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Burkina Faso

2014 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Moderate Advancement

In 2014, Burkina Faso made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government published a study on hazardous child labor in order to update existing legislation and established the National Coordination Committee for the National Action Plan on the Fight against the Worst Forms of Child Labor. The Government also adopted Law N° 011-2014/AN Suppressing the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, which strengthens existing prohibitions on commercial sexual exploitation of children and child pornography. However, children in Burkina Faso are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture, and in the worst forms of child labor, including in mining. Limited resources for the systematic enforcement of child labor laws impede government efforts to protect children from the worst forms of child labor and the lack of funding has hampered the implementation of child labor policies. Despite an uprising in October that ousted longtime President Blaise Compaoré, the Government continued to address child labor issues.

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I. Prevalence and Sectoral Distribution of Child Labor

Children in Burkina Faso are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture. Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in mining.(1-10) According to a National Survey on Child Labor in Burkina Faso conducted in 2006, 47.7 percent of boys and 43 percent of girls ages 5 to 17 are engaged in child labor. Child labor is more prevalent in rural areas, with 44.1 percent of children engaged in child labor.(11) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Burkina Faso.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

42.1 (2,116,752)

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

41.9

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

21.7

Primary completion rate (%):

57.6

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2012, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(12)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Enquête Démographique et de Santé et à Indicateurs Multiples, 2010.(13)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Planting,* weeding,* and exposure to pesticides† in the harvesting of crops, including cotton (1-7, 9)

Harvesting mangos* (8)

Raising and herding livestock, including cattle* and goats* (2, 3, 6, 10)

Industry

Digging and crushing rock,* installing dynamite,† working underground,† carrying water and other heavy loads,† and using cyanide and mercury† to process ore in gold mines† (1-4, 9, 14-26)

Quarrying† and transporting heavy loads† while working to extract granite* (17, 21, 24, 27-30)

Construction*(10)

Services

Domestic work (2, 3, 5, 7, 21, 30-34)

Street work, including vending and begging (2, 3, 7, 10, 35, 36)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Used in illicit activities,* including drug trafficking* (24, 37)

Forced labor in livestock herding* (6)

Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (2, 3, 10, 18, 22, 30, 38, 39)

Agricultural work,* including cotton production and livestock raising,* domestic work, begging, gold mining, and work in quarries,* each as a result of human trafficking (3, 4, 6, 7, 10, 21, 31, 35, 36, 39-42)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a) — (c) of ILO C. 182.

Burkina Faso is a destination, transit point, and source for child trafficking.(3, 35, 39, 42, 43) Human traffickers sometimes pose as Koranic school teachers, who force their students to beg in the streets and take the money the boys collect.(3, 7, 21, 35-37, 39, 40) The Government acknowledged the need for a national study on child prostitution in order to better understand the issue and incorporate it into the National Action Plan on the Fight against the Worst Forms of Child Labor.(42) Additionally, a recent boom in gold mining has contributed to the increase of child labor in this sector, and additional children are leaving school to work in gold mines.(6, 9, 16, 37, 44-47)

Although Law N° 013-2007/AN Orienting the Education System mandates free education until the age of 16, students are required to pay for uniforms and school-related fees.(2, 10, 30, 48) The shortage of teachers and lack of school infrastructure in rural areas hinders children's access to education.(4, 30, 48) Birth registration is also required for enrollment, which could prevent some children from entering school since about a quarter of children do not have a birth certificate.(49-52) At school, students may suffer physical and sexual abuse from their teachers, particularly in rural areas, or they may be required to carry out household chores for teachers. This may discourage some children from attending school or reduce the time children can dedicate to learning.(53) Although the Government is working to provide education to children within refugee camps, due to the lack of resources, many refugee children do not have access to education.(54, 55)

On October 31, 2014, President Blaise Compaoré stepped down from power after protests erupted in response to his attempt to amend the Constitution to allow for another term as president.(56, 57) An interim president was declared two weeks later.(58, 59) This shift in power and subsequent transition may have impacted the Government's ability to address child labor during the last quarter of 2014, as many government officials were replaced.



