2013 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor
In 2013, Côte d'Ivoire made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government partially funded and began implementing its National Action Plan against Trafficking, Exploitation, and Child Labor; launched a pilot program for a national child labor monitoring system; and continued funding various social programs to address child labor. The Government also coordinated child labor efforts and reviewed projects addressing child labor to ensure that they supported activities under the National Action Plan against Trafficking, Exploitation, and Child Labor. However, children in Côte d'Ivoire continue to engage in the worst forms of child labor in agriculture, particularly on cocoa farms, sometimes under conditions of forced labor. Côte d'Ivoire still lacks a compulsory education law and gaps remain in enforcement efforts and in children's access to education.
Children in Côte d'Ivoire are engaged in the worst forms of child labor in agriculture, particularly on cocoa farms, sometimes under conditions of forced labor.(1-10) According to a report by Tulane University that assessed data collected during the 2008-2009 harvest season, 819,921 children ages 5 to 17 were estimated to be working in the cocoa sector, and 50.6 percent, or 414,778 of these children were estimated to report injuries from dangerous activities.(4, 5) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Côte d'Ivoire.
|Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):||39.8 (2,181,894)|
|School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):||53.6|
|Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):||24.3|
|Primary completion rate (%):||61.2|
Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2012, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2013. (11)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from 2006 Survey. (12)
Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.
|Agriculture||Clearing land, harvesting, drying, fermenting, and transporting cocoa pods in the production of cocoa (1-6, 9, 10, 13-16)|
|Production of cereals* charcoal,*†and coffee, activities unknown (2, 9, 10, 15)|
|Production of palm oil* and wine,*†pineapple,*†rice,*†and rubber,*† (7, 10, 15)|
|Cultivating, harvesting, spreading chemical fertilizers, felling trees, and burning and clearing fields for the production of various agricultural crops† (9, 14)|
|Deep sea diving for fishing*† (17, 18)|
|Livestock raising, activities unknown† (17, 18)|
|Industry||Crushing and transporting stones,* blasting rocks, working underground, and extracting minerals with chemicals in gold*†and diamond*†mining (10, 13, 15, 18-21)|
|Services||Domestic service in third party homes† (7, 8, 15, 20, 22-24)|
|Work in transportation,†portering,†and car washing (8-10, 18, 20)|
|Street vending and commerce, including the sale of pornography*†and collecting trash from landfills† (2, 9, 15, 18, 25)|
|Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡||Work in mining, construction, domestic service, street vending, and agriculture, including in the production of cocoa and coffee, as a result of human trafficking (6, 7, 9, 14-16, 25-30)|
|Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking (7, 10, 13, 15, 25, 27, 31)|
|Use of underage children in armed conflict* (32)|
|Forced begging by Koranic teachers (33)|
|Forced labor in agriculture, including in the production of cocoa and coffee (5, 9)|
*Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
†Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a) - (c) of ILO C. 182.
A 2013 report conducted by the Government of Côte d'Ivoire and the ILO shows that more than 1.6 million children, or 73.3 per cent of the estimated 2.13 million children working in agriculture, domestic service; mining; transportation; and commerce in stores, markets, and on the street, are involved in the worst forms of child labor in Côte d'Ivoire.(9) The same report estimates that more than 97,700 children are involved in forced labor in these sectors.(9)
In return for education and food, some boys, known as talibés, are forced by their Koranic teachers to beg on the streets.(33) During the reporting period the UN documented three cases of the recruitment and use of child soldiers, ages 13 to 17, to staff checkpoints for the Government's armed forces.(32)
Children are trafficked to, from, and within Côte d'Ivoire.(15) Girls are internally trafficked for work in commercial sexual exploitation after being promised work in bars and restaurants. Many of these girls are ages 15 and 16, but some are as young as age 10.(25, 31, 34) Children from neighboring West African countries are trafficked into Côte d'Ivoire for agricultural labor, especially in cocoa production, and for work in mining, construction, domestic labor, street vending, and commercial sexual exploitation.(6, 7, 9, 14-16, 19, 26-31)
Access to quality education is a critical component in preventing the economic exploitation of children.(35) However, Côte d'Ivoire still lacks sufficient teachers and school buildings to provide education for all children.(8, 17, 36-42) Some schools require birth certificates for school enrollment and all schools require birth certificates to take primary school exit exams. Since many children-including those born in Côte d'Ivoire and those who have migrated to Côte d'Ivoire-do not have birth certificates, they may be prevented from enrolling in or graduating from primary school.(17, 43-46) Sexual abuse and school-based violence also discourage families from accessing education for their children. Evidence suggests that some children in Côte d'Ivoire are physically and sexually abused at schools. Limited evidence suggests some teachers demand sexual favors from some students in exchange for grades or money.(10, 47-50)
Côte d'Ivoire has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).
