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2012 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

In 2012, Bolivia made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government passed the Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling, which mandates several new programs and policies aimed at reducing the trafficking of minors for labor and commercial sexual exploitation. The Law increases penalties for traffickers, expands victim support services, and enhances efforts to prevent trafficking, especially in border areas. The Government of Bolivia increased funding for a conditional cash transfer program, the Juancito Pinto subsidy program, aimed at increasing school attendance. In addition, the Bolivian Government supported the efforts of international organizations and the private sector to combat child labor. Despite these gains, child labor inspections remain insufficient relative to the scope of the problem, and the Government does not make key information publicly available, such as statistics on child trafficking cases or penalties applied to employers for child labor violations. The Government’s National Plan to Eradicate Child Labor expired in 2010 and has not been updated. Children continue to engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in hazardous activities in agriculture and mining.

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Prevalence and Sectoral Distribution of the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Children in Bolivia are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in hazardous activities in agriculture and mining. Indigenous children are particularly vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor.(3, 4) In agriculture, children are exposed to dangerous work in the production of corn. Although the size of the problem is unknown, children reportedly work producing cotton and peanuts.(3, 5-8) Children working in agriculture may use dangerous tools, carry heavy loads, and apply harmful pesticides.(9, 10) Children work in hazardous activities producing sugarcane and Brazil nuts, especially in the departments of Pando, Beni, Santa Cruz, and Tarija, although recent efforts and other factors have reportedly reduced the prevalence of child labor in these sectors.(3, 4, 11-22) Children’s work in sugarcane and Brazil nut production commonly involves carrying heavy loads, working long hours, and using potentially dangerous tools such as machetes.(4, 12, 17) Children often work alongside their families to harvest these crops.(3, 12) Some of these workers become indebted to their employers and are forced to work until they have paid off their debt. Some workers may repay these debts quickly, but others cannot.(3, 20, 21, 23) Some indigenous Guaraní families live in debt bondage and work on ranches, including cattle ranches, in the Chaco region.(3, 4) Based on reports, this practice may have been reduced in recent years partially due to increased attention to the region and land tenure reform.(5, 6, 15, 19, 23, 24)

Children work in gold, silver, tin, and zinc mines; they work long hours, often in enclosed spaces, and are exposed to dangerous tools and chemicals.(4, 17, 22, 25-27) Children also work as street vendors, shoe shiners, and transportation assistants. Street work exposes children to multiple dangers, including severe weather, criminal elements, and vehicle accidents.(17, 22, 28) Additionally, children work in construction, which may require working long hours, carrying heavy loads, and using dangerous tools and machinery.(17, 29) Children work long hours, are exposed to extreme weather, and carry heavy loads in the production of bricks.(3, 5-8, 30) Some Bolivian children from rural areas work as domestic servants in urban, third-party homes under circumstances that often amount to indentured servitude.(3, 17, 22, 23)

Commercial sexual exploitation of children is a problem in Bolivia, particularly in the Chapare region and in urban areas, including Cochabamba, La Paz, El Alto, and Santa Cruz.(31, 32)

Bolivian children are trafficked internally for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation, domestic service, and mining.(33) Children are also trafficked from Bolivia to neighboring countries for forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation.(33) Bolivian families reportedly sell or rent their children to work in agriculture and mining in Peru.(34)



Laws and Regulations on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Child and Adolescent Code sets the minimum age for employment at 14, except for apprenticeships.(35, 36) Although the Labor Code and the Child and Adolescent Code regulate some aspects of apprenticeships to ensure child apprentices are able to attend school, the ILO has pointed out that the law does not set a minimum age for apprenticeships.(36, 37) Children under age 18 must have the permission of their parents or government authorities to work.(36) The Child and Adolescent Code prohibits children under age 18 from taking part in hazardous activities such as carrying excessive loads, working underground, working with pesticides and other chemicals, working at night, and working in the harvesting of cotton, Brazil nuts, or sugarcane. The Child and Adolescent Code also requires employers to grant time off to adolescent workers ages 14 through 17 who have not completed their primary or secondary education, so that they may attend school during normal school hours.(35)