II. Legal Framework for the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Burkina Faso has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 152 of the Labor Code (60)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 149 and 150 of the Labor Code; Article 1 of Decree N° 2009-365/PRES/PM/MTSS/MS/ MASSN Hazardous Work List (60)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations and/or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Article 153 of the Labor Code; Decree N° 2009-365/PRES/PM/MTSS/MS/MASSN Hazardous Work List (60, 61)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 5 and 154 of the Labor Code; Articles 3-5 of Law N° 011-2014/AN Suppressing the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography (60, 62)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 153 of the Labor Code; Article 5 of Law N° 029-2008/AN on Combatting Trafficking of Persons and Similar Practices (60, 63)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 153 of the Labor Code; Articles 3-4 and 7-10 of Law N° 011-2014/AN Suppressing the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography (60, 62)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 153 of the Labor Code (60)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

20

Decree N° 2013-358/PRES/PM/MDNAC (64)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Article 4 of Law N° 013-2007/AN Orienting the Education System (65)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 6 of Law N° 013-2007/AN Orienting the Education System (65)

* No conscription.(66)

Article 153 of the Labor Code mandates the Hazardous Work List is issued by ministerial decree in consultation with employers' and workers' organizations, as well as the National Council on Workplace Safety and Health.(60) During the reporting period, the Ministry of Civil Service, Labor, and Social Security (MFPTSS) published a study on hazardous child labor in order to update existing legislation and identified several additions.(2, 9)

On April 17, the Government adopted Law N° 011-2014/AN Suppressing the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, which strengthens existing prohibitions on commercial sexual exploitation of children and child pornography. Penalties include imprisonment of 5 to 10 years and fines between $2,700 and $5,400, with penalties doubling for repeat offenders.(2, 42, 62) Additionally, the Government drafted new mining regulations prior to the uprising in October, but the mining industry is trying to postpone revising the mining code until after a new government is in place.(4, 67) The new mining regulations would regulate artisanal mines and could provide additional protection to children working in gold mines and granite quarries.(4) The Government also drafted a comprehensive Child Protection Law, which combined elements from several laws, including the Penal Code and Labor Code. However, no action has been taken since the previous government was dissolved.(2)



III. Enforcement of Laws on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Civil Service, Labor, and Social Security (MFPTSS)

Enforce labor laws, including child labor laws.(2, 68, 69) Responsible for establishing Government policy to combat child labor, including its worst forms.(37) In the case of provincial committees, responsible for awareness raising, conducting workshops for community members, and enforcement at the local level.(43, 70)

Ministry of Social Action and National Solidarity's (MASSN) Directorate for Child Protection and Efforts Against Violence Toward Children

Enforce laws against child trafficking and other worst forms of child labor, remove children from exploitative child labor, and provide reintegration services. (2, 69, 71) Operate a free hotline to report child abuse, including child labor, and conduct awareness raising activities in all 13 regions of Burkina Faso.(2, 10, 24, 72) Established civil registry offices in maternity wards to register newborn babies.(72, 73)

Ministry of Territorial Administration, Decentralization and Security (MATDS)

Enforce criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor, including investigations into the commercial sexual exploitation of children, child trafficking, child labor, and drug-related crimes.(74) In the case of the Morals Brigade within the MTADS's National Police Force, trained to deal with criminal cases involving children and women.(38)

Ministry of Justice

Enforce and prosecute criminal laws, including laws related to the worst forms of child labor.(74)

Parliamentary Network for the Promotion of Child Rights

Provide training for government officials on children's rights, including child labor laws and other issues affecting children.(4, 75, 76)

