2013 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor
In 2013, Colombia made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government expanded its social protection program, More Families in Action, increasing the number of beneficiary families from 2.6 million to 3 million. The Government updated its list of the prohibited worst forms of child labor and conducted 1,543 inspections to verify labor conditions for adolescents with permits to work. The Government investigated 144 new cases of recruitment of children by illegal, non-state armed groups and convicted six individuals for such crimes. The Government also established an inspection unit within the Ministry of Labor to combat child labor, restructured the National System of Family Well-Being to improve interagency coordination to protect children's rights, and began to participate in a 4-year, $9 million project to combat child labor and improve workplace health and safety in mining. However, children continue to be forcibly recruited by non-state armed groups and engage in child labor in agriculture and street work. Limited interagency coordination and inadequate resources hinder efforts to combat child labor, including child trafficking.
Children in Colombia are engaged in child labor, primarily in agricultural activities and street work.(1, 2) Children are also forcibly recruited by non-state armed groups.(3-7) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Colombia.
|Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):||5.9 (514,092)|
|Working children by sector, ages 5 to 14 (%)|
|School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):||93.2|
|Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):||5.9|
|Primary completion rate (%):||105.0|
Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2012, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2014 .(8)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from GEIH-MTI Survey, 20 12 .(9)
Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.
|Agriculture||Production of coffee,†sugarcane,†cotton,*†and rice*† (10-13)|
|Logging, activities unknown*† (10)|
|Industry||Mining clay to make bricks,*†coal,†emeralds,†gold,†gypsum,*†salt,*†and talc*† (14-16)|
|Services||Street work,*†including vending, performing, and begging (17-19)|
|Garbage scavenging*† (20, 21)|
|Domestic service† (19, 22)|
|Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡||Commercial sexual exploitation as a result of human trafficking*† (19, 23)|
|Used in the production of pornography† (23)|
|Domestic service and begging as a result of human trafficking*† (19)|
|Production of coca,†marijuana,*†and poppies*† (10, 19)|
|Recruitment, sometimes through force, of children into illegal non-state armed groups to grow coca; perform intelligence and logistical activities; store and transport weapons, explosives, and chemical precursors to process narcotics; and participate in armed conflict* (3-7)|
|Illegal sale of gasoline*† (10)|
*Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
†Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a) - (c) of ILO C. 182.
In April 2013, the Government released the results of the 2012 National Household Survey, which includes estimates of the number of working children in Colombia as described in Table 1.(2) However, the Government does not collect disaggregated survey information on health, occupational safety, and similar risks associated with particular activities. Neither does it collect data on the geographical areas and sectors where children work, particularly the priority sectors identified by the Government such as coffee, sugarcane, and tobacco. The Government also does not attempt to gather data on child labor in hard-to-reach populations, including street children or children involved in illicit activities such as involvement with illegal non-state armed groups, illegal mining, and drug trafficking.
Government estimates reported in credible media outlets state that, in the city of Cali, more than 60,000 children work on the streets and 1,000 are homeless and that, in the city of Medellín, more than 25,000 children are engaged in street work and 11,000 children live on the streets, due to domestic violence, poverty, unemployment, and displacement.(17, 18) A 2013 report by the ILO and the Ministry of Labor found that 20,000 children ages 10 to 17 are engaged in domestic service in third-party homes in Colombia. They can work up to 60 hours per week and sometimes are not paid or receive little remuneration. Few of these children attend school, and they generally lack health benefits.(24, 25)
The Government of Colombia and the Armed Revolutionary Forces of Colombia (FARC) began peace negotiations in 2012. However, the FARC continues to recruit children, including indigenous and Ecuadorian children, into its ranks; this practice has not been included in the negotiations agenda.(26-30) A 2013 report by the Prosecutor General's Office (PGO) documented 3,000 cases of children recruited by non-state groups during the last decade: 59 percent of them were recruited by the FARC.(31) Credible media outlets report that non-state armed groups use bullying as a strategy to recruit children from schools and use underage girls as couriers to collect extortion payments.(32-34)
In Colombia, children's access to education is complicated by the internal armed conflict, displacement, long distances, and sometimes impassable routes between their homes and schools in rural areas.(35-38) The UN has reported that some schools have been damaged or that their classes were suspended because of confrontations between illegal non-state armed forces and the Colombian Armed Forces (CAF), and that some school children have participated in educational and recreational activities carried out by the CAF in areas of armed conflict, which could potentially put these children at risk of retaliation by such non-state armed forces.(30) The 2012 National School Desertion Survey for children enrolled in primary and secondary education identified child labor as one of the primary causes of school desertion in the Caribbean and Pacific regions.(39)
Colombia has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).