The Constitution requires children to complete secondary school, which ends at approximately age 17, and establishes free primary and secondary education.(19, 38) The 2010 Avelino Siñani-Elizardo Pérez Education Law guarantees equal educational opportunities for all, including children who are behind in school due to work.(39)

Bolivia’s Constitution prohibits forced or exploitative child labor, compulsory labor, and any kind of labor without fair compensation.(38) The minimum age for voluntary military service is 17. For males, the minimum age for compulsory military recruitment is 18.(40) The Bolivian Government has stated that no one under age 18 is permitted to engage in combat.(41) However, it is not clear whether the law prohibits minors under age 18 from engaging in combat.

The 2010 Law for the Legal Protection of Children and Adolescents penalizes the use of child labor, the use or procurement of minors for purposes of prostitution, and trafficking offenses related to children.(42) In July 2012, the Government approved the Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling, which increases penalties for trafficking of minors and for producing, possessing, or distributing child pornography.(43) It also mandates that government agencies provide victim support services and expand efforts to prevent trafficking.(27, 43) The Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling defines human trafficking to include all forms of forced labor exploitation, including forced servitude, forced begging, and forced employment in criminal activities.(27, 43) It also prohibits child pornography and trafficking of minors for the purpose of prostitution and exploitation in illegal activities.(44)

Institutional Mechanisms for Coordination and Enforcement

The Ministry of Labor (MOL) is responsible for developing policies concerning child labor and leads the Inter-Institutional Commission to Progressively Eradicate Child Labor (CNEPTI), which coordinates the various agencies and other entities involved in child labor issues.(28) The CNEPTI includes the Ministry of Justice, local courts, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Health, and several NGOs, but coordination among members has been challenging and meetings have been infrequent.(28, 45) The MOL also has a mandate to coordinate and develop policies to eradicate any form of servitude. The MOL’s Fundamental Rights Unit has the specific responsibility to protect indigenous people and eradicate forced labor.(46) The new Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling mandates the creation of a National Council against Trafficking. The Council is chaired by the Minister of Justice and is composed of the ministers of the nine ministries charged with implementing the Law.(27) The Council has met monthly since the Law was passed in July 2012.(27) The Law also mandates the creation of departmental human trafficking councils. However, during the reporting period, Cochabamba was the only department to form such a council.(27, 47)

The MOL is responsible for enforcing child labor laws. In 2012, The MOL employed 78 inspectors nationwide, an increase from 55 inspectors in 2011.(19, 27, 42) According to the Government, funding for inspections increased in 2012, but the exact increase in funding level is not publicly available.(27) Five inspectors were specially trained and solely dedicated to conducting child labor inspections.(27, 41) In addition, the Government provided inspectors with training on hazardous child labor and forced labor during the reporting period.(27)

Inspectors conduct unprompted inspections in areas identified by the Government as having pervasive child labor. These areas include the sugarcane-producing regions of Santa Cruz and Tarija-Bermejo, as well as the Brazil nut-producing areas of Riberalta and the mining sectors of Potosí.(27, 46) However, in other sectors and regions, MOL staff only conduct inspections in response to complaints and do not proactively inspect workplaces.(28, 42, 48) In 2012, the MOL carried out 100 inspections involving child labor in Santa Cruz, Bermejo, Riberalta, Potosí, and in the informal sector in El Alto.(27) Though precise data were unavailable, the MOL estimates approximately 100 child laborers were found during these inspections.(27) Information on the services provided to these children and whether they were withdrawn from child labor is unavailable.(27)

The MOL has the authority to fine violators and to send cases to labor courts, which are responsible for enforcing penalties.(28) The MOL may also send cases to the municipal Defender of Children and Adolescents offices that protect children’s rights and interests.(19, 28) Information is unavailable on penalties and fines issued or paid regarding child labor violations.(27)

The Government of Bolivia supports the Bolivian Foreign Trade Institute’s (IBCE) Triple Seal initiative. The Triple Seal is a voluntary certification indicating that a company complies with Bolivian law and ILO conventions regarding child labor, forced labor, and worker discrimination in the production of its goods.(16, 27, 49) However, only one company operating in Bolivia, in the sugarcane sector, has begun the process to apply for the certification. As of the end of 2012, no company operating in Bolivia has obtained the Seal.(27)

