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/one-in-six-recruits-to-army-is-aged-16-2290403.html [Source on File]

17. United Kingdom Parliament Defence Committee. Written Evidence from the Peace Pledge Union.(Publications and Records); 2013. http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201314/cmselect/cmdfence/576/576vw06.htm [source on file].