|ILO C. 138, Minimum Age||✅|
|ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor||✅|
|UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict||✅|
|UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography||✅|
|Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons||✅|
The Government of Colombia has established relevant laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4).
|Minimum Age for Work||Yes||15||Article 35 of the Code for Children and Adolescents (40)|
|Minimum Age for Hazardous Work||Yes||18||Article 117 of the Code for Children and Adolescents (40)|
|List of Hazardous Occupations Prohibited for Children||Yes||Resolution 3597 of 2013 (41)|
|Prohibition of Forced Labor||Yes||Article 17 of the Constitution and Article 141 of the Penal Code (42)|
|Prohibition of Child Trafficking||Yes||Article 17 of the Constitution and Articles 188-188C of the Penal Code (42, 43)|
|Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children||Yes||Articles 209 and 213-219-B of the Penal Code (44)|
|Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities||Yes||Articles 162, 188D, and 344 of the Penal Code (43, 44)|
|Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment||Yes||18||Article 13 of Law 418 of 1997 and Article 2 of Law 548 of 1999 (45-47)|
|Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service||Yes||18||Article 13 of Law 418 of 1997and Article 2 of Law 548 of 1999 (45, 46)|
|Compulsory Education Age||Yes||18||C-376/10 of the Colombian Constitutional Court (48, 49)|
|Free Public Education||Yes||Article 1 of Decree 4807 of 2011 (49)|
In 2013, the Government of Colombia updated its list of the worst forms of child labor. This update specifically prohibits adolescents ages 15 to 17 from performing activities that pose physical, physiological, or occupational and safety risks; expose them to dangerous biological or chemical substances or psychological abuse; interfere with their education; and are unpaid or do not provide social security or other employment benefits.(41) The Government increased the fines for most labor law violations, including those involving child labor, from up to 100 times the minimum monthly wage to up to 5,000 times the minimum monthly wage. The Government also ratified ILO C. 189 concerning Decent Work for Domestic Workers.(50-52)
Colombian legislation relevant to the worst forms of child labor undergoes frequent changes. However, it is not clear whether those changes are effectively disseminated to the general public or relevant groups, including enforcement officials, employers, and civil society organizations.(53) The UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women reports that the Government has not adopted regulations to protect and assist victims of human trafficking, including child victims, under Law 985 of 2005.(54)
The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).
|Ministry of Labor (MOL)||Receive complaints of labor law violations and conduct labor inspections, including inspections to verify labor conditions for adolescent workers and compliance with other child labor provisions. Operate a child labor monitoring system independent of the labor inspection system that identifies children engaged in or at risk of child labor.(55)|
|Ministry of Interior (MOI)||Operate a hotline to report and track cases of human trafficking, coordinate investigations, and facilitate access to social services for victims.(56)|
|National Police (PNC)||Investigate cases of commercial sexual exploitation and human trafficking.(19, 55)|
|Colombian Institute for Family Well-Being (ICBF)||Receive complaints regarding child labor, operate hotlines to report cases of child labor and commercial sexual exploitation, and provide social services to children engaged in child labor or at risk of child labor. Operate 40 mobile units to coordinate government actions to protect children's rights, including with respect to child labor. Partner with civil society organizations to operate an Internet hotline to combat child commercial sexual exploitation and pornography.(57, 58)|
|Prosecutor General's Office (PGO)||Investigate cases of child recruitment for armed conflict, commercial sexual exploitation, and human trafficking.(40)|
|Office of the Ombudsman||Promote rights of children and adolescents and monitor policies related to children's human rights. Operate an early warning system to prevent the recruitment of children by non-state armed groups.(40)|
|Ministry of Health and Social Protection||Provide health services to victims of sexual violence, including child victims of commercial sexual exploitation and trafficking.(59)|
|National Training Center (SENA)||Responsible for collecting fines imposed by the MOL for labor law violations.(60)|
Law enforcement agencies in Colombia took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.