The Government has a Steering Committee for Zero Child Labor in Sugarcane Production that was formed with support from the MOL and the participation of the regional government of Santa Cruz, Bolivian municipal governments, the IBCE, and various NGOs.(16)

Trafficking for sexual and labor exploitation is addressed by public prosecutors and by 14 specialized trafficking and smuggling units within the Bolivian National Police.(28, 41) However, many of the cases investigated by these units involve missing persons, limiting officers’ ability to focus on trafficking cases. During the reporting period, La Paz police opened a missing persons unit, allowing the La Paz trafficking and smuggling unit to focus its work on human trafficking cases.(41) Each department capital city has prosecutors responsible for pursuing trafficking cases.(19, 27) In 2012, the Attorney General’s office issued an administrative resolution instructing prosecutors to prioritize trafficking cases in which the victim is a minor.(47) The National Police maintains telephone hotlines for the public to report child trafficking or the commercial sexual exploitation of children.(28) When trafficked children are identified, the police refer victims to NGOs or the government social services agency, SEDEGES.(27) In 2012, cases involving a total of 319 trafficking victims were investigated, and public prosecutors opened 95 trafficking cases.(27, 41) The majority of the reported cases involved children, though the specific number of children involved in these cases is unknown. The Government reported convicting four sex trafficking offenders in cases involving three minors during the year.(41)

The 2012 Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling requires the military to support anti-trafficking efforts by assisting police in detecting trafficking and child labor in border-crossing areas.(27) To comply with this requirement, the military offered training on trafficking to its border units during the reporting period.(27, 47) In early 2013, the MOL began creating a national registry of employment agencies, with the goal of identifying agencies engaged in the illegal recruitment and trafficking of children.(27)



Government Policies on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government of Bolivia’s policy framework for addressing child labor, the National Plan for the Progressive Eradication of Child Labor (2000-2010), expired in 2010; a new plan was not established during the reporting period. The Plan identified mining, sugarcane harvesting, commercial sexual exploitation, and domestic service as priority areas in combating exploitative child labor.(50) The strategy, which is outlined in the UN Development Assistance Framework (2008-2012), supported efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor and to reduce poverty.(51)

The 2008 Education for All (EFA) Global Monitoring Report published by UNESCO indicates that Bolivia will likely attain the EFA goal of universal primary enrollment by 2015.(52, 53) However, secondary school attendance rates are low, and many children are behind in school due to work.(11, 52, 54)

The Government of Bolivia’s Transitional Plan for the Guaraní Communities addressed the forced labor of Guaraní families in the Chaco region and supported agrarian land reform and economic alternatives for Guaraní families.(6, 23, 55) However, international experts on indigenous rights issues have reported that bureaucratic challenges have slowed the Plan’s implementation. These experts say that a more decentralized plan with additional resources is needed to adequately assist the families that have been subjected to forced labor.(6, 15, 23) Nonetheless, under the Transitional Plan, the Bolivian Government pursued a birth registration campaign, which in 2012 provided identity documents to 3,139 Guaranís.(6) Other recent efforts, including the Government’s biometric election registration system, have also enabled the Government to reach many previously hard-to-reach populations.(19, 56)

The Government of Bolivia and other MERCOSUR countries are carrying out the Southern Child initiative to defend the rights of children and adolescents in the region. The initiative includes public campaigns against commercial sexual exploitation, trafficking, and child labor.(57) It also seeks to encourage mutual technical assistance in raising domestic legal frameworks to international standards and to promote the exchange of best practices related to victim protection and assistance.(57, 58)

Bolivia’s Secretariat of Tourism is a member of the Joint Regional Group for the Americas.(59, 60) The Joint Regional Group, whose members also include Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela, conducts prevention and awareness-raising campaigns to combat the commercial sexual exploitation of children in Latin America.(59)



Social Programs to Eliminate or Prevent the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government supports efforts to eliminate child labor in mines through awareness raising, increasing educational opportunities, and providing economic alternatives to families.(4) The Government also works in collaboration with UNICEF to promote an educational strategy targeting more than 3,000 children and their families who work in the sugarcane areas of Santa Cruz.(4)