Law enforcement agencies in Burkina Faso took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2014, the MFPTSS employed 149 labor inspectors throughout the country.(69) Although there are new inspectors being trained, the number of inspectors is lower than the 291 employed in 2014 and is insufficient to adequately monitor child labor issues.(2, 3, 37, 69) The Government provides extensive training to new labor inspectors, including a module on child labor. However, the Government acknowledges that training is insufficient and the number of inspectors who benefit from available training is limited.(69, 77) The MFPTSS did not receive funds specifically dedicated to the enforcement of child labor laws, and inspectors noted the funding level was insufficient to effectively carry out labor inspections throughout the country, particularly in artisanal mining. Research indicates that transportation is particularly challenging and there is only one vehicle in each of the regions, which is used for the Regional Director's travel as well as labor inspections.(3, 37, 69, 78) Labor inspectors staged a sit-in in June and a 2-day strike in September to protest working conditions and called on the Government to fulfil Article 392 of the Labor Code which stipulates that the Government must provide all personnel and equipment necessary for inspectors to accomplish their jobs.(2) Negotiations were stalled by the change in government and no agreement has been reached yet.(79)

Inspectors carried out unannounced visits in the informal sector, artisanal gold mines, and cotton fields in accordance with Article 397 of the Labor Code.(2, 60, 69) Inspections typically consist of planned site visits where inspectors assess compliance with labor standards and educate workers and employers on existing labor laws. Inspection teams are formed with language ability in mind since the majority of workers speak a local language rather than French.(2, 69) Inspectors are authorized to assess penalties according to Article 396 of the Labor Code.(2, 60) However, no penalties to employers have been applied to date since most children are self-employed and the MFPTSS notes that it is difficult for inspectors to follow up after inspections to ensure recommendations have been implemented.(2, 68, 78, 80) The MFPTSS publishes an annual report listing 12 types of labor infractions, but none are related to child labor. The number of investigations conducted, prosecutions, violations found, and citations issued in 2014 is not publically available.(2) It is unknown how many complaints related to child labor were made to Ministry of Social Action and National Solidarity's (MASSN) hotline.

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2014, the Government employed 265 inspectors who worked with police officers to enforce criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor. However, this number is insufficient given the scope of the problem in Burkina Faso.(2, 69) The Government provided training for 200 police officers, social workers, judges, teachers, labor inspectors, traditional leaders, and religious leaders on issues related to human trafficking. Training modules included how to identify and provide assistance to victims, as well as investigation procedures and prosecution of human trafficking crimes.(42) Investigations are often conducted with social service agencies, which allows them to intervene directly on behalf of victims of exploitative child labor.(2, 69) Many provincial committees, which assist with criminal law enforcement and awareness raising at the local level, were unable to carry out all their planned activities due to a lack of resources.(70)

At least two Burkinabé women were arrested in neighboring countries for allegedly participating in a child trafficking ring and the Government is negotiating their extradition to Burkina Faso. MASSN identified 280 victims of child trafficking during the reporting period and referred all of the children to social service providers.(42) No statistics are available on the total number of prosecutions, convictions, or penalties assessed as a result of violations of child labor laws.(2)



IV. Coordination of Government Efforts on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Coordination Committee for the National Action Plan on the Fight against the Worst Forms of Child Labor (CNC-PAN/PFTE)

Supervise, evaluate and oversee implementation of the National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Chaired by the MFPTSS's Directorate to Combat Child Labor and its Worst Forms.(2, 69) Includes representatives from 24 Government ministries, including the Ministries of Justice, MASSN, MTADS, Basic Education, Mines, Human Rights, and Health.(68, 74) Also includes NGOs, religious communities, the children's parliament, civil society organizations, as well as six observers representing donor countries and international NGOs.(2) Meets twice per year to review efforts to combat child labor and identify needs.(37, 69)

MFPTSS's Directorate to Combat Child Labor and its Worst Forms

Coordinate and lead interagency efforts to combat child labor, including its worst forms; collect information on child labor; and conduct awareness raising activities.(68, 78) Serve as the Secretariat for the CNC‑PAN/PFTE.(68, 74)

National Committee for Vigilance and Surveillance Against the Trafficking in Persons and Assimilated Practices (CVS)

Coordinate actions to combat the worst forms of child labor, including human trafficking, at the national level. Oversees Committees for Vigilance and Surveillance in each of the regions.(24, 42, 43) The MASSN serves as president and the MTADS is the vice president.(42, 72) Includes representatives from MFPTSS, the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of Women and Gender, as well as NGOs.(42)