Labor Law Enforcement
In February 2014, the Ministry of Labor (MOL) issued Resolution 430 to establish an inspection unit to investigate cases of child labor and carry out activities to prevent child labor in coordination with the MOL's Fundamental Labor Rights Unit.(61) In 2013, the Government approved Law 1610, which clarifies the main responsibilities of the labor inspectorate system, including enforcing labor laws through inspections, identifying violations, imposing sanctions, and helping ensure that conciliation and mediation are used to resolve labor conflicts.(51) The National Training Center (SENA) issued Resolution 2126 to improve its ability to collect fines for labor law violations.(60, 62)
According to the MOL, there are 904 inspector positions, and 684 have been filled during the reporting period.(62, 63) In 2013, labor inspectors conducted 1,559 inspections in regard to child labor laws. Although the MOL did not provide complete information about these inspections, it reported that, as a result of these inspections, the MOL removed 84 children and adolescents from worksites that did not comply with labor laws and issued four sanctions for a total of more than $2,400.(64, 65) The MOL did not report whether these children and adolescents were referred to any social services. SENA also did not report whether fines were collected for these or any child labor infractions.(65)
In 2013, the MOL's Fundamental Labor Rights Unit identified more than 126,500 children who were working or were at risk of working through its monitoring system; 5,714 of them received services from the Colombian Institute for Family Well-Being (ICBF). (65) The ICBF reported that it received 5,988 child labor complaints directly; as a result of these complaints it provided social services to more than 1,700 children involved in child labor. Furthermore, ICBF provided services through its mobile units to more than 88,900 additional children, including children engaged in child labor.(58) Although the ICBF refers cases of apparent child labor violations to the MOL for further action, it is unclear whether the MOL conducts any follow up, including whether labor inspectors use this information to target their inspections.(58)
To combat child labor in the mining sector, the ICBF requires its regional offices to coordinate with the MOL's regional offices and other government agencies. It also requires its regional offices to collaborate with labor inspectors in the periodic inspections of mines and quarries, provide social services to children found working, and notify the relevant MOL authorities of any apparent child-labor infractions the ICBF identifies.(66) However, it is unclear whether such coordination occurs in practice.
During the reporting period, the MOL trained inspectors in a number of areas, including labor inspection procedures, child labor, and occupational health hazards.(55) It also partnered with the ILO to design a training program to strengthen the labor inspectorate. In 2013, 600 MOL inspectors participated in this training. This training was part of the activities carried out by the "Promoting Compliance with International Labor Standards" project in 2013 - a 4-year, $7.82 million USDOL-funded ILO project to help Colombia strengthen the institutional capacity of the MOL to enforce labor laws, improve protective measures for trade union leaders, and promote social dialogue.(67, 68) Despite these important efforts, the Government of Colombia also acknowledges that labor inspectors still lack the resources to fully carry out all their duties.(69)
Criminal Law Enforcement
In 2013, the ICBF received reports of 903 cases of child commercial sexual exploitation, including 263 cases of child pornography, through its hotline. In addition, it received more than 1,490 complaints related to sexual abuse, child pornography, and sexual exploitation through its Internet hotline.(55, 58) The ICBF assisted 228 children involved in commercial sexual exploitation, including 70 child victims of child pornography.(55, 58) The National Police (PNC) arrested 57 individuals for commercial sexual exploitation.(56) The Government did not report whether it had followed up on these 57 arrests. Moreover, no information is available about whether the Government carried out investigations, prosecutions, or convictions related to the commercial sexual exploitation of children.