The Juancito Pinto subsidy program, a Government conditional cash transfer program for all primary school students, has reportedly contributed to increased school attendance and reduced dropout rates.(27, 28) The program provides students with a yearly subsidy of approximately $30 if the student maintains an attendance rate of at least 75 percent.(27) In 2012, the program’s budget was $59.3 million, an increase from the 2011 funding level of $55 million.(19, 27) Almost 2 million students participate in the program.(19, 42) The question of whether this program has an impact on child labor does not appear to have been addressed.

The Government participates in a 4-year, USDOL-funded $6 million project that works to reduce the worst forms of child labor by improving educational and livelihood opportunities for families in the departments of Chuquisaca, La Paz, and Santa Cruz.(8) The project began in 2010 and will assist 3,100 children and 1,300 households in both urban and rural areas. The project is also collaborating with the Ministry of Education to expand an accelerated learning program, the Leveling Program, to be implemented nationally. The Leveling program assists children who are behind in school because they work.(8)

A Ministry of Education directive requires all public schools to offer an accelerated education “Leveling” program so that children who are behind in school have the opportunity to catch up.(61, 62) During the reporting period, the Ministry of Education continued to develop administrative mechanisms to implement the Leveling program.(63) However, the program remains underfunded and only some schools were able to implement it with funding from local governments.(63) The Ministry of Education adapted its national school enrollment form for the 2012 academic year to capture statistics on the number of children enrolled in a Leveling program in addition to the number of hours and the type of work children do.(63, 64)

The Government participates in a 4-year, USDOL-funded $6.75 million regional project to promote collaboration across four countries (Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Paraguay) in order to combat the worst forms of child labor among the most socially excluded populations, including children of indigenous and Afro descent.(14, 65) The project, which began in 2009, aims to rescue 6,600 children from the worst forms of child labor through education interventions in the four countries. The project also aims to build the capacity of government and civil society organizations to combat child labor, raise awareness, and conduct research.(14, 65) The project intersects with another 4-year regional project in which the Government of Bolivia participates; the other 4-year project is funded by the Government of Spain and is aimed at eradicating child labor in Latin America.(14)

The Government has made efforts to increase public awareness of trafficking through education campaigns for school children and by working with NGOs and international organizations on prevention activities.(66) The municipal Defender of Children and Adolescents offices assist victims of trafficking, often in cooperation with NGOs.(19, 33)

Despite these efforts, current programs do not appear to be sufficient to address the extent of the worst forms of child labor in Bolivia, particularly in the production of Brazil nuts, forced labor in the Chaco region, urban work, mining, and commercial sexual exploitation.



Based on the reporting above, the following actions would advance the elimination of the worst forms of child labor in Bolivia:

Area

Suggested Actions

Year(s) Action Recommended

Laws and Regulations

Amend legislation to prohibit children under age 14 from participating in apprenticeships.

2010, 2011, 2012

Clarify whether the minimum age for voluntary military recruitment meets international standards.

2009, 2010, 2011, 2012

Coordination and Enforcement

Develop concrete mechanisms to improve the coordination of the CNEPTI, including the frequency of meetings following the model established in 2012 by the National Council Against Trafficking.

2009, 2010, 2011, 2012

Ensure that general labor inspectors conduct unprompted inspections in all sectors and geographical areas.

2011, 2012

Collect and make publicly available statistics on child labor, including the number of investigations, number of children found in child labor as a result of inspections, prosecutions, sentences, and penalties applied.

2009, 2010, 2011, 2012

Collect and make publicly available statistics on trafficking cases disaggregated by adults and minors.

2011, 2012

Policies

Establish and implement a new National Plan for the Progressive Eradication of Child Labor.

2010, 2011, 2012

Develop and implement a new Inter-Ministerial Transitional Plan for the Guaraní Communities that promotes local governance and directly assists families that have been subjected to forced labor.

2009, 2010, 2011, 2012

Further develop national policies to support the Avelino Siñani-Elizardo Pérez Education Law that guarantees equal educational opportunities for all, including for children who are behind in school due to work.

