2012 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor
In 2012, Ecuador made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government launched the 2012-2013 Agenda for the Equality of Children and Adolescents in Ecuador, which sets out strategies to eradicate child labor and overcome poverty and increased the years of free and compulsory education through 10th grade. The Government continued efforts to combat child labor in priority sectors, which included immediate provision of remediation services when children were found working. This resulted in the elimination of child labor in municipal slaughterhouses during the reporting period. Additionally, the Ministry of Labor Relations created a public-private partnership initiative with 14 businesses to eliminate child labor in their supply chain. However, Ecuador still faces resource constraints to ensure that labor inspectors are able to conduct inspections and enforce child labor laws. Children in Ecuador, particularly indigenous children and Afro-descendants, continue to engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in dangerous forms of street work and hazardous agricultural work.
Prevalence and Sectoral Distribution of the Worst Forms of Child Labor
Children in Ecuador, particularly indigenous children and Afro-descendants, are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including hazardous forms of agriculture and dangerous street work.(3-7) Children perform hazardous work in the production of bananas and flowers on informal, small-scale plantations and farms.(3, 7-13) Children who work in agriculture in Ecuador often use dangerous machinery, tools, and pesticides. They may also carry heavy loads and work long hours.(3, 7, 14, 15) Limited evidence suggests that children in Ecuador are also found working in hazardous activities in fishing and raising livestock.(3, 13, 16, 17) Children in fishing may work long hours, perform physically demanding tasks, and face dangers such as drowning.(18, 19) Children herding livestock may suffer injuries such as being bitten, butted, gored, or trampled by animals.(3, 20, 21)
Children in Ecuador also work as domestic servants.(3, 22, 23) They may often work long hours, are isolated, and are vulnerable to physical abuse, sexual harassment, and forced labor.(3, 7, 23-25)
Children also work in dangerous activities in the brick industry and informal small-scale mining, including in the production of gold. They are vulnerable to harsh temperatures and injuries, and they may work long hours.(7, 11, 16, 26) Indigenous children often start working outside their communities with parental consent at age 12 and are subjected to exploitative labor, including in construction.(3, 17, 27, 28)
There are reports of children working on the streets shining shoes, and selling newspapers and candy, often putting them within a few feet of vehicular traffic.(3, 7, 12, 16, 23, 29) Children in Ecuador are also subject to forced begging.(30-32)
Children are engaged in commercial sexual exploitation and are victims of trafficking.(23, 33-37) Some are trafficked from rural areas to urban centers for commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor in other sectors.(34, 37-39) Children from Ecuador are trafficked to other countries in Latin America for exploitation in domestic service, street vending, and begging.(33, 37-40) Girls from Colombia and Peru are trafficked to Ecuador to engage in street vending and commercial sexual exploitation.(37, 38, 41, 42)
Although evidence is limited, Ecuadorian children reportedly are involved in coca cultivation along the border with Colombia, and they are being recruited by Colombian non-state armed groups.(37, 43-45) There are also limited reports of the worst forms of child labor in the production of pornography, palm oil, and timber in Ecuador.(3, 7, 12, 26, 37)
Laws and Regulations on the Worst Forms of Child Labor
The Childhood and Adolescence Code sets the minimum age for work at 15.(12, 46, 47) It also sets the minimum age for hazardous work at 18.(12, 47-49) Resolution No. 016 of 2008 prohibits children under age 18 from work in 93 economic activities, including livestock raising, fishing, extraction of salt, work in the textile industry, logging, quarrying, domestic service, and various agricultural activities such as applying fertilizer or clearing land.(48) The Childhood and Adolescence Code establishes sanctions for violations of child labor laws, including monetary fines and the closing of establishments.(47) The Labor Code authorizes labor inspectors to conduct inspections at workplaces including factories, workshops, workers’ homes and any other establishments when they consider it appropriate, or when employers or workers request an inspection.(49) In addition, under an agreement between the Ministry of Labor Relations (MRL) and the Ministry of Mines and Energy, labor inspectors can enforce child labor laws in mining activities and impose sanctions for violations.(26) During the reporting period, the Decentralized Autonomous Government of Canton Santa Ana de Cotacachi passed a municipal ordinance on child labor.(50)