The Government issued a decree in January 2014 to improve the coordination of the National Coordination Committee for the National Action Plan on the Fight against the Worst Forms of Child Labor (CNC-PAN/PFTE). During the reporting period, the CNC-PAN/PFTE focused on how to make the best use of existing data on child labor in Burkina Faso and developed a monitoring tool to aid in the implementation of the National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor.(2)

The National Committee for Vigilance and Surveillance Against the Trafficking in Persons and Assimilated Practices (CVS) received a budget of approximately $12,000 in 2014.(42) Although the CVS was unable to meet due to a lack of resources, its regional committees each met once and brought together police officers, social workers, NGOs, and other groups combatting human trafficking to discuss the current situation in Burkina Faso.(42, 79) A lack of computerized record keeping and limited ability to collect data from regional committees and NGOs working in the field pose challenges to the Government's efforts to combat child trafficking.(42)



V. Government Policies on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government of Burkina Faso has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).

Table 7. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2012-2015)

Based on the Strategy for Accelerated Growth and Sustainable Development, aims to prevent and protect children from the worst forms of child labor through awareness raising, data collection, rehabilitation services, increased access to education, and better law enforcement.(68) Calls for the involvement of 11 ministries, particularly MASSN and MFPTSS, to reduce exploitative child labor significantly by 2015.(37, 81) Promotes education, particularly for girls, through school feeding programs, school material distribution, and scholarships.(74)

ECOWAS Regional Action Plan on Child Labor (2012-2015)

With 14 other ECOWAS countries, implements a regional action plan on child labor, especially its worst forms. Aims to eliminate worst forms of child labor in West Africa by 2015.(34, 82, 83) In 2014, met to discuss actions taken since Ghana's 2013 Peer Review, progress of the Regional Action Plan's implementation, and the ILO's Study on Child Labor and Marginalization.(84)

Strategy for Accelerated Growth and Sustainable Development (2011-2015)*

Encompasses all development activities with a focus on the promotion of social protections, poverty reduction through economic growth, maternal and child health, and primary education for all.(37, 85) Also implements price controls on food.(37)

Bilateral Agreements to Combat Child Trafficking

Agreements between Burkina Faso, Mali, and Côte d'Ivoire that call for increased cooperation against cross-border trafficking in persons.(3, 24, 73, 86-88) The Government has established monitoring committees to review aspects of the agreement with Mali and Côte d'Ivoire.(79) Burkina Faso's National Training Institute of Social Workers partners with its counterpart in Chad to share experiences and best practices in combatting human trafficking.(42)

Treaty of Amity and Cooperation†

Framework for economic cooperation between Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso. Includes agreements to prevent the exploitation of children in artisanal gold mines and renewed commitments to combat child trafficking between the two countries.(88) Includes annual meetings to reaffirm the commitment and address issues requiring cooperation.(88)

Decent Work Country Program (2012-2015)

Promotes decent work with a focus on creating job opportunities for youth and promoting social protection. Incorporates child labor concerns into the strategy for work.(89)

Ministry of Youth, Vocational Training, and Employment's Action Plan (2012-2014)*

Calls for the construction of 45 vocational training centers and a central vocational training center for each region.(90)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.
† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

Following his fall from power, former President of Burkina Faso Blaise Compaoré has been living in Côte d'Ivoire, which has strained relations with the transitional Government of Burkina Faso. As a result, the monitoring committee established to review the agreement between Burkina Faso and Côte d'Ivoire has not met.(79)



VI. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

In 2014, the Government of Burkina Faso funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms. The Government has other programs that may have an impact on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Reducing Child Labor Through Education and Services
(2012-2016)

$5 million USDOL-funded, 4-year project implemented by Counterpart International that targets 10,000 children engaged in or at risk of entering child labor in the production of cotton and in gold mining.(91, 92) Aims to increase access to education, social protection, and training programs. Also targets 1,000 households of child beneficiaries with livelihood services.(91, 92)

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues (2011-2016)

$15 million USDOL-funded 6-year project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016 established by the Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to build the capacity of the national government and develop strategic policies to address the elimination of child labor and forced labor.(93)

Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce Child Labor II (CLEAR II)†