2010, 2011, 2012

Social Programs

Assess the impact the Juancito Pinto subsidy program may have on child labor.

2010, 2011, 2012

Allocate the needed resources for the implementation of an accelerated learning program that supports the new Education Law and helps both primary and secondary school children who are behind in school due to work.

2011, 2012

Develop programs and devote resources to improve attendance in secondary schools.

2011, 2012

Expand social programs to address the worst forms of child labor in areas where hazardous child labor exists, particularly in the production of Brazil nuts, in forced labor in the Chaco region, urban work, mining, and commercial sexual exploitation.

2009, 2010, 2011, 2012

 



1. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total.; accessed February 4, 2013; http://www.uis.unesco.org/Pages/default.aspx?SPSLanguage=EN. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

2. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. February 5, 2013. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

3. Encuentro Latinoamericano. Niñez Indígena en América Latina: Situación y Perspectivas (Compilación de documentos de trabajo). Cartagena; 2010. http://white.oit.org.pe/ipec/documentos/publi_encuentro_final.pdf.

4. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Bolivia (ratification: 2003) Published: 2009; accessed February 21, 2012;

5. Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. Captive Communities: Situation of the Guaraní Indigenous People and Contemporary Forms of Slavery in the Bolivian Chaco; December 24, 2009. www.cidh.org.

6. Ministry of Labor official. Interview with USDOL official. February 14, 2011.

7. Ministry of Education official. Interview with USDOL official. February 15, 2011.

8. Desarrollo y Autogestión. Combating Exploitive Child Labor through Education in Bolivia (Phase II): Project Document; January 2011.

9. International Labour Office. Farming, International Labour Organization, [online] January 31, 2012 [cited October 26, 2012]; http://www.ilo.org/ipec/areas/Agriculture/WCMS_172416/lang--en/index.htm.

10. International Labour Office. Children in hazardous work: What we know, what we need to do. Geneva, International Labour Organization; 2011. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/---publ/documents/publication/wcms_155428.pdf. While country-specific information on the dangers children face in agriculture is not available, research studies and other reports have documented the dangerous nature of tasks in agriculture and their accompanying occupational exposures, injuries and potential health consequences to children working in the sector.

11. Baas, L. A Study from the IREWOC Project: "Rural Child Labour in Andean Countries". Amsterdam, IREWOC; January 2009. http://www.crin.org/docs/Rural%20Child%20Labour%20in%20Andean%20Countries_summary%20bundle_final.pdf.

12. Government of Bolivia. Sin Tiempo para soñar: Situación de los niños, niñas, adolescentes y sus familias en la zafra y el beneficiado de la castaña. La Paz; 2009.

13. UNICEF. Trabajo Infantil en Bolivia, UNICEF, [online] 2011 [cited February 21, 2013]; http://www.unicef.org/bolivia/proteccion_17111.htm.

14. ILO-IPEC. Project to combat the worst forms of child labor through horizontal cooperation in South America: Project Document; 2009.

15. Desarrollo y Autogestion. Interview with USDOL official. February 3, 2012.

16. ILO-IPEC. Project to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor through Horizontal Cooperation in South America. Technical Progress Report; October 2011.

17. ILO-IPEC and Instituto Nacional de Estadística de Bolivia. Magnitud y Características del Trabajo Infantil en Bolivia: Informe Nacional 2008. La Paz; 2010. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=14835.

18. Friedman Rudovsky, N. "German's story: Swapping Sugar Cane Fields for School in Bolivia." unicef.org [online] June 10, 2011 [cited November 14, 2011]; http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/bolivia_58846.html.

19. U.S. Embassy- La Paz. reporting, January 31, 2012. Report No. 86.

20. U.S. Embassy- La Paz. reporting, December 28, 2011. Report No. 447.

21. U.S. Embassy- La Paz. reporting, December 23, 2011. Report No. 443.

22. U.S. Department of State. "Bolivia," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2012. Washington, DC; April 19, 2013; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2012&dlid=204430.

23. UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues. Misión a Bolivia: Informe y Recomendaciones; 2009. http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/UNPFII_Mission_Report_Bolivia_ES.pdf.

24. USAID. Country Profile: Bolivia, [online] January 27, 2011 [cited February 14, 2013]; http://bolivia.usaid.gov/profile.php.

25. Shahriari, S. "Child Miners in Bolivia." globalpost.com [online] March 22, 2010 [cited March 23, 2013]; http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/bolivia/100316/bolivia-children-mines.

26. Nybo, T. Young Bolivians on working in one of the world's most dangerous mines: World Day Against Child Labour 2011, UNICEF, [online] June 10, 2011 [cited November 14, 2011]; http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/bolivia_58867.html.

27. U.S. Embassy- La Paz. reporting, January 31, 2013. Report No. 86.

28. U.S. Embassy- La Paz. reporting, February 1, 2010.

29. CIES International. Estudio sobre la situación laboral de adolescentes trabajadores; January 2012.

30. Filomeno, M. "Trabajo Niños ladrilleros trabajan en la noche y la madrugada en La Paz." Pagina Siete, La Paz, October 11, 2012; Sociedad. http://www.paginasiete.bo/2012-11-11/Sociedad/NoticiaPrincipal/311Soc011112dom11.aspx.

31. U.S. Embassy- La Paz. reporting, March 14, 2011.

32. CIES. Interview with USDOL official. February 15, 2011.

33. U.S. Department of State. "Bolivia," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2011. Washington, DC; June 27, 2011. p. 91-93; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2011/index.htm.

34. U.S. Embassy- La Paz. reporting, February 18, 2010.

35. Government of Bolivia. Ley del Código del Niño, Niña y Adolescente, Ley No. 2026, enacted October 27, 1999. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/55837/68387/S99BOL01.htm.

36. Government of Bolivia. Ley General de Trabajo, enacted December 8, 1942. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/46218/65057/S92BOL01.htm#t4c6.

37. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Bolivia (ratification: 1997) Submitted: 2012; accessed February 28, 2013;

38. Government of Bolivia. Nueva Constitución Política del Estado, enacted October 2008. http://eju.tv/2008/10/nueva-constitucion-politica-del-estado-de-bolivia/.

39. Government of Bolivia. Ley de Educacion: Avelino Sinai-Elizardo Perez, No. 054, enacted November 8, 2010.

40. Government of Bolivia. Ley del Servicio Nacional de Defensa, enacted August 1, 1966. http://www.resdal.org/Archivo/bolivia-ley-servicio-nacional-defensa.htm.

41. U.S. Embassy- La Paz official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 23, 2013.

42. U.S. Embassy- La Paz. reporting, December 22, 2010.

43. Government of Bolivia. Ley Integral Contra la Trata y Tráfico de Personas, Ley No. 263, enacted July 31, 2012. http://bolivia.infoleyes.com/shownorm.php?id=3946.

44. Government of Bolivia. Ley 3325: Trata y Trafico de Personas y Otros Delitos Relacionados, enacted January 18, 2006. http://bolivia.infoleyes.com/shownorm.php?id=1773.

45. USDOL official. Trip notes. May 18-28, 2010.

46. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29) Bolivia (ratification: 2005) Submitted: 2009; accessed May 5, 2011;

47. U.S. Embassy- La Paz. reporting, February 19, 2013.

48. U.S. Embassy- La Paz official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 17, 2012.

49. IBCE. Triple Sello - Asesoramiento, IBCE, [online] [cited February 28, 2013]; http://www.rsebolivia.org/asesorias.asp.

50. Inter-Institutional Commission for the Eradication of Child Labor. Plan de erradicación progresiva del trabajo infantil: 2000-2010. La Paz, Ministry of Labor; November 2001. http://white.oit.org.pe/ipec/documentos/planbo.pdf.

51. UN. United Nations Development Assistance Framework (2008-2012). La Paz; 2007. http://www.undg.org/docs/7150/Bolivia-UNDAF-2008-2012.pdf.

52. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Bolivia (ratification: 2003) Submitted: 2009; accessed May 5, 2011;

53. UNESCO. in Education for all Global Monitoring Report. Paