2013 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor
In 2013, Brazil made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government increased budget allocations for its flagship social protection programs, Bolsa Familia, Brasil Carinhoso, and Brasil sem Miséria, with their combined budgets growing from $20.33 billion in 2012 to $24.4 billion in 2013. The Government established new guidelines to prioritize child labor in the labor inspectorate system and created a national training academy for labor inspectors. The Government also conducted 8,277 child labor inspections and rescued 7,413 children from child labor. It restructured the National Program to Eradicate Child Labor to improve coordination and provide additional resources to local governments, and established a new national plan to combat sexual violence and commercial sexual exploitation of children. However, children in Brazil continue to engage in child labor in agriculture and domestic service. Some local governments lack adequate resources to fully implement national programs to combat child labor, including child trafficking.
|Working children, ages 7 to 14 (% and population):||3.5 (1,116,499)|
|Working children by sector, ages 7 to 14 (%)|
|School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):||97.2|
|Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):||4.0|
|Primary completion rate (%):||Unavailable|
Source for primary completion rate: Data published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2014. (3)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from PNAD Survey, 2011. (4)
Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.
|Agriculture||Production of apples,*†babassu (palm used to produce oil),*†beans,*†cashews,†citrus,*†coffee,*†corn,*†cocoa,*†cotton,†manioc,†mate tea,*†pineapple,†rice,†sisal,†sugarcane,*†tobacco,†tomatoes,*†and strawberries*† (5-31)|
|Cattle ranching†and animal slaughter,†including for beef production†(5, 32, 33)|
|Mollusk harvesting*† (18, 34)|
|Industry||Production of charcoal,†ceramics,†and bricks† (35-38)|
|Mining gemstones*† (39)|
|Production of garments,*†footwear,†and leather*† (17, 25, 38, 40, 41)|
|Work in quarries *†(42, 43)|
|Services||Street work,†including vending, performing, and begging (2, 44)|
|Garbage scavenging†(17, 44)|
|Automobile washing and repair† (17, 41)|
|Work in markets†(19, 45)|
|Artistic and sporting activities* (46-48)|
|Domestic service† (2, 49)|
|Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡||Commercial sexual exploitation as a result of human trafficking* (50-52)|
|Domestic service, begging, drug trafficking, and playing soccer as a result of human trafficking*†(50, 53)|
|Use of children in drug trafficking*† (2, 54)|
|Forced labor in the production of manioc*† (8)|
*Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
†Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a) - (c) of ILO C. 182.
In October 2013, the Government released the results of the 2012 National Household Survey (PNAD). (55) These data were not analyzed in time to be used in this report, so data from 2011 are included in Table 1. According to the 2012 PNAD, more than 3.5 million children ages 5 to 17 work in Brazil, a reduction of 5.4 percent compared with the 2011 PNAD survey results, which found 3.65 million child laborers.(55, 56) However, the Government did not conduct in-depth research on hard-to-reach populations, such as children engaged in drug trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, forced labor, or labor in indigenous communities.
A 2013 study by the NGO Repórter Brasil estimates that more than 258,000 children ages 10 to 17 work in domestic service in third-party homes.(2) In October 2013, the Ministry of Justice released a study on human trafficking in border areas, covering 11 states. According to the study, Brazilian and Paraguayan indigenous children are trafficked for domestic service; Paraguayan indigenous children are trafficked for the purpose of begging; adolescents, including some from Haiti and South Korea, were trafficked to play in soccer clubs.(50, 53)
In March 2014, the newspaper Folha do São Paulo reported that every day on average, eight primary and secondary schools close in rural areas. In 2013, approximately 3,200 schools were closed because of the high costs and infrastructure problems.(57, 58) A 2009 UNICEF study reported that rural areas in Northeast Brazil face challenges in providing access to education. School infrastructure is precarious, and some schools do not have running water, electricity, or toilets.(59) Transportation is not always available because of aging buses, long travel distances, and bad road conditions. Some children lack birth certificates, which hinders their access to education.(59) A 2010 World Bank study found that only approximately 60 percent of youth enrolled in secondary education in Northeast Brazil complete their schooling.(60)
Brazil has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).