USDOL-funded capacity building project implemented by Winrock International and partners Verité and Lawyers Without Borders in at least eight countries to build local and national capacity of the Government to address child labor. Aims to improve legislation addressing child labor issues, including by bringing local or national laws into compliance with international standards; improve monitoring and enforcement of laws and policies related to child labor; develop, validate, adopt, and implement] a National Action Plan on the elimination of child labor; and enhance the implementation of national and local policies and programs aimed at the reduction and prevention of child labor.(94)

Eliminating the Worst Forms of Child Labor in West Africa and Strengthening Sub-Regional Cooperation Through ECOWAS I & II

USDOL-funded regional projects that supported ECOWAS to strengthen its role in combating the worst forms of child labor in the West Africasub-region by providing policy and capacity building support for all ECOWAS states.(95, 96)

Quarrying and Mining Child Labor Project

UNICEF-funded project implemented in five regions by Terre des Hommes and the Government of Burkina Faso.(24, 68) Aims to eliminate the worst forms of child labor in quarries and mines by raising awareness and providing school materials to children to encourage student retention.(97, 98) Also provides vocation training to youth and income-generating activities and nursery schools for female-headed households.(4, 26, 34, 97, 98).

Transit Centers‡

Government program that operates 23 transit centers serving vulnerable children, some of whom were victims of human trafficking.(42, 73) Provides food, medical assistance, and psychosocial care and aims to reintegrate victims back into their communities. Facilitates repatriation of foreign victims when possible.(24, 42, 71)

Assistance to Vulnerable Groups‡

MASSN -funded program that provides services to vulnerable groups, especially women and children, in the prevention of human trafficking and recidivism. In 2014, provided 130 victims of child trafficking with nine-month scholarships to professional training centers.(42)

Awareness Raising Campaigns‡

MASSN-funded program that conducts nationwide campaigns to combat human trafficking by providing information and education. In 2014, MASSN hosted awareness sessions in 15 border provinces; held 120 discussion sessions; and provided 240 targeted police patrols in the most vulnerable areas.(42)

UN World Food Country Program (2011-2015)*

UN-funded program that promotes primary education and food security. Aims to reach 560,000 beneficiaries annually.(99)

National Council for the Prevention of Violence at Schools*

Oversees Government efforts to combat violence and abuse in schools.(2)

Child Friendly Schools*

UNICEF-funded pilot project in Ganzourgou and Namentenga provinces that constructs or converts existing schools into student-centered institutions. Provides quality education, school kits, water and sanitation facilities, and mobilizes communities in support of schools.(4, 43, 100-102) Provides teacher training on children's rights, child-friendly pedagogy, and development of extracurricular activities.(19, 101)

National Strategy on Civil Registration (2012-2016)*

Aims to achieve universal birth registration by creating information and registration centers.(2, 30) From March to June 2014, MTADS ran a campaign to provide birth certificates. Although aimed at potential voters, the campaign was open to every citizen.(42)

Resilience in the Sahel-Enhanced
(2014-2019)†

USAID-funded, 5-year project to increase food security and improve livelihoods in Niger and Burkina Faso. UNICEF provided $130 million for the first two years of implementation and will provide an additional $85 million was provided to address food insecurity in Chad, Senegal, Mauritania, and Mali.(103, 104)

* The impact of this program on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
† Program was launched during the reporting period.
‡ Program is funded by the Government of Burkina Faso.

Although Burkina Faso has social programs to address the worst forms of child labor in the production of cotton and in gold mining, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem.(4)



VII. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Burkina Faso (Table 9).

Table 9. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Enforcement

Strengthen enforcement of child labor laws by:

  • Increasing the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor in order to provide adequate coverage of the workforce;

  • Providing additional training on child labor issues; and

  • Providing adequate resources and transportation for inspectors to conduct investigations.

2009 — 2014

Make statistics regarding the enforcement of child labor laws publically available, including the number of inspections, prosecutions, violations, and citations/penalties issued and include disaggregated data on child labor infractions.

2009 — 2014

Disaggregate and publish the number of complaints related to child labor that are made to MASSN's hotline.

2013 — 2014

Coordination

Ensure all coordinating committees are able to meet regularly and improve data collection tools.