|ILO C. 138, Minimum Age||✅|
|ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor||✅|
|UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict||✅|
|UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography||✅|
|Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons||✅|
The Government has established relevant laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).
|Minimum Age for Work||Yes||14||Labor Code (51)|
|Minimum Age for Hazardous Work||Yes||14-18||Revised Hazardous List Arrêté N°009 MEMEASS/CAB Du 19/01/12 (52)|
|List of Hazardous Occupations Prohibited for Children||Yes||Revised Hazardous List Arrêté N°009 MEMEASS/CAB Du 19/01/12 (52)|
|Prohibition of Forced Labor||Yes||Constitution; The Trafficking and Worst Forms of Child Labor Law (53, 54)|
|Prohibition of Child Trafficking||Yes||The Trafficking and Worst Forms of Child Labor Law (53)|
|Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children||Yes||The Trafficking and Worst Forms of Child Labor Law (53)|
|Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities||Yes||The Trafficking and Worst Forms of Child Labor Law (53)|
|Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment||Yes||18||Research did not uncover a public version of this law (55)|
|Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service||Yes||18||Research did not uncover a public version of this law (55)|
|Compulsory Education Age||No|
|Free Public Education||No|
Provisions of the Labor Code that protect children working in the formal sector do not apply to children working in the informal sector. This situation puts children working in the informal sector, including in street vending and artisanal gold and diamond mining, at risk of exploitative child labor.(53, 56) In addition, although the Trafficking and Worst Forms of Child Labor Law was adopted in 2010, the implementing decree for the law has yet to be adopted.(53, 57)
Education is not compulsory by law in Côte d'Ivoire.(2, 10, 56) Although education is officially free, in practice some parents are required to pay fees for teachers' salaries and books.(3, 8, 10, 43) The absence of a compulsory education requirement, along with the requirement by some schools to pay for school-related fees, decreases the likelihood of children attending school and may increase their vulnerability to the worst forms of child labor.(2)
The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).
|The Ministry of Employment, Social Affairs, and Professional Training / Labor Inspectorate||Enforce labor laws, including those related to child labor.(13) Implement Côte d'Ivoire's Système de Suivi du Travail des enfants, (SOSTECI) orChild Labor Monitoring System (CLMS). SOSTECI collects and analyzes statistical data on the worst forms of child labor. It also monitors, reports on, and coordinates services for children involved in or at risk of child labor.(8, 13, 58)|
|The Ministry of Interior/ National Police||Enforce criminal laws against child trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, forced child labor, and the use of children in illicit activities.(8) Maintain an anti-trafficking unit, overseen by a police chief, that investigates cases of child trafficking.(13, 24)|
|National Monitoring Committee for Actions to Fight against Trafficking, Exploitation and Child Labor (CNS)Monitoring Brigades||Conduct trafficking investigations. Composed of security forces tasked with dismantling trafficking networks and rescuing exploited or trafficked children.(24)|
Law enforcement agencies in Côte d'Ivoire took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.