|ILO C. 138, Minimum Age||✅|
|ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor||✅|
|UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict||✅|
|UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography||✅|
|Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons||✅|
The Government of Brazil has established relevant laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).
|Minimum Age for Work||Yes||16||Article 7, Title II of the Constitution and Article 403 of the Labor Code (61, 62)|
|Minimum Age for Hazardous Work||Yes||18||Article 7, Title II of the Constitution and Article 2 of Decree 6.481 of 2008 (61, 63)|
|List of Hazardous Occupations Prohibited for Children||Yes||Decree 6.481 of 2008 (63)|
|Prohibition of Forced Labor||Yes||Article 149 of the Penal Code (64)|
|Prohibition of Child Trafficking||Yes||Article 230 and 231-A of the Penal Code (64, 65)|
|Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children||Yes||Articles 218-B 227-228 of the Penal Code and Article 240-244A of the Statute of the Child and Adolescent (64, 66)|
|Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities||Yes||Article 4 of Decree No. 6.481 of 2008 and Articles 33-40, Chapter II of Law 11.343 of 2006 (63, 67)|
|Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment||Yes||18||Article 5 of Law 4.375 of 1964 (68)|
|Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service||Yes||17||Article 5 of Law 4.375 of 1964 (68)|
|Compulsory Education Age||Yes||17||Article 208 of the Constitution (61)|
|Free Public Education||Yes||Article 208 of the Constitution (61)|
Although Brazil's minimum age legislation is higher than international standards regarding child labor, it includes an exemption for apprenticeships at age 14. The law also makes an exception for adolescents ages 14 to 15 to work under the supervision of their guardian or parents and on the same worksite-as long as it is not harmful to their development and is vital for their family's survival.(62, 69) Based on data from the 2009 PNAD and the Ministry of Labor and Employment (MTE), 1.13 million adolescents ages 14 to 15 work without registered apprenticeship contracts.(70) In 2011, the Brazilian News Agency reported that between 2005 and 2010, judges authorized more than 33,000 children under age 16 to work. Some of these authorizations allowed children to perform hazardous activities such as scavenging, construction, and fertilizer production.(71) In some cases, these authorizations were issued to children under age 14.(70) In 2013, the Labor Regional Court of the 2nd Region determined that the labor justice system has the sole authority to grant work permits. This ruling will allow the labor judges to apply child-labor legislation and streamline the process of issuing work authorizations.(72, 73)
Brazil's definition of forced labor, which is broader than that of the ILO Conventions, includes unacceptable or degrading working conditions as a form of forced labor. However, the Penal Code's definition of trafficking in persons does not cover trafficking for the purposes of labor.(64, 65) Resolution 93 of 2010 grants permanent visa status to foreign victims of human trafficking or labor exploitation, including commercial sexual exploitation, forced labor, and indentured labor.(74) Notwithstanding, in February and March 2013, the Government deported 47 Paraguayan workers, including seven adolescents who were victims of forced labor.(8, 75)
During the reporting period, the Government approved legislation to lower the age to begin compulsory education from 6 to 4, and to extend labor protections to domestic workers.(76, 77) In 2013, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies established a task force to discuss efforts to combat child labor and propose changes in legislation and new actions to address it.(78) The São Paulo State Government approved legislation to combat forced and exploitative labor in supply chains, which will revoke for 10 years the business license of any enterprise that directly or indirectly employs workers under forced labor conditions. The revocation can be ordered by any judicial body or jurisdiction hearing the case.(79, 80)
The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).