The Constitution prohibits forced labor, human trafficking, and all forms of exploitation, including the use of children for illicit activities.(12, 46) Provincial and municipal governments have established anti-trafficking ordinances and action plans.(51, 52) The Penal Code punishes commercial sexual exploitation of children, pornography, and trafficking. It prescribes increased penalties if the victim is a minor.(53)
The Childhood and Adolescence Code prohibits the recruitment and direct participation of children and adolescents in armed conflict, and the Criminal Code establishes penalties of 9 to12 years’ imprisonment for crimes that include the recruitment of minors for armed conflict(47). There is no compulsory military service in Ecuador, and the age for voluntary military service is 18.(12, 26, 46)
During the reporting period, the Government of Ecuador increased the years of free and compulsory education through tenth grade, which includes children ages 15 and 16.(12, 26, 46) The Organic Intercultural Education Law requires children to spend more time in class, which is likely to correlate with less time spent working.(54)
Institutional Mechanisms for Coordination and Enforcement
The Interagency Committee for the Elimination and Prevention of Child Labor coordinates efforts to combat child labor in Ecuador under the Program to Eradicate Child Labor (PETI).(8, 26) It is led by the MRL and includes the Ministry of Social Development (MCDS), the Ministry of Economic and Social Inclusion’s National Institute of Children and Families (MIES-INFA), the National Council for Children and Adolescents (CNNA), the Ministry of Education (MoE), the National Police’s Specialized Department for Children and Adolescents (DINAPEN), and by provincial and municipal governments.(8, 12, 26, 55, 56). Each institution has specific roles and responsibilities in the Committee. The MRL is responsible for setting policies on child labor, conducting inspections and administering sanctions against companies found using child labor. The CNNA is responsible for monitoring of child labor policy at the national and local levels. The MoE’s role is to immediately provide educational services for victims of child labor.(56) The MIES-INFA provides additional remediation services to child laborers and their families. The MCDS coordinates the actions of all the institutions involved.(56) Local autonomous governments also take part in the coordinating mechanism. Mayors are accountable for ensuring that children are not found working, or they face a fine.(56, 57)
As of 2011, the Government of Ecuador eliminated child labor in landfills and in 2012 repeated its success in municipal slaughterhouses. Any cases of children found working in either sector were immediately remediated, which included removing children from work and providing them with social services.(5, 12, 57, 58) During the reporting period, 171 municipal slaughterhouses were inspected and underwent continuous monitoring for child labor. Fifty-seven children were rescued and provided with access to education, recreation and health services.(16, 57, 58) As a result, the Government pledged to continue working toward eliminating child labor throughout the country.(12, 23, 54, 55, 59-63) The Government identified four priority areas from which to eliminate child labor in the coming years: flower farms, construction, bus terminals, and markets.(9, 12, 16, 64) Furthermore, the Interagency Committee on Child Labor systematically documented the elimination of child labor in priority sectors and developed guidelines so that the strategy could be replicated in other activities in which children work.(9, 54, 57, 59, 62)
The MRL monitors child labor, conducts labor inspections at work sites, and enforces child labor laws. In 2012, the MRL employed 280 people in the inspection unit nationwide, an increase from 250 in 2011, and had a total budget of $500,000 for labor inspections.(12) During the reporting period, labor inspectors conducted approximately 23,773 inspections for all types of labor violations and found 73 cases of child labor.(12) As a result, the MRL removed 223 children and issued 24 fines.(12) The MRL also has a system to collect fines.(9) Of the 24 fines issued in 2012, 3 had been collected as of January 2013.(12) The MRL trained all labor inspectors on inspection topics, including child labor.(9, 12) Additionally, an online training module on child labor is available to inspectors.(12) Nonetheless, the ILO Committee of Experts has stated that the labor inspectorate needs more material resources to adequately enforce labor laws.(12, 65)