Labor Law Enforcement
In 2013, the Ministry of Employment, Social Affairs, and Professional Training employed 250 labor inspectors, up from 206 labor inspectors in 2012. In August 2013, the ILO and the Government of Côte d'Ivoire trained 243 labor inspectors and government officials on the worst forms of child labor.(8, 13, 59, 60) Despite these efforts, research found that labor inspectors lack an adequate understanding of child labor issues. A 2013 ILO report notes serious deficiencies among Ivoirian labor inspectors in their knowledge of child labor.(17) Labor inspectors are employed across 15 regional offices, 5 departmental offices, and 8 units in Abidjan.(8) They are trained to inspect all sectors.(17) Labor inspectors may conduct surprise inspections of any establishment.(51, 61) However, the Labor Inspectorate does not have access to a reliable list of establishments subject to inspections in industrial and commercial workplaces.(62, 63)
Labor inspections target general labor laws; specific child labor inspections are not conducted. However, incidences of child labor are identified during broader labor inspections.(8) A lack of sufficient staffing, offices, and funding, including for vehicles and fuel, hinders labor inspections. For example, most inspectorate offices are dilapidated and some lack access to a water supply; only three inspection offices have vehicles; and no labor inspections are carried out in the agricultural sector.(8, 10, 17, 20, 61, 62, 64) The combined budget for the regional, departmental, and capital offices, and the Ministry of Labor's Direction to Combat Child Labor increased in 2013 to $2 million, up from $588,566 in 2012.(8, 13) Statistics relating to the number of labor inspections conducted, violations cited, or fines collected for 2013 are unavailable.(8)
Criminal Law Enforcement
In 2013, with the support of UNICEF, the police service school and the gendarmerie developed a 50-hour training program on child protection.(8, 65, 66) The training program is currently active, with 1,450 anticipated graduates. In addition, the ILO provided training on the worst forms of child labor to anti-trafficking officers.(8, 65) Despite these efforts, the police force and the anti-trafficking units remain understaffed and lack adequate resources and training.(8, 20) For example, the anti-trafficking unit only has two computers and one vehicle, a sedan, which is unable to navigate difficult terrain and cannot travel outside of Abidjan.(8) In addition, the ILO Committee of Experts and the UNHCR have observed that there is weak enforcement of the laws, particularly those governing the worst forms of child labor and trafficking.(2)
Staffing of the anti-trafficking unit increased in 2013 to 10 full-time officers, up from 5 officers in 2012.(8, 13, 59) The anti-trafficking unit recorded 5 cases of child trafficking involving 33 children, 18 cases of economic exploitation, 29 cases of statutory rape, and 18 cases of indecent assault. Of those cases, the unit referred 24 people for criminal charges, and 8 for child trafficking charges.(8, 59) In July 2013, authorities intercepted vehicles from Burkina Faso carrying 36 children between ages 12 and 16. The nine people arrested in connection with the incident were sentenced under the child trafficking law to 12 months in prison and a $1,000 fine each.(10, 67) In January 2014, the police rescued 40 girls and 9 boys, between ages 7 and 12, from being trafficked to the cotton fields in the Mankono region.(8) The three adults accompanying the children were arrested. The current circumstances of the children are unknown.(8) In general, the Government refers victims to NGOs on an as-needed basis.(8) The number of prosecutions and convictions during the reporting period is unknown. The Ministry of Justice does not regularly collect, publish, or share information on cases of trafficking. The lack of comprehensive data makes it difficult to evaluate if trafficking cases are isolated incidents or part of a larger network.(68)
In a continued response to eliminate the recruitment and use of child soldiers in Côte d'Ivoire, in November 2013, the Government re-established a child protection cell within the national army in order to deal with child protection concerns and, in coordination with the UN, the Government appointed a new chief of child protection for the National Army.(32) The Government also adopted service provider procedures and guidelines for the prevention, referral, and response to grave violations committed against children; it also implemented a series of child protection and capacity building training for defense and security forces. During the reporting period, 78 police and gendarmerie staff received the training.(32)
The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).