During the reporting period, the Ministry of Interior (MOI) received more than 15,000 calls on its human trafficking hotline; 157 of these calls were forwarded to the PNC, 14 of which were investigated by the PNC and 18 by the PGO.(56) In addition, the PNC arrested 28 suspects for human trafficking in 15 anti-trafficking operations. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs identified 60 victims of international human trafficking, including five children.(70)
The PNC launched three investigations into human trafficking for the purpose of labor exploitation. The PGO opened 143 new human trafficking investigations, including 87 for sexual exploitation and 21 for labor exploitation.(56) Research could not determine whether these investigations were related to the investigations that resulted from the hotline calls. The PGO initiated 44 new human trafficking prosecutions that involved international trafficking, although it is unknown whether these involved labor or sex exploitation.(56) No information is available on whether these prosecutions are linked to the investigations mentioned above. In separate cases, the Government convicted and sentenced 12 individuals on human trafficking charges; their sentences ranged from 8 to 10 years in prison and they received fines of approximately $120,000.(56) Limited information is available about how many of these trafficking cases involved children. The Government has acknowledged that it lacks adequate resources to effectively conduct investigations and prosecutions of human trafficking cases.(69) Furthermore, the Government has limited resources to provide assistance to victims.(56)
The MOL and UNODC signed an agreement to combat human trafficking for the purpose of labor exploitation. Under this agreement, UNODC will carry out research to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for this crime and develop tools for labor inspectors to identify, address, and refer cases of human trafficking to the appropriate criminal authorities.(71) UNODC also signed an agreement with the MOI to strengthen its efforts to combat trafficking in persons. In November 2013, UNODC rolled out an online training tool for labor inspectors, which will be used in 15 MOL regional offices throughout the country.(72, 73) In addition, the PGO has appointed a special prosecutor to focus on internal human trafficking cases that involve the use of children for illegal activities, including child trafficking, in the Bogotá region.(56)
The Ministry of Defense, in partnership with UNICEF, trained members of the Armed Forces on children's rights. As of April 2014, 25 Training Battalions have received training.(74) Between January and November 2013, the Government investigated 144 new cases of child recruitment by illegal, non-state armed groups, convicted six individuals for recruiting these children, and separated 342 children from these groups.(58, 75)
The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).
|Coordinating Body||Role & Description|
|National System of Family Well-Being†||Promote interagency coordination to protect children's rights, including related to child labor. Design, implement, monitor, and evaluate policies that affect children from early childhood to adolescence.(76)|
|Interagency Committee for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor||Coordinate efforts to combat the worst forms of child labor. Chaired by the MOL, includes 13 government agencies and representatives from trade unions, business associations, and civil society organizations.(77)|
|National Interagency Committee for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation||Direct efforts to combat the commercial sexual exploitation of children. Coordinated by the MOL, includes 11 government agencies and representatives from business associations, trade unions, and civil society organizations.(78, 79)|
|Interagency Committee to Combat Trafficking in Persons||Lead efforts to combat human trafficking. Chaired by the MOI, includes 14 government agencies.(80)|
|Interagency Committee for the Prevention of the Recruitment and Use of Children by Illegal Armed Groups||Coordinate efforts to prevent child recruitment by non-state armed groups, including for purposes of sexual exploitation. Led by the Office of the Vice President and composed of more than 21 government agencies.(81, 82)|
|Office of the Inspector General (OIG)||Monitor the implementation of child labor laws and policies, including the National Strategy to Eradicate the Worst Forms of Child Labor.(40)|
†Coordinating mechanism created during the reporting period.
In 2013, the Government of Colombia restructured the National System of Family Well-Being to improve coordination of actions to protect children's rights at the national, departmental, and local levels. The National System comprises more than 36 national government agencies, including the MOL.(76)
Despite these efforts, it is not clear how effectively these interagency mechanisms coordinate activities and exchange information. Local authorities and international organizations have cited lack of coordination as one of the main obstacles to addressing child labor and human trafficking.(18, 56)
The Government of Colombia has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).
|National Strategy to Eradicate the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2008-2015)||Lays out Colombia's strategy to combat the worst forms of child labor. Government established nine priority sectors: coffee, tobacco, sugarcane, mining, street work, garbage scavenging, illegal sale of gasoline, commercial sexual exploitation, and recruitment of children by non-state armed groups.(77, 83)|
|National Strategy to Combat Trafficking in Persons (2008-2012)||Guides efforts to combat human trafficking, including the trafficking of children.(55) In 2013, developed a new strategy to combat trafficking and to protect victims' rights through prevention, protection, assistance, and law enforcement efforts. However, it has not yet been approved.(84)|
|National Policy to Prevent the Recruitment of Children and Adolescents by Illegal Armed Groups||Directs actions to prevent the recruitment and use of children by non-state armed groups. Calls for the Government to develop strategies to protect children from recruitment in areas of conflict, address violence against children (including sexual violence and child labor), and improve interagency coordination.(85)|
|National Development Plan (2010-2014)||Outlines Colombia's strategy to promote economic growth and social inclusion. Includes the goal of reducing the number of working children by 35 percent (from 1, 768,153 to 1,149,300). (86)|
|10-Year National Plan for Children and Adolescents (2009-2019)||Encompasses actions to increase children's access to social services from prenatal stage to 18 years of age. Seeks to reduce the number of children who are engaged in child labor.(87)|
|National Strategy to End Extreme Poverty||Seeks to lift 1.4 million people out of extreme poverty by 2014 and includes combating child labor as a goal.(88, 89)|
†Policy was launched during the reporting period.