The Attorney General’s Office (AGO), the Ministry of Justice (MJ), and DINAPEN enforce criminal laws against child labor, commercial sexual exploitation, and trafficking.(8, 12, 26) DINAPEN has 600 police officers who carry out operations to combat child sexual exploitation, sex tourism, trafficking and other crimes against children.(9, 12, 13) In 2012, DINAPEN investigated 86 cases involving the worse forms of child labor. During the reporting period, 16 people were arrested for child sexual exploitation; additionally there were 3 child pornography cases.(12) DINAPEN and the MRL removed 300 children from labor exploitation, child pornography, sexual exploitation, child trafficking, begging, and organ trafficking.(9, 12) The Office of the Public Prosecutor reported eight convictions for child sex trafficking, two for child forced labor, and four for sexual exploitation and child pornography during the reporting period.(12, 29) The Government of Ecuador has a protocol to provide immediate access to social protection programs to working children and adolescents found during inspections.(61)
The Anti Trafficking Unit of the National Police had 27 agents based in Quito and another 24 agents pending placement in a new office in Guayaquil, an increase from 14 in 2011.(29) These agents are responsible for investigating trafficking cases, rescuing victims, and arresting traffickers.(9, 12) During the reporting period, 19 children were rescued from forced labor.(23)
Government Policies on the Worst Forms of Child Labor
The 2005-2013 National Plan for the Progressive Elimination of Child Labor is the main policy instrument to combat child labor. It seeks to mainstream child labor into social programs and to coordinate efforts among government, private sector, and civil society actors.(66) The National Plan to Combat Human Trafficking, Sexual and Labor Exploitation, and other Forms of Exploitation guides efforts to prevent, investigate, protect, sanction, and restore the rights of victims of human trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, and other forms of abuse.(67)
During the reporting period, the MIES developed the 2012-2013 Agenda for the Equality of Children and Adolescents in Ecuador, which outlines strategies to assist children and help their families overcome poverty, remove children from work, and prevent children from entering the workforce.(12, 68) This Agenda also outlines specific goals for the Government of Ecuador to eradicate the worst forms of child labor, such as having a dedicated child labor inspector in each province.(68)
The Government of Ecuador has addressed child labor in several of its broader national policies. For example, it has incorporated child labor into its 2009-2013 National Plan for Good Living and the 10-year National Plan for the Comprehensive Protection of Children and Adolescents.(12, 69, 70) The National Plan for Good Living seeks to improve living conditions and to promote social inclusion and decent work.(69) The 10-year National Plan of Action for the Comprehensive Protection of Children and Adolescents seeks to protect the rights of children and adolescents in 29 focus areas, including child labor.(70) The Social Agenda for Children and Adolescents ensures that the rights of children are protected and that they do not perform hazardous labor.(71)
The Government of Ecuador and other MERCOSUR countries continue to carry out the Southern Child Initiative to defend the rights of children and adolescents in the region. The initiative includes public campaigns against commercial sexual exploitation, trafficking and child labor; technical assistance in raising domestic legal frameworks to international standards on those issues; and the exchange of best practices related to victim protection and assistance.(72-74) During the reporting period the presidents of MERCOSUR participated in the First Regional Conference on the Prevention and Elimination of Child Labor in Argentina. During that meeting they adopted the Second Declaration of the Prevention and Elimination of Child Labor.(75) The Second Declaration describes strategies such as the need to enhance dialogue between government actors and the creation of public-private partnerships.(75, 76)
The Government of Ecuador leads the Joint Regional Group for the Americas.(77, 78) The Joint Regional Group, whose other members include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela, conducts prevention and awareness-raising campaigns to combat the commercial sexual exploitation of children in Latin America.(77)
Social Programs to Eliminate or Prevent the Worst Forms of Child Labor
During the reporting period, the Government of Ecuador launched a public-private partnership initiative called Business Network for a Child Labor Free Ecuador.(58, 79) The goal of the initiative is to gain commitment form the participating industries to promote the prevention and elimination of child labor in their supply chains. By December 2012, 14 businesses had joined the initiative.(58, 79)
The Government’s program Ecuador Without Child Labor seeks to increase efforts to eradicate child labor by improving data collection, strengthening labor inspections, and carrying out awareness-raising activities.(80, 81) The MRL has an agreement with 150 municipalities to combat child labor. It also supports a program to improve the labor rights of domestic workers.(82) Various government agencies work with the private sector and other actors to address child labor in brickmaking, fishing, street work, and markets.(61) Additionally, the Government signed an agreement with the agriculture, flower, livestock, and construction sectors to coordinate actions and promote joint programs for the elimination of child labor in those sectors.(54, 61)