|Coordinating Body||Role & Description|
|The National Monitoring Committee for Actions to Fight against Trafficking, Exploitation and Child Labor (CNS)||Review and provide approval for all anti-child labor and anti-child trafficking activities in Côte d'Ivoire. Provide oversight for the Joint Ministerial Committee on the Fight against Trafficking, Exploitation, and Child Labor (CIM). Chaired by the First Lady of Côte d'Ivoire.(8, 69, 70)|
|The Joint Ministerial Committee on the Fight against Trafficking, Exploitation, and Child Labor||Coordinate national actions to combat the worst forms of child labor in Côte d'Ivoire. Chaired by the Minister of Employment, Social Affairs, and Professional Training. Composed of representatives from 13 ministries, including the Ministries of Justice; Interior; Education; Agriculture; and Family and Women.(24, 69, 71)|
The National Monitoring Committee for Actions to Fight against Trafficking, Exploitation and Child Labor (CNS) and the Joint Ministerial Committee on the Fight against Trafficking, Exploitation, and Child Labor (CIM) meet regularly, both separately and in coordinated working groups.(8) However, the coordinating structures lack sufficient resources. In addition, despite the structures' coordinated working groups, some NGOs and companies continue to lack clarity about the respective roles and responsibilities of the CIM and the CNS, undermining effective coordination on the ground.(20, 72)
The Government of Côte d'Ivoire has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).
|National Action Plan Against Trafficking, Exploitation, and Child Labor (2012-2014)||Aims to prevent children from involvement in trafficking and other worst forms of child labor; pursue the prosecution and punishment of offenders; and implement child labor monitoring and evaluation mechanisms.(18, 58, 73) Plan was partially funded and several components were implemented in 2013: SOSTECI was launched, educational infrastructure was built, and a national awareness-raising campaign on child labor was implemented, among other programs.(8, 74) Components are discussed in more detail in the Social Programs section.|
|PRSP (2012--2015)†||Aims to increase access to effective education; train youth and adults with trade skills; enhance agricultural production and certified agriculture products; ensure food security; and strengthen the country's capacity to combat the worst forms of child labor.(42)|
|UN Development Assistance Framework (2009-2013)*||Aims to increase access to education, with the goal of reducing the number of children without access to primary school by half.(75)|
|Decent Work Program (2008-2013)||Aims to reduce the worst forms of child labor, per requirements of ILO C.182, through partnerships with various partners and projects.(76)|
|The Medium Term Plan of Actions for Education*||Aims to increase access to education, particularly for girls; increase teacher capacity; promote vocational education; and build classrooms and schools in rural areas.(77)|
|ECOWAS Regional Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labour, Especially the Worst Forms||With 15 ECOWAS countries, implements a regional action plan on child labor, especially the worst forms. Aims to eliminate the worst forms of child labor in West Africa by 2015 and to continue to progress toward the total elimination of child labor.(78, 79) In 2013, under the regional action plan, ECOWAS conducted its first peer review to evaluate efforts to combat child labor at the country level. With Nigeria, Côte d'Ivoire reviewed Ghana's efforts to combat child labor and provided preliminary findings and recommendations.(80)|
|Joint Declaration Against Cross Border Trafficking†||Joint declaration against cross-border trafficking. Signed by the First Ladies of Côte d'Ivoire, and Burkina Faso.(81-84)|
|2010 Declaration of Joint Action to Support the Implementation of the Harkin-Engel Protocol (2010 Declaration) and its accompanying Framework of Action||In cooperation with the Governments of Ghana, the United States, and the International Cocoa and Chocolate Industry, provides resources and coordinates with key stakeholders on efforts to reduce the worst forms of child labor in cocoa-producing areas. Takes steps to ensure all project efforts implemented under the Declaration and Framework align with national action plans in order to promote coherence and sustainability.(58, 85, 86)|
*The impact of this policy on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
†Policy was launched during the reporting period.