In 2013, the Government trained 2,700 public servants to implement the National Strategy to Eradicate the Worst Forms of Child Labor, and the MOL helped establish 100 interagency committees to combat child labor at the departmental and municipal levels, expanding the number of committees from 335 to 435.(55) However, a 2012 report by the Office of the Inspector General on the implementation of the National Strategy to Eradicate the Worst Forms of Child Labor indicates that some of the country's provinces and main cities have neither fully implemented the Strategy nor allocated funding for child labor initiatives.(90) Furthermore, the Government has not carried out programs in some of the priority sectors such as coffee, tobacco, sugarcane, garbage scavenging, and the illegal sale of gasoline. Although the National Action Plan to Prevent and Eradicate the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children ended in 2011 and the Government continued to carry out actions to combat this crime, the Government has not yet approved a new National Action Plan.(56, 91)
In November 2013, the Government hosted the XVIII Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor to foster continued dialogue and cooperation on labor issues throughout the Americas. The joint declaration of the Conference promotes social dialogue to address child labor and reaffirms governmental commitment to work with civil society organizations to advance efforts toward the eradication of child labor.(92)
In 2013, the Government of Colombia funded or participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating and preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).
|More Families in Action (Más Familias en Acción)‡||Seeks to combat poverty and build human capital through conditional cash transfers. Implements specific strategies to prevent child labor in mining and fight teen pregnancy, supports poor families with disabled members, and improves child nutrition.(93) In 2013, increased the number of beneficiaries from 2.6 million to 3.0 million families and began to implement its strategy to prevent child labor in six mining communities in the Departments of Antioquia and Bolívar.(94, 95)|
|United Network program (Red Juntos)‡||Promotes coordinated actions to reduce inequality and end extreme poverty, including through access to education, health, and job training. In 2013, benefited more than 1.4 million families and signed an agreement with Telefónica Foundation to prevent child labor in eight cities.(89)|
|Healthy Generations (Generaciones con Bienestar)‡||Promotes and protects children's rights by offering cultural and recreational activities to children ages 6 to 17 identified as vulnerable to child labor and recruitment by non-state armed groups. In 2013, benefited more than 200,000 children in 32 departments.(95)|
|Thriving Cities for Children and Adolescents (Ciudades Prósperas)‡||Seeks to prevent child labor, including child commercial sexual exploitation, and the recruitment of children by non-state armed groups. In 2013, 24 cities developed action plans to implement this program.(95, 96)|
|Youth in Action (Jóvenes en Acción)‡||Provides technical job training opportunities and conditional cash transfers to vulnerable urban youth ages 16 to 24. In 2013, benefited more than 80,000 youth.(95)|
|We are a Treasure (Somos Tesoro Project)†||$9 million USDOL-funded, 4-year project to combat child labor and promote safe work in the mining sector, implemented by Pact, Inc., in partnership with the Alliance for Responsible Mining, Mi Sangre Foundation, and Fund for Environmental Action and Childhood. Works with the Government of Colombia to (1) strengthen national policies to combat child labor in the mining sector, (2) improve governmental capacity to identify and address violations of child labor and occupational safety and health laws in the sector, and (3) provide education and livelihood opportunities for households vulnerable to child labor in mining communities in the departments of Antioquia and Boyacá.(97)|
|National child labor survey‡||Annual national household survey that includes questions on child labor.(2)|
|Decent Work Program‡||$984,000 Colombia-funded project to promote decent work, including combating child labor, and social dialogue implemented by the ILO. In 2013, the Department of Caquetá approved its decent work agenda that includes designing, implementing, and funding initiatives to combat child labor.(98, 99)|
|Education assistance‡||In 2013, the Government increased funds for education by 9.1 percent, from $12.21 million to $13.32 million.(100)|
|School Meals Program (Programa de Alimentación Escolar [PAE])‡||Provides meals to more than 4 million school children to increase school retention. In 2013, signed agreements with local governments to improve program implementation.(101, 102)|
|Fund to Assist Children and After-School programs (Foniñez)‡||Offers afterschool programs for children, including children engaged in child labor. In 2013, more than 3.6 million children participated in the programs.(103)|
|I Have Rights (Yo Tengo Derechos)†||Carries out actions to combat child labor in the Department of Atlántico by raising awareness, actively searching for children who work or are at risk of working, and strengthening interagency coordination through a one-stop center to handle child labor cases.(104)|
†Program was launched during the reporting period.