The Government continues to implement a national program to combat child begging, which includes awareness-raising campaigns in communities that receive and send child beggars.(9, 30, 82, 83) Although the Government of Ecuador did not eliminate child labor in begging, reports indicate that there has been a significant reduction in child begging over the last 3 years.(12) Additionally, child labor in the flower industry has reportedly been decreasing, particularly in large-scale export farms that account for approximately 60 percent of Ecuador’s flower exports.(13)
As part of the implementation of the National Plan to Combat Human Trafficking and Exploitation, the Government and INFA assist children who are engaged in child labor or who are victims of trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation. INFA works closely with law enforcement officials to protect children and provide social services to children at 86 INFA centers across the country.(9, 12, 26, 61) Additionally, the Government of Ecuador works with four NGOs to provide services to child victims of trafficking. These services include shelter, food, job training, legal assistance and physical and psychological medical care.(29)
In addition, the Government of Ecuador implements a set of social protection programs to combat poverty and social exclusion. It administers the Grants for Human Development, a conditional cash transfer program that supplements household income. It also targets vulnerable families and conditions payments on keeping children under age 15 in school and taking them for medical checkups.(11, 12, 64, 84, 85) The Government of Ecuador expanded funding for the program to increase its payout from $35 to $50 per month per family. The payments assisted 1.2 million families in 2012.(12) Research found that this program has helped reduce child labor. Working children whose families receive the Grants for Human Development are more likely to stay in school rather than work, particularly children ages 11 to 15.(85-87) In addition, the Government carries out the School Meals Program, which provides free meals to 1.6 million school children across the country.(9, 88) The question of whether this Program has an impact on child labor does not appear to have been addressed.
The Government has partnered with Telefónica Foundation and other NGOs to combat child labor by raising awareness among local communities and by providing educational opportunities to children, particularly indigenous children, who work or are at risk of working.(9, 12, 89)
The Government continues to receive technical support from international organizations to combat trafficking in persons.(90, 91)
In 2012, Ecuador participated in the USDOL-funded, 4-year Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues Project which is active in approximately 40 countries.(92) In Ecuador, the project aims to build the capacity of the national government and develop strategic policies to address the elimination of child labor and forced labor. The project also aims to strengthen legal protection and social service delivery for child domestic workers.(92)
The Government of Ecuador also participates in a 4-year, USDOL-funded $6.75 million regional project to promote collaboration across four countries (Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Paraguay) to combat the worst forms of child labor among the most socially excluded populations, including indigenous children and Afro-descendants.(93) The project, which began in 2009, aims to rescue 6,600 children from the worst forms of child labor through education interventions in the four countries. It also supports capacity building of government and civil society organizations, raises awareness, and conducts research.(93) In 2012, the Government organized an International Conference for Sharing Experiences in the Elimination of Hazardous Child Labor, with the participation of delegations from Bolivia, Brazil, and Peru and support from the ILO, UNICEF and other national stakeholders.(5)
Additionally, the Government participates in two USDOL-funded regional projects initiated in 2012 to combat child labor among vulnerable groups and to promote lesson sharing between Panama, Ecuador and other countries. A $3.5 million project strengthens policy and enforcement of child labor laws and occupational safety, and a $6.5 million project combats the worst forms of child labor among the most vulnerable populations, including Afro-descendants, migrants, and indigenous children, by providing them with educational and livelihood services.(94, 95) In Ecuador, both projects are piloting efforts to address the link between child labor and disabilities.(94, 95)
Despite these efforts, current programs do not appear to be sufficient to address the extent of the worst forms of child labor in Ecuador, particularly in agriculture and street work.