In 2013, the Government of Côte d'Ivoire funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).
|Système d'Observation et de Suivi du Travail des enfants en Côte d'Ivoire (SOSTECI) †‡||Government pilot program to implement its national child labor monitoring system, SOSTECI, in July 2013. Enables communities to collect and analyze statistical data on the worst forms of child labor and to monitor, report on, and coordinate services for children involved in or at risk of child labor.(8, 13, 58) Piloted in 19 communities in the districts of Abengourou, Bouaflé, Daoukro, M'Batto, and Soubré between July 2013 and August 2014.(8, 65) Will need to reach 3,750 villages and 21,900 hamlets to achieve a sector-wide child labor monitoring process.(14)|
|National Awareness Campaign against Child Labor‡||Government implemented large-scale national awareness campaign against child labor. Implemented by the CNS and headed by the First Lady of Côte d'Ivoire. Includes radio broadcasts and illustrated brochures in French and local languages. Broadcasts public awareness information on television, displayed on billboards, and published in newspapers.(8, 57, 58) Sensitized 150 cocoa producers on child labor, using cocoa-cooperatives to disseminate information.(8, 13)|
|Self Help Village Initiative‡||Government implemented initiative to combat child labor in the cocoa sector, implemented since 2009. Builds schools and health centers, introduces income generating activities, and implements a CLMS.(13, 58, 87, 88) Each village service package, funded by taxes and fees on cocoa exports, is valued at $60,000.(8) Seven new villages began participating in the initiative in 2013.(8)|
|Eliminating the Worst Forms of Child Labor in West Africa by Strengthening Sub Regional Cooperation through ECOWAS (ECOWAS I)||$7.95 million, USDOL-funded, 5-year project implemented by the ILO to accelerate progress on the elimination of the worst forms of child labor in Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Nigeria. Supported ECOWAS to strengthen its role in combating the worst forms of child labor in the West Africa sub region by providing policy and capacity building support for all ECOWAS states. In Côte d'Ivoire, targeted children involved in child labor in agriculture and domestic service for withdrawal and prevention services, including by providing access to education services.(89, 90) By March 2014, had withdrawn and prevented 5,315 children from the worst forms of child labor and provided livelihoods services to 150 households. Helped establish 70 community child labor committees under SOSTECI, in coordination with the Government. Committees form the foundation for implementing SOSTECI at the local level.(91, 92)|
|Eliminating the Worst Forms of Child Labor in West Africa by Strengthening Sub Regional Cooperation through ECOWAS (ECOWAS II)||Linked to the ECOWAS I project, a $5 million, USDOL-funded, 4-year project, implemented by the ILO with direct interventions in Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Nigeria. Supported ECOWAS to strengthen its role in combating the worst forms of child labor in the West Africa sub-region by providing policy and capacity building support for all ECOWAS states.(87, 93) By March 2014, had provided education services to 1,251 children and livelihoods services to 786 households.(94) Provided support to SOSTECI and supported the establishment of 41 community child labor protection committees.(94)|
|Towards Child Labour Free Cocoa Growing Communities in Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana through an Integrated Area Based Approach (CCP)||$10 million, USDOL-funded, 4-year project, implemented by the ILO. In support of the 2010 Declaration, aims to reduce the worst forms of child labor in cocoa-producing areas in Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana by providing direct services to communities.(3, 85) Worked with the Government to develop and implement a CLMS in cocoa-growing areas.(3, 85) By March 2014, provided educational services to 2,500 children and livelihood services to 1,000 families in Côte d'Ivoire. Also provided support to SOSTECI to develop the CLMS framework for data collection and coordination and assistance in the collection of data.(3)|
|Survey on Child Labor in West African Cocoa Growing Areas||$1.5 million, USDOL-funded, 3-year research project, implemented by the Payson Center at Tulane University. Supports the collection of nationally representative survey data on child labor in cocoa-growing areas of Côte d'Ivoire an d Ghana.(58) Will help assess the prevalence of the worst forms of child labor in cocoa-growing areas. As called for in the 2010 Declaration, the study developed a baseline estimate of the number of children working in the worst forms of child labor in cocoa-growing areas.(58) Coordinates with the Government and works with government statistical experts to build the country's capacity to implement future child labor surveys.(58)|