‡Program is funded by the Government of Colombia.
Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Colombia (Table 9).
|Area||Suggested Action||Year(s) Suggested|
|Laws||Provide up-to-date information about changes in child labor laws to the general public and relevant groups, including enforcement officials, employers, and civil society organizations.||2009 - 2013|
|Adopt regulations to protect and provide services to victims of human trafficking under Law 985 of 2005, including children.||2013|
|Enforcement||Strengthen monitoring and enforcement of child labor-related laws, including by:
||2009 - 2013|
|Coordination||Strengthen mechanisms to enhance interagency coordination and exchange of information, including by: · Developing a monitoring tool to track actions taken by members of coordinating bodies. · Making information publicly available about activities carried out by coordinating bodies. · Encouraging the exchange of information among coordinating bodies at the national and local levels.||2012 - 2013|
|Government Policies||Encourage municipalities and provinces-including through financial and technical assistance incentives-to implement the National Strategy to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor, with a focus on identified priority sectors.||2010 - 2013|
|Develop a new policy to combat commercial sexual exploitation of children.||2013|
|Social Programs||Carry out initiatives to combat child labor, with a focus on identified priority sectors.||2012 - 2013|
|Ensure that all children identified by the MOL through inspections and its child labor monitoring system receive appropriate social services.||2012 - 2013|
|Expand efforts to improve access to education, particularly in rural areas and in the Caribbean and Pacific regions.||2013|
|Ensure that children are protected from the internal armed conflict while in school.||2013|
|Collect more disaggregated survey information about activities in which children work-including information about health, occupational safety, and other risks-as well as about geographical areas and sectors where children work, particularly in priority sectors.||2010 - 2013|
|Conduct studies on the worst forms of child labor about which information is presently lacking, such as street work, recruitment of children by illegal armed groups, and children's involvement in other illicit activities including human trafficking, illegal mining, and drug trafficking.||2009 - 2013|
1. National Department of Statistics. Boletín de Prensa: Encuesta Nacional de Trabajo Infantil. Press Release. Bogota; August 23, 2012. http://www.dane.gov.co/files/investigaciones/boletines/ech/jobinfantil/bol_trabinf_2011.pdf.
8. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed February 10, 2014]; http://www.uis.unesco.org/Pages/default.aspx?SPSLanguage=EN . Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.
9. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from GEIH-MTI, 2012. Analysis received February 13, 2014. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.
10. ILO-IPEC. Trabajo Infantil Indígena en Colombia: Una síntesis de las miradas sobre el problema desde las comunidades indígenas, los académicos y las instituciones. Geneva, IPEC South America; 2010. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=15555.
12. Salcedo P. "En Colombia trabajan más de un millón de niños." latarde.com [online] June 12, 2011 [cited March 7, 2014]; http://www.latarde.com/historico/43274-en-colombia-trabajan-mas-de-un-millon-de-ninos.html.
13. Recrear Palmira. Levantamiento de la Línea de Base de Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes, trabajadores en Agricultura, en los corregimientos de Naranjal y Primavera del Municipio de Bolívar - Valle. Palmira; May 15, 2008.
14. Author. Cerca de 16 mil niños trabajan en minería en Colombia, teleSUR video. Bogota: TeleSUR; September 24, , 2011; 02 min., 23 sec., online video; [cited March 07, 2014]; http://bit.ly/y58C1T.
18. "Niños que trabajan en las calles de Cali siguen siendo un problema preocupante." El País, Cali, Colombia, August 24, 2012; Cali. http://www.elpais.com.co/elpais/cali/noticias/ninos-trabajan-calles-cali-siguen-siendo-problema-preocupante.
19. UNODC. Estudio Nacional Exploratorio Descriptivo sobre el Fenómeno de Trata de Personas en Colombia. Vienna; February 2009. http://www.tratadepersonas.gov.co/files/estudio-nacional-sobre-la-trata.pdf.
20. RCN La Radio. "En Bogotá hay unos 9 mil niños recicladores." mineducation.gov.co [online] December 23, 2010 [cited January 9, 2013]; http://www.mineducacion.gov.co/observatorio/1722/article-259486.html.