Based on the reporting above, the following actions would advance the elimination of the worst forms of child labor in Ecuador:
Year(s) Action Recommended
Coordination and Enforcement
Engage in transborder collaboration with Colombia to address the recruitment of minors for the worst forms of child labor.
2010, 2011, 2012
Allocate sufficient material resources to ensure that labor inspectors are able to conduct inspections and enforce child labor laws.
2009, 2010, 2011, 2012
Support local governments in monitoring child labor in new priority sectors following the protocol established in landfills and slaughterhouses.
2010, 2011, 2012
Apply the successful strategy used to eliminate child labor in landfills and slaughterhouses to other new activities in which children work.
Assess the impact that the School Meals Program may have on reducing child labor.
Expand child labor programs that particularly target agriculture and street work.
2009, 2010, 2011, 2012
1. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total; accessed February 4, 2013; http://www.uis.unesco.org/Pages/default.aspx?SPSLanguage=EN. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.
2. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. February 5, 2013. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.
3. García, F. La Problemática del Trabajo Infantil en los Pueblos Indígenas del Ecuador. Lima, Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales - FLACSO; March 27-28, 2008. http://white.oit.org.pe/ipec/documentos/ec_estudio_preliminar_flacso_tii.pdf.
4. Agencia Publica de Noticias del Ecuador y Suramerica. "Cerca de Mil Millones Cuesta Erradicar el Trabajo Infantil en Ecuador en Veinte Anos " andes.info.ec [online] June 13, 2012 [cited November 5, 2012]; http://andes.info.ec/actualidad-videos/3174.html.
5. ILO-IPEC. Project to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor through Horizontal Cooperation in South America: Technical Progress Report. Technical Progress Report; 2012 October 2012.
6. UCW analysis of ILO SIMPOC, UNICEF MICS, World Bank surveys. Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Rates; March 25, 2008.
7. UN Human Rights Council. Report of the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of slavery, including its causes and consequences. UN Special Rapporteur Gulnara Shahinian, June 30, 2010. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/issues/slavery/rapporteur/docs/A.HRC.15.20.Add.3_en.pdf.
8. Government of Ecuador. Written Communication. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (April 25, 2011) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countires to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor"; May 25, 2011.
9. U.S. Embassy-Quito. reporting, February 9, 2012.
10. U.S. Embassy-Quito. reporting, July 17, 2012.
11. El Universo. "El Trabajo Infantil Cayo a Cerca del 6% en 2011 en Ecuador; Segun el INEC." El Universo, Guayaquil, June 4, 2012; Pais. http://www.eluniverso.com/2012/06/04/1/1447/trabajo-infantil-cayo-cerca-6-2011-ecuador-segun-inec.html.
12. U.S. Embassy-Quito. reporting January 31, 2013.
13. U.S. Embassy-Quito. reporting, May 28, 2013.
14. International Labour Office. Children in hazardous work: What we know, What we need to do. Geneva, International Labour Organization; 2011. While country-specific information on the dangers children face in agriculture is not available, research studies and other reports have documented the dangerous nature of tasks in agriculture and their accompanying occupational exposures, injuries and potential health consequences to children working in the sector.
15. International Labour Office. Farming, International Labour Organization, [online] January 31, 2012 [cited November 2, 2012]; http://www.ilo.org/ipec/areas/Agriculture/WCMS_172416/lang--en/index.htm.
16. El Universo. "Ecuador se Propone Erradicar Este Ano El Trabajo Infantil en Mataderos." El Universo, Guayaquil, June 7, 2012; Economia. http://www.eluniverso.com/2012/06/07/1/1356/ecuador-propone-erradicar-ano-trabajo-infantil-mataderos.html.
17. CARE Ecuador, FLACSO. Trabajo Infantil Indígena: Informe Final. Quito; December 2009. http://www.care.org.ec/webcare/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/Trabajo-Infantil-y-ni%C3%B1ez-indigena.pdf.
18. International Labour Office. Fishing and Aquaculture, International Labour Organization, [online] January 31, 2012 [cited November 2, 2012]; http://www.ilo.org/ipec/areas/Agriculture/WCMS_172419/lang--en/index.htm.