|Ministry of Labor and Employment (MTE)||Conduct labor inspections, enforce child and forced labor laws, and monitor child and forced labor.(19) Labor inspections are planned by regional offices based on MTE's goals, analyses of labor market data, and available human and financial resources.(81) Has special units composed of labor inspectors, Federal Police (FP), and federal labor prosecutors to conduct forced labor inspections.(19) Work with the Ministry of Justice and other government agencies when they find foreign workers who have been trafficked and work under forced labor conditions.(82)|
|Federal Labor Prosecutor's Office (MPT)||Prosecute child labor violations by working with 24 prosecutors from its National Committee to Combat Child Labor, an in-house body that directs the MPT's efforts to combat child labor.(83, 84) Carry out awareness-raising campaigns. Monitor whether child labor policies are implemented and municipalities budget the required 5 percent for initiatives to protect children's rights.(19, 84, 85)|
|FP||Investigate cases of forced labor, human trafficking, and commercial sexual exploitation of children.(19)|
|Public Ministry (MP)||Investigate and prosecute cases of forced labor and human trafficking.(17)|
|Ministry of Justice (MOJ)||Lead efforts to combat human trafficking.(19)|
|Office of the President's Secretariat of Human Rights (SDH)||Coordinate efforts to protect human rights, including combating forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Sponsor a human rights violation hotline, Dial 100, which directs complaints to appropriate institutions for follow-up.(19)|
|Office of the President's Secretariat for Women's Policies||Operate Dial 180, a hotline that receives complaints about human trafficking.(19)|
Law enforcement agencies in Brazil took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.
Labor Law Enforcement
In 2013, the MTE had 2,800 labor inspectors who worked in all 26 states. It established a training academy to enhance the skills of labor inspectors, which will be coordinated by the Secretary of Labor Inspections.(19, 86) The MTE's budget reached $29.9 billion, a 13-percent increase over its 2012 budget.(19) The MTE established new guidelines for labor inspectors to address child labor that require its regional offices to prioritize cases of child labor and those involving adolescent apprentices, include child-labor inspections and related activities in their annual planning, and coordinate activities with other government agencies and child-labor committees at the state or local level.(87)
During the reporting period, the MTE inspected 275,139 worksites, carried out 8,277 child labor inspections, and conducted 162 operations against forced labor. As a result, MTE removed 7,432 children from child labor, rescued 1,658 workers from forced labor conditions, and imposed fines of more than $1.4 billion for all labor violations.(17, 88) Data are unavailable about the total number of children under age 18 who were rescued from forced labor conditions in 2013.
During the last 4 years, the Public Ministry (MP) has opened 702 investigations of forced labor and the National Police conducted an additional 185 investigations. Of these cases, 469 have been tried, but no sentences have been issued.(17, 89) The MP has requested that the National Council of Justice prioritize these cases and establish targets for issuing sentences.(89, 90) It is unclear whether these investigations or trials involved forced child labor.
In 2013, the Federal Labor Prosecutor's Office (MPT) published guidelines to mainstream child labor into the actions performed by labor prosecutors, conducted child labor investigations, and raised awareness of child labor.(91) The Office of the President's Secretariat of Human Rights' (SDH) Dial 100 hotline received 124,079 complaints related to violations of children's rights. Approximately 9,900 of these complaints were related to child labor.(19, 92) In addition, states have established mechanisms to receive child labor complaints. For example, the Secretariat for Social Development in the State of Minas Gerais receives such complaints through its human rights hotline.(19, 93)
Criminal Law Enforcement
Between January and June 2013, the Secretariat for Women's Policies' Dial 180 hotline received 263 human trafficking complaints, compared with 17 complaints during the same period in 2012.(94) Although no exact numbers are available, Brazilian prosecutors tried at least 40 individuals for sex trafficking and forced labor; at least 15 of them were convicted with sentences ranging from fines of $135,000 to 15 years in prison.(95) The Government does not distinguish between adult trafficking and child trafficking cases in its public reporting, so it is difficult to discern how many of these 15 individuals were convicted of child trafficking.