21. Colombian Ministry of Education. Comunicado de la Alcaldía Mayor de Riohacha y el Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar- ICBF respecto a la Conmemoración del Día Mundial Contra el Trabajo Infantil, Colombian Ministry of Education, [online] June 10, 2011 [cited March 10, 2014]; http://www.mineducacion.gov.co/cvn/1665/w3-article-273873.html.
22. Los niños que trabajan en las calles [Youtube Video]. Colombia: Universidad Autónoma de Occidente; November 16, 2012, 11 min., 40 sec., [accessed March 07, 2014] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MFJJyAebpNg.
24. Nuevo Siglo. Reafirman compromiso contra trabajo infantil, Colombian Ministry of Labor, [online] June 12, 2013 [cited February 05, 2014]; http://www.mintrabajo.gov.co/medios-junio-2012.html?start=20.
28. Monroy JC. "Reclutamiento de menores no da tregua en Colombia." El Colombiano, Medellin, February 12, 2014; Inicio. http://bit.ly/1n3hqdb.
30. UN Secretary-General. Children and Armed Conflict: Report of the Secretary-General,. E-mail communication to; May 15, 2014 May 21,. http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=a/68/878.
31. Laverde JD. "Unos 3.000 niños reclutaron las Farc." El Espectador, Bogota, September 15, 2013; Noticias. http://www.elespectador.com/noticias/judicial/unos-3000-ninos-reclutaron-farc-articulo-446581.
32. El Espectador. "Matoneo escolar en Bogotá terminó en reclutamiento de 'bacrim'." El Espectador, Bogota, February 1, 2014; Bogota. http://www.elespectador.com/noticias/bogota/matoneo-escolar-bogota-termino-reclutamiento-de-bacrim-articulo-472257.
33. Malaver C. "Mediante matoneo, obligan a jóvenes de colegios a unirse a bandas." El Tiempo, Bogota, February 4, 2014 2014. http://www.eltiempo.com/colombia/bogota/jovenes-son-obligados-a-unirse-a-bandas-con-matoneo_13428238-4.
36. Corporación Colombia Digital. Evento de socialización de actores claves para promover las iniciativas del programa de permanencia escolar y en particular mostrar las experiencias del trabajo en campo del proyecto de apropiación y uso del sistema de información para el monitoreo, la prevención y el análisis de la deserción escolar SIMPADE, Corporación Colombia Digital, [online] December 6, 2012 [cited March 7, 2014]; http://bit.ly/ZRhuAi.
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47. Colombian General Command of the Armed Forces. Directiva Permanente 048, February 28, 2008. In: Directrices del Comando General de las Fuerzas Militares sobre Derechos humanos y DIH en Colombia. Bogota; July 2008; http://bit.ly/RJY4d6.
54. UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Articl 18 of the Convention: Concluding Observations on the Combined Seventh and Eighth Periodic Reports: Colombia; October 29, 2013. http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=CEDAW/C/COL/7.
57. ICBF. ICBF ha atendido a 605 niños, niñas y adolescentes trabajadores en 2013, Government of Columbia, [online] June 12, 2013 [cited February 05, 2014]; http://www.icbf.gov.co/portal/page/portal/Descargas1/Prensa1/Com_TrabajoInf_EdAF_100612.pdf.
71. Colombian Ministry of Labor. MinTrabajo presenta convenio con la Oficina de las Naciones Unidas Contra la Droga y el Delito - UNODC, para prevenir y erradicar la trata de personas con fines de explotación laboral en Colombia, Colombian Ministry of Labor, [online] February 5, 2013 [cited April 16, 2014]; http://bit.ly/Y26USy.
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77. Interagency Committee for the Elimination of Child Labor and the Protection of Young Workers. Estrategia Nacional para Prevenir y Erradicar las Peores Formas de Trabajo Infantil y Proteger al Joven Trabajador - 2008-2015. Bogota; January 2008. http://white.oit.org.pe/ipec/documentos/estrategia_ti_colombia.pdf.
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96. Maza RM. "ICBF lanzará programa "Ciudades Prósperas"." El Universal, Cartagena, March 28, 2012; Cartagena. http://bit.ly/HffQ3l.
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102. Government of Colombia. Desde este jueves, Gobierno girará 430 mil millones de pesos adicionales para invertir en la primera infancia, Government of Colombia, [online] April 24, 2013 [cited March 07, 2014]; http://wsp.presidencia.gov.co/cepri/noticias/2013/abril/Paginas/20130425_02.aspx.
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