19. International Labour Office. Children in hazardous work: What we know, what we need to do. Geneva, International Labour Organization; 2011. While country-specific information on the dangers children face in fishing is not available, research studies and other reports have documented the dangerous nature of tasks in fishing and their accompanying occupational exposures, injuries and potential health consequences to children working in the sector.
20. International Labour Office. Livestock Production, International Labour Organization, [online] January 31, 2012 [cited November 2, 2012]; http://www.ilo.org/ipec/areas/Agriculture/WCMS_172431/lang--en/index.htm.
21. Gender Equity and Rural Employment Division. Children's work in the livestock sector: Herding and beyond. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; 2013. http://www.fao.org/documents/en/detail/307941.
22. UN News Centre. "Child Labour Impeding Development in Ecuador, Says UN Rights Expert." un.org [online] February 2, 2010 [cited March 5, 2013]; http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?Cr=slavery&NewsID=33644.
23. U.S. Department of State. "Ecuador," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2012. Washington, DC; April 19, 2013; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper.
24. International Labour Office. Domestic Labour, International Labour Organization, [online] January 31, 2012 [cited November 2, 2012]; http://www.ilo.org/ipec/areas/Childdomesticlabour/lang--en/index.htm.
25. International Labour Office. Children in hazardous work: What we know, What we need to do. Geneva, International Labour Organization; 2011. While country-specific information on the dangers children face in domestic work is not available, research studies and other reports have documented the dangerous nature of tasks in domestic work and their accompanying occupational exposures, injuries and potential health consequences to children working in the sector.
26. U.S. Embassy-Quito. reporting, February 1, 2011.
27. Gamez, E. Mapeo de zonas prioritarias para la erradicación del trabajo infantil en actividades y zonas con alta presencia de población socialmente excluida en Ecuador. Geneva, ILO-IPEC; November 2010.
28. Encuentro Latinoamericano. Niñez Indígena en América Latina: Situación y perspectivas (Compilación de documentos de trabajo). Cartagena de Indias, ILO; March 8-10, 2010. http://white.oit.org.pe/ipec/documentos/publi_encuentro_final.pdf.
29. U.S. Embassy-Quito. reporting, June 24, 2013
30. Government of Ecuador's National Institute for Childhood and Family. Da Dignidad: Por un Ecuador sin Mendicidad, [online] [cited January 20, 2013]; http://dadignidad.gob.ec/mendicidad-ecuador/.
31. Diario Hoy. "Mendicidad, el tercer 'mejor negocio'." January 4, 2012. http://www.hoy.com.ec/noticias-ecuador/mendicidad-el-tercer-mejor-negocio-385488.html.
32. IOM. La trata de personas en Ecuador, [online] April 12, 2011 [cited February 5, 2013]; http://www.unmultimedia.org/radio/spanish/2011/04/la-trata-de-personas-en-ecuador/.
33. TV Ecuador. Tráfico de Niños del Ecuador. Quito; April 19, 2009, (11 min., 01 sec.), accessed February 2, 2012; http://www.tvecuador.com/index.php?option=com_reportajes&id=1027&view=showcanal.
34. Parra, JR. "Ecuador: Refugee Women and Girls Turning to Sex Work." globalvoicesonline.org [online] April 24, 2012 [cited October 26, 2012]; http://globalvoicesonline.org/2012/04/24/ecuador-refugee-women-and-girls-turning-to-sex-work/.
35. El Telégrafo. "Chimborazo lucha contra el tráfico de menores " El Telégrafo, Quito, February 15, 2013. http://www.telegrafo.com.ec/regionales/regional-centro/item/chimborazo-lucha-contra-el-trafico-de-menores-2.html.
36. Ecuavisa.com. Autoridades investigan tráfico de niños, Ecuavisa, [online] May 8, 2013 [cited July 2, 2013]; http://www.ecuavisa.com/articulo/noticias/actualidad/30157-autoridades-investigan-trafico-de-ninos.
37. U.S. Department of State. "Ecuador," in Traffricking in Persons Report- 2012. Washington, D.C.; June 19, 2012; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/192595.pdf.