Safernet Brazil, a partnership between the Government and an NGO, receives online complaints about human rights violations, including child pornography and human trafficking. Safernet Brazil hosts a helpline to provide counseling support and a one-stop Web site with information about cybercrimes in Brazil.(96, 97) In 2013, Safernet received more than 240,000 complaints, 80,000 of which pertained to child pornography. As a result of those complaints, 134 individuals were sent to prison for child pornography, an increase of 127 percent over 2012, when 59 individuals went to prison for this offense.(98, 99)
In 2013, the Ministry of Justice (MOJ) partnered with the U.S. Government to train more than 360 state law enforcement officials on human trafficking and victims' assistance. The MOJ also trained law enforcement officials, including approximately 2,000 police officers, in 20 cities.(17) The Government signed an agreement with UNODC to establish a country office that will promote South-South and intraregional cooperation, as well as raised awareness of human trafficking.(19, 100)
Based on law enforcement and victim assistance data, the Government and UNODC published a study of human trafficking, which sheds light on the extent of this crime. The study reported that the Federal Police investigated 514 cases of human trafficking between 2005 and 2011: 344 of these cases were related to forced labor, 157 to international trafficking, and 13 to domestic trafficking.(101) The study also pointed out that Brazil has challenges in collecting criminal evidence because of the lack of legislation that covers all forms of human trafficking.(101) Furthermore, according to a 2012 report by the Brazilian Senate, some local governments lack adequate resources to combat human trafficking and assist human trafficking victims.(102)
The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).
|Coordinating Body||Role & Description|
|National Council for the Rights of Children and Adolescents (CONANDA)||Coordinate and monitor policies to protect children's rights, including child labor.(103)|
|Interagency Committee to Implement Strategies to Ensure the Protection of Children's and Adolescents' Rights||Coordinate the implementation of policies to protect children's and adolescents' rights, including the National Plan for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and Protection of Working Adolescents. Composed of nine government entities, including the National Council of the Federal Public Ministry and the Labor Justice Commission, and led by the SDH.(104)|
|National Committee for the Elimination of Child Labor||Lead the implementation of the National Plan for the Prevention and Elimination of Child Labor and the Protection of Working Adolescents. Coordinated by the MTE, it includes 17 government agencies along with representatives from trade unions, business associations, and civil society organizations.(105, 106)|
|Intersectoral Committee to Combat Sexual Violence against Children and Adolescents||Monitor the implementation of the National Plan to Combat Sexual Violence against Children. Led by the SDH.(107)|
|National Commission to Combat Human Trafficking||Coordinate the implementation of the Second National Plan to Combat Human Trafficking. Chaired by the MOJ.(19)|
|Labor Justice Commission for the Elimination of Child labor||Direct efforts led by the labor justice system to eradicate child labor.(108)|
|Anti-trafficking Interagency Coordination Centers (Núcleos)||Coordinate activities carried out by local, state, and federal agencies to combat human trafficking. There are currently 16 states with coordination centers.(17)|
The Government of Brazil has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).
|National Plan for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and Protection of Working Adolescents||Guides the Government of Brazil's efforts to combat child labor, including its worst forms.(109, 110)|
|National Plan to Combat Sexual Violence against Children and Adolescents†||Lays out a set of strategies to prevent sexual violence, protect children's rights, and assist child victims of sexual violence as well as their families. Approved in 2013.(111) Discussed throughout Brazil, harmonized with other child-related policies, and included in the 4-year National Development Plan.(111)|
|10-Year Plan for Children and Adolescents||Outlines the policy framework to promote children's rights. Aims to expand and coordinate policies and actions to address child labor.(112) In January 2014, CONANDA established guidelines for states and municipalities to develop 10-year plans for children and adolescents based on the goals and objectives of the 10-Year Plan for Children and Adolescents.(113)|
|Second Plan to Combat Forced Labor||Establishes the policy framework to address forced labor, including forced child labor.(111, 114)|
|Second Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons†||Guides efforts to combat human trafficking, including child trafficking. Adopted in 2013.(17, 19)|
|Decent Work National Plan and the Decent Work Agenda for Youth||The Decent Work National Plan and the Decent Work Agenda for Youth both outline policies to provide decent work opportunities and increase access to education and vocational training.(115, 116)|
|National Educational Plan†||Aims to expand access to education and improve education quality. Has 20 goals, including increased access to daycare, universal basic education, an end to illiteracy, and conversion of 50 percent of public schools into full-time schools, extending the number of school hours per day to 7 or more. Under the Plan, 10 percent of Brazil's GDP will be allocated to education.(117-119)|
|4-year Development Plan (2012-2015)||Seeks to achieve sustainable development that reaches all regions and promotes social equality through access to quality education, technological innovation, and environmental sustainability. Aims to lift 16 million people out of extreme poverty, and build 2 million houses for low-income families and 6,000 daycare centers and preschools.(120)|
†Policy was launched during the reporting period.