2014

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the Strategy for Accelerated Growth and Sustainable Development and the Ministry of Youth, Vocational Training, and Employment's Action Plan.

2013 — 2014

Social Programs

Take measures to increase access to free and safe education for children by:

  • Eliminating school-related fees;

  • Increasing the number of teachers available;

  • Increasing or improving school infrastructure, particularly in rural areas;

  • Expanding access to birth registration;

  • Ensuring children are safe from physical and sexual abuse in school;

  • Ensuring students are not required to perform chores for teachers; and

  • Providing all children with access to education, regardless of citizenship status.

2010 — 2014

Assess the impact that existing social programs may have of on addressing child labor.

2013 — 2014

Expand existing programs to address child labor in the production of cotton and gold mining and develop programs to address child labor in livestock herding, domestic work, street vending, and the worst forms of child labor in forced begging and commercial sexual exploitation.

2009 — 2014



1.INTERPOL. Nearly 400 Victims of Child Trafficking Rescued Across Burkina Faso in INTERPOL-Led Operation; November 22, 2012. http://www.interpol.int/layout/set/print/News-and-media/News-media-releases/2012/PR096.

2.U.S. Embassy- Ouagadougou. reporting, February 10, 2015.

3.International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC). Internationally Recognized Core Labour Standards in Benin, Burkina Faso and Mali: Report for the WTO General Council Review of the Trade Policies of Benin, Burkina Faso and Mali. Geneva; October 4 and 6, 2010.
http://www.ituc-csi.org/spip.php?page=moredoc&id_type=264.

4.UNICEF. Report of the field visit to Burkina Faso by Members of the Bureau of the UNICEF Executive Board, 26 April to 2 May 2014. New York; July 7, 2014. http://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/2014-CRP25-Field_visit_to_Burkina_Faso-7July2014.pdf.

5.ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Burkina Faso (ratification: 1999) Published: 2013; accessed November 6, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/iloquery.htm.

6.Sollinger, M. Children Mining for Gold in Burkina Faso, PBS, [previously online] 2013 [cited February 2, 2014];
http://newshour-tc.pbs.org/newshour/extra/wp-content/uploads/Burkina-Faso-Article.pdf [source on file].

7.Feneyrol, O. Capitalisation des expériences en matière de protection des enfants migrants et/ou travailleurs au Burkina Faso. Geneva, Terre des Hommes; 2012.

8.Apollinaire, K. Burkina Faso: Travail des enfants - Le mal caché des vergers du Kénédougou, Pilabre, [online] August 22, 2013 [cited February 2, 2014]; [source on file].

9.Government of Burkina Faso. Etude de base pour la relecture du décret n 2009-365/PRES/PM/MTSS/MS/MASSN du 28 mai 2009 portant détermination de la liste des travaux dangereux interdits aux enfants au Burkina Faso; May 28, 2009 November 2014.

10.U.S. Department of State. "Burkina Faso," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/.

11.Government of Burkina Faso. Enquete Nationale sur le Travail des Enfants au Burkina Faso (ENTE-BF) 2006.; September 2008. http://catalog.ihsn.org/index.php/catalog/2112.

12.UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed January 16, 2015]; http://www.uis.unesco.org/Pages/default.aspx?SPSLanguage=EN. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

13.UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Enquête Démographique et de Santé et à Indicateurs Multiples, 2010. Analysis received January 16, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

14.Ministère de l'Environnement et du Cadre de Vie (MECV). Analyse Économique du Secteur des Mines Liens Pauvrete et Environnement. Ouagadougou; May 31, 2011.

15.Kyle, L. Burkina Faso children toil in gold mines [Video]: Al Jazeera; July 7, 2012, 2 min., 35 sec., [accessed January 29, 2014]; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sEtTtVzYDKs.

16.Darissac, M. Burkina Faso: Gold-fever disrupts the beginning of the new school term, Terre des Hommes, [online] October 18, 2011 [cited January 20, 2013]; http://tdh.ch/en/news/burkina-faso-gold-fever-disrupts-the-beginning-of-the-new-school-term.

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