38. U.S. Embassy-Quito. reporting, March 1, 2011.
39. PR Newswire. "Coffee Company Combats Human Trafficking, One Cup at a Time." prnewswire.com [online] July 3, 2009 [cited October 26, 2012]; http://www.prnewswire.com.
40. States News Service. "IOM Organizes Counter Trafficking Training Courses for Officials in Ecuador." [online] August 24, 2012 [cited October 26, 2012];
41. "Red de trata de personas acosa a mujeres en frontera con Ecuador." El Tiempo, Bogota, Colombia, January 31, 2010; Archivo. http://www.eltiempo.com/archivo/documento/CMS-7085427.
42. Rodriguez, M. "Trafico de menores: encuentran a 135 ninos peruanos trabajando en Ecuador." El Comercio, Quito, February 6, 2011; News. http://elcomercio.pe/peru/709581/noticia-trafico-menores-encuentran-135-ninos-peruanos-trabajando-ecuador.
43. Khoudour-Castéras, D. "Efectos de la Migración sobre el Trabajo Infantíl en Colombia." Revista de Economía Institucional, 11(20)(2009); http://www.economiainstitucional.com/pdf/No20/dkhoudour20.pdf.
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45. Noticias RCN. Ecuador está preocupado por reclutamiento de menores por parte de las Farc, [online] November 19, 2010 [cited February 5, 2013]; http://www.canalrcnmsn.com/noticias/ecuador_est%C3%A1_preocupado_por_reclutamiento_de_menores_por_parte_de_las_farc.
46. Government of Ecuador. Constitución del Ecuador, enacted September 28, 2008. http://www.asambleanacional.gov.ec/documentos/Constitucion-2008.pdf.
47. Government of Ecuador. Código de la Niñéz y Adolescencia (with modifications until 2009), enacted January 3, 2003. http://www.cnna.gob.ec/index.php?searchword=codigo&ordering=&searchphrase=all&Itemid=65&option=com_search.
48. Government of Ecuador. Resolución No. 16 CNNA - 2008, enacted May 8, 2008. http://www.cnna.gob.ec/index.php/bliblioteca/centro-documental/cat_view/51-biblioteca/54-publicaciones-cnna-version-digital.html.
49. Government of Ecuador. Codificacion del Código del Trabajo, enacted December 16, 2005. http://www.unemi.edu.ec/rrhh/images/archivos/codtrab.pdf.
50. Government of Ecuador. Ordenanza que regula la implementación de políticas publicas de promoción, prevención, control y erradicación progresiva del trabajo infantil en el Cantón Santa Ana de Cotachi, enacted July 23, 2012.
51. Government of Ecuador. Ordenanza Metropolitana No. 0246, 0246, enacted November 21, 2007. http://www.plenasexualidad.com/archivos/ORDM-246.pdf.
52. Council for Children and Adolescents of Cuenca. Plan contra la Explotación Sexual Comercial y la Trata de Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes del Canton Cuenca (2008-2013); 2007. http://www.contralatrata.org/docs/pa/ml-plan-cantonalcuenca-ecua.pdf.
53. Government of Ecuador. Ley Reformatoria al Código Penal que Tipifica los Delitos de Explotación Sexual de los Menores de Edad, enacted June 15, 2005. http://tukuymigra.com/images/normativa/ECN_LEG_DDH_2005.06.15.pdf.
54. ILO-IPEC. Project to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor through Horizontal Cooperation in South America: Technical Progress Report. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2011.
55. Government of Ecuador. Written Communication: Trabajo Infantil-Ecuador; June 4, 2012.
56. Ministerio de Relaciones Laborales. Logros en la Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil, [online] [cited June 12, 2013]; http://trabajoinfantil.mrl.gob.ec:8081/infantil/LOGROS_EN_LA_ERRADICACION_DEL_TRABAJO_INFANTIL/creacion_de_la_mesa_interinstitucional.html.
57. Ministerio de Relaciones Laborales official. Interview with USDOL official. March 26, 2013.
58. Ministerio de Relaciones Laborales. Informe USDOL 2012. Quito; 2013.
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