In 2013, the Government hosted the Third Global Conference on Child Labor, which brought together 1,500 participants from more than 150 countries. Country participants signed a non-binding declaration, the Brasilia Declaration, that urges countries to bolster efforts to combat the worst forms of child labor and cooperate to achieve this goal.(19, 121)
In 2013, the Government of Brazil funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating and preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).
|National Plan to Eradicate Child Labor (Programa de Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil [PETI])‡||Combats child labor by providing conditional cash transfers to families with working children who commit to keep their children in school and out of work. Beneficiaries receive tailored social services based on their needs and vulnerability.(110, 122, 123) Implemented in more than 3,500 municipalities; more than 820,000 children benefit from the program. Tracks project beneficiaries through a national monitoring system.(110, 123) In 2013, the Government restructured PETI to redefine responsibilities for federal, state, and municipal governments and provides additional resources to states and municipalities for implementation, with a focus on 1,913 municipalities where 78 percent of child labor in Brazil occurs, according to the 2010 National Census.(41, 124)|
|Family Grant (Bolsa Familia)‡||Aims to combat poverty by supplementing family income and targeting rural and urban areas where child labor is prevalent. One condition for family participation is that children under age 18 attend school regularly; more than 13 million families participate.(125, 126) Its budget grew from $8.5 billion in 2012 to $10.1 billion in 2013.(20) To address non-compliance with the school attendance requirements, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Social Development and Fight against Hunger, and local and state governments track school attendance every two months. In October and November 2013, approximately 96 percent of Bolsa Familia's children met program requirements; this is the highest number since 2006, when these government agencies began to monitor school attendance.(127, 128)|
|Caring Brazil Program (Brasil Carinhoso)‡||Combats extreme poverty among participants of the Bolsa Familia program, whose monthly income per capita is less than $137. Brasil Carinhoso targets families with children ages 0 to 15 and benefits 16.4 million people.(129, 130) The budget rose from $930 million in 2012 to $1.67 billion in 2013.(19)|
|Brazil Without Misery (Brasil sem Miséria)‡||Seeks to lift more than 16 million people out of extreme poverty in rural and urban areas by expanding access to social protection programs, improving productivity and job skills, and providing access to basic services.(131) The budget increased from $10.6 million in 2012 to $12.7 billion in 2013.(19)|
|Job Training and Employment National Program (Programa Nacional de Acesso ao Ensino Técnico e Emprego [PRONATEC])‡||Provides job training and employment opportunities to youth older than age 16. In 2013, the Government made PRONATEC a permanent program, and will have 1 million spots available for Bolsa Familia beneficiaries.(132, 133)|
|More Education Program (Programa Mais Educação)‡||Offers educational services such as afterschool activities and remedial activities to reduce dropout rates and grade repetition as well as to combat child labor. In 2013, the program expanded to 49,000 public schools, including schools where the majority of students benefit from Bolsa Familia.(134, 135)|
|National Household Survey‡||The Government conducts an annual national household survey that includes child labor.(136)|
|South-South Cooperation Project‡||Funds projects implemented by the ILO-IPEC to promote South-South cooperation. In 2013, the Government tripled the amount of funding (from $1 million to $3 million) to promote the exchange of good practices to combat child labor in Latin America.(137) It continued to partner with the Governments of Haiti and the United States, as well as with the ILO, to combat child labor in Haiti.(138, 139)|
|Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues Project||USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016 established by the Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. In Brazil, aims to improve the evidence base on child labor and forced labor through data collection and research.(140)|
|Project to Consolidate Efforts to Combat Forced Labor in Brazil and Peru||$6 million USDOL-funded 4-year project implemented by the ILO to combat forced labor, including forced child labor, in Brazil and Peru, and to share Brazil's good practices with the Government of Peru and Peruvian stakeholders.(141, 142)|
|Project to Promote Horizontal Cooperation in South America||$7.65 million USDOL-funded 4-year project implemented by the ILO-IPEC to promote collaboration among Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Paraguay to combat the worst forms of child labor. Rescued 8,525 children from child labor by providing educational services in the four countries; conducted capacity-building, awareness-raising, and research activities.(143, 144)|
|Project to Support National Efforts toward a child labor-free state, Bahia||$4.9 million USDOL-funded, 4-year project implemented by the ILO-IPEC to support the State of Bahia to become the first state free of child labor. Provided educational services to more than 16,000 children, including Afro-descendants.(145, 146)|
‡Program is funded by the Government of Brazil.
Although the National Plan to Eradicate Child Labor (PETI) and Bolsa Familia have reduced child labor in Brazil, challenges remain. Research has found that some vulnerable families continue to value children's work over education.(109, 147) Some PETI beneficiaries are not fully complying with program requirements, and reports claim that some children do not attend school while others combine school and work.(148, 149) According to a 2010 report, only 26 percent of street children benefit from Bolsa Familia.(44) Because of decentralization of PETI and Bolsa Familia, local communities are responsible for their implementation; however, they do not have the resources to both fully implement and monitor the programs. Despite the increased funding from the central Government, in some cases, the operational costs of these programs exceed the funding provided by the Federal Government or local governments lack the institutional capacity to implement them.(2, 150, 151) Furthermore, more than 3,200 municipalities in Brazil carry out actions to combat child labor.(152) However, the Government does not have in place an effective monitoring system to track the implementation of child labor policies and programs, which could be used to identify needed technical assistance for local communities and to share best practices.
Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Brazil (Table 9).
|Area||Suggested Action||Year(s) Suggested|
|Laws||Expand the Penal Code's definition of human trafficking to cover trafficking for labor exploitation as a criminal offense.||2011 - 2013|
|Enforcement||Ensure that labor judges do not issue work permits for children under age 14 and children ages 14 to 15 to engage in the worst forms of child labor, including by: · Establishing guidelines for labor judges to issue work authorizations. · Raising awareness of Decree No. 6.481 of 2008 and other child labor laws among labor judges.||2012 - 2013|
|Ensure that employers who hire adolescent apprentices ages 14 to 15 comply with labor laws.||2013|
|Ensure that law enforcement officials implement legislation that grants permanent visa status to foreign victims of human trafficking or labor exploitation.||2012 - 2013|
|Make information publicly available on cases of child trafficking and forced labor, including the number of rescued children, investigations, prosecutions, and convictions.||2012 - 2013|
|Ensure that the judicial system issues sentences for forced labor cases.||2013|
|Provide adequate resources to local governments to combat human trafficking and assist victims of such crime.||2012 - 2013|
|Social Programs||Develop a monitoring system to track the implementation of child labor policies and programs.||2009 - 2013|
|Carry out more in-depth research on the worst forms of child labor, particularly with regard to children engaged in drug trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation, as well as child victims of forced labor and child labor in indigenous communities.||2009 - 2013|
|Provide local governments with resources to fully implement and monitor the PETI and Bolsa Familia programs, identify technical assistance needed by communities, raise awareness, and establish best practices to address child labor and poverty.||2009 - 2013|
|Expand efforts to improve access to basic education, particularly in the northeast region.||2013|
|Ensure that families participating in PETI comply with program requirements to keep children in schools and out of work.||2009 - 2013|
|Expand access of street children to Bolsa Familia.||2012 - 2013|
3. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed February 10, 2014]; http://www.uis.unesco.org/Pages/default.aspx?SPSLanguage=EN . Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.
4. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from PNAD Survey, 2011. Analysis received February 13, 2014. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.
18. Profissão Repórter. Trabalho Infantil [TV]: Globo; July 10, 2012, 22 min., 18 sec., [cited March 4, 2014]; http://g1.globo.com/profissao-reporter/videos/t/programas/v/trabalho-infantil-parte-1/2034343/.
21. Leite de Sousa E. Infância em Pedaços: O Trabalho das Crianças Quebradeiras de Coco Babaçu no Maranhão. In: Fazendo Genero 9: Diasporas, Diversidades, Deslocamentos; August 23-26, 2010; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina; http://bit.ly/10sX39s.
25. Melo J. O Trabalho Infantil que Santa Catarina Não Vê: Não é Brincadeira; 2014, 17 min., 01 sec., [cited January 31, 2014]; http://www.naoebrincadeira.com/#!audio/c1v9s.
29. Simon Schwartzman, and Felipe Schwartzman. O Trabalho Infantil no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Estudos do Trabalho e Sociedade; June 2004. http://www.schwartzman.org.br/simon/pdf/trab_inf2004.pdf.
31. Federal Labor Prosecutor's Office of Minas Gerais. "MG: Justiça Condena Empregador por Trabalho Infantil em Lavoura de Café." ecodebate.com.br [online] May 27, 2010 [cited March 3, 2014]; http://bit.ly/16rXCUZ.
34. Ojeda I. "Crianças Catam Sururu que Abastece Quiosques e Restaurantes do Recife." reporterbrasil.org.br [online] June 27, 2013 [cited April 11, 2014]; http://reporterbrasil.org.br/trabalhoinfantil/criancas-catam-sururu-que-abastece-quiosques-e-restaurantes-do-recife/.
37. Igor Ojeda, and Stefano Wrobleski. "Paulistano Usa Carvão Feito com Trabalho Escravo e Infantil." reporterbrasil.org.br [online] January 24, 2014 [cited January 31, 2014]; http://reporterbrasil.org.br/2014/01/paulistano-usa-carvao-feito-com-trabalho-escravo-e-infantil/.
38. "Reportagens Retratam Trabalho Infantil em Santa Catarina." reporterbrasil.org.br [online] January 20, 2014 [cited January 31, 2014]; http://reporterbrasil.org.br/2014/01/reportagens-retratam-trabalho-infantil-em-santa-catarina/.
41. Ministry of Social Development and Fight Against Hunger. Programa de Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil (PETI): Redesenho Pactuado na CIT e Aprovado no CNAS em Abril de 2013. Brasilia; 2013. http://bit.ly/1oQvpnp.
45. Brandão L. "Ruas do Centro de Salvador Tem Trabalho Infantil e Muita Sujeira." Tribuna da Bahia, August 27, 2013. http://www.tribunadabahia.com.br/2013/08/27/ruas-do-centro-de-salvador-tem-trabalho-infantil-muita-sujeira.
49. Ministério Público do Trabalho e da Associação Nacional dos Procuradores do Trabalho. Trabalho Legal-Trabalho Infantil Doméstico: TV Justiça; September 10, 2011, 01 min., 52 sec., [cited March 3, 2014]; http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FYm8A9FXTts.
51. Childhood Brazil, ILO, Ministry of Justice and Highway Police, and Special Secretariat of Human Rights (SDH). Mapeamento dos Pontos Vulneráveis a Exploração Sexual de Criancas e Adolescentes nas Rodavias Federais Brasileiras. Brasilia; 2012. http://bit.ly/XTuTmp.
52. Profissão Repórter. Menores de Idade se Prostituem em Estradas no Nordeste do Brasil [TV]: Globo; October 4, 2011, 20.01 min, [cited March 4, 2014]; http://g1.globo.com/profissao-reporter/index.html.
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