|Industry-funded projects in support of the 2010 Declaration||Projects in cocoa-growing areas of Côte d'Ivoire funded by Mars, Nestle, Barry Callebaut, and Mondelez International and the former Global Issues Group. In support of the 2010 Declaration. Projects aim to reduce the prevalence of child labor, including by improving children's access to education and increasing household incomes.(58, 85, 86, 95) Funding provided by the cocoa industry is as follows: Mars, $2.7 million; Nestle, $1.5 million; Barry Callebaut, $300,000; Mondelez International, $1.54 million; and Global Issues Group, $2.25 million.(74)|
|Empowering Cocoa Households with Opportunities and Education Solutions* (ECHOES)||$14.5 million, World Cocoa Foundation funded, 8-year project.(96) Strengthens cocoa-growing communities by expanding opportunities for youth through education. Focuses on youth leadership, basic education, and innovation.(97)|
|Council of Coffee and Cocoa Platform Public-Private Partnership‡||Aims to improve sustainable development and socioeconomic welfare of coffee and cocoa producers and their communities. Targets improved productivity and the reduction of child labor. Includes consultations and ongoing dialogues with the coffee and cocoa industry value chain. Implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture.(57)|
|Center for Vulnerable Children‡||The Ministry of Family, Women, and Children maintains a center in Abidjan to receive vulnerable children.(13, 24)|
|School kit program*‡||The Government provided school kits for free to all primary school children.(15, 74)|
|UNICEF Country Program*||UNICEF supported, 5-year program provides assistance to orphans and vulnerable children and support to the formal and non-formal education systems in Côte d'Ivoire.(98, 99)|
*The impact of this program on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
†Program was launched during the reporting period.
‡Program is funded by the Government of Côte d'Ivoire.
Although the Government of Côte d'Ivoire maintains programs and coordinates with industry, international organizations, NGOs, and other governments to help children on cocoa farms, existing programs are not sufficient to reach the approximately 3,750 cocoa-growing communities in need of services.(4, 100) The Government also lacks sufficient programs, both in number and scope, to address the needs of children engaged in other types of exploitative labor, as identified in the National Action Plan against Trafficking, Exploitation, and Child Labor, including in agriculture, mining, domestic service, and commercial sexual exploitation.
Based on the reporting above, the following actions would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Côte d'Ivoire (Table 9).
|Area||Suggested Action||Year(s) Suggested|
|Laws||Ensure relevant child labor laws and regulations apply equally to children working in the formal and informal sectors.||2011 - 2013|
|Adopt the implementing decree for the Trafficking and Worst Forms of Child Labor law.||2013|
|Make education free and compulsory and establish a minimum compulsory education age that is consistent with the minimum age for admission to work.||2009 - 2013|
|Enforcement||Create a reliable list of establishments that are subject to labor inspection.||2013|
|Allocate sufficient resources and provide adequate training to ensure effective inspections, investigations, and enforcement of labor laws and criminal laws related to child labor, particularly in sectors where the worst forms of child labor are most prevalent.||2009 - 2013|
|Systematically collect and make publicly available data on incidence of child labor and trafficking, prosecutions, sentences, and referrals to remediation services for children rescued from child labor, particularly the worst forms.||2010 - 2013|
|Coordination||Improve coordination between and clarify the roles and responsibilities of the CIM and CNS.||2012 - 2013|
|Government Policies||Assess the impact that existing policies may have on addressing child labor.||2013|
|Social Programs||Conduct research to determine the activities carried out by children working in the production of charcoal, palm oil and wine, and rubber; livestock raising; and agriculture, including cereals, pineapples and rice to inform policies and programs.||2013|
|Expand SOSTECI and enhance the use of child labor data by relevant agencies to increase the provision of services to children engaged in or at-risk of child labor||2011 - 2013|
|Expand activities for effective implementation of National Action Plans to combat the worst forms of child labor, including efforts to reduce the worst forms of child labor in agriculture, commercial sexual exploitation, domestic service, and mining.||2009 - 2013|
|Take measures to ensure children have access to free, safe, and quality education.||2011 - 2013|
|Implement, expand and improve all programming related to the worst forms of child labor, including forced child labor, agriculture, mining, domestic service, and commercial sexual exploitation, including by:
||2009 - 2013|
|Assess the impact that existing programs may have on child labor.||2013|
2. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Côte d'Ivoire (ratification: 2003) Published: 2011; accessed January 31, 2012; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/iloquery.htm.
4. Tulane University. Final Report: Oversight of Public and Private Initiatives to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor in the Cocoa Sector in Cote d'Ivoire and in Ghana . New Orleans, Payson Center for International Development and Technology Transfer; March 31, 2011. http://childlabor-payson.org/default.html.
5. Tulane University. Third Annual Report: Oversight of Public and Private Initiatives to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor in the Cocoa Sector in Cote d'Ivoire and in Ghana . New Orleans, Payson Center for International Development and Technology Transfer; September 30, 2009. http://childlabor-payson.org/default.html.
6. Thorson, DD. Children Working in Commercial Agriculture: Evidence from West and Central Africa. Briefing Paper n.2. New York, UNICEF; April 2012. http://www.sussex.ac.uk/anthropology/people/peoplelists/person/118526.
7. Save the Children. Ca-la c'est difficile: l'exploitation des enfants en Cote d'Ivoire. Abidjan; December 2009. http://resourcecentre.savethechildren.se/content/library/documents/%C3%A7-l%C3%A0-c%E2%80%99est-difficile-l%E2%80%99exploitation-du-travail-des-enfants-en-c%C3%B4te-d%E2%80%99ivoir.
9. Republique de Cote d'Ivoire Ministere d'Etat et Ministere de l'Emploi, dAS, et de la Formation Professional,, ILO, Cote d'Ivoire National Institute of Statistics. Etude des phénomènes de la traite et du travail des enfants dans les secteurs de l'agriculture, des mines, du transport, du commerce et du domestique ; 2013.
11. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed February 4, 2013]; http://www.uis.unesco.org/Pages/default.aspx?SPSLanguage=EN . Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.
12. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. February 5, 2013. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.
14. Tulane University. Fourth Annual Report: Oversight of Public and Private Initiatives to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor in the Cocoa Sector in Cote d'Ivoire and in Ghana . New Orleans, Payson Center for International Development and Technology Transfer; September 30, 2010. http://childlabor-payson.org/default.html.
16. Associated Press. "Child Labor Probed in Ivory Coast's Cocoa Fields " Phoenix, November 28, 2011. http://www.azcentral.com/arizonarepublic/news/articles/2011/11/28/20111128child-labor-probed-ivory-coasts-cocoa-fields.html.
17. ILO. Renforcement des capacités des Inspecteurs du Travail en matière d'intervention dans le secteur agricole : travail des enfants, santé et sécurité au travail et Système d'Observation et de Suivi du Travail des Enfants dans le secteur du cacao ; 2013 November.
19. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Côte d'Ivoire (ratification: 2003) Published: 2011 ; accessed January 31, 2012; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/iloquery.htm.
25. Integrated Regional Information Networks. "Cote d'Ivoire: Children Selling Sex, Having Babies." IRINnews.org [online] June 25, 2009 [cited March 25, 2013]; http://www.irinnews.org/PrintReport.aspx?ReportId=85009.
29. Government of Côte d'Ivoire: Direction Generale du Travail, ILO-IPEC, and Institut National de la Statistique. Enquete Nationale sur le Travail des Enfants. Abidjan; March 2008. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=9410.
31. Integrated Regional Information Networks. "Cote d'Ivoire: Children Exchange Sex for Money." IRINnews.org [online] June 12, 2009 [cited March 25, 2013]; http://www.irinnews.org/PrintReport.aspx?ReportId=84834.
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34. German Agency for Technical Cooperation. L'Exploitation Sexuelle des Enfants dans les Communes de Yopougon et d'Adjame - Project de Lutte contre la traite et les pires Formes de Travail des Enfants Côte d'Ivoire . Abidjan; June 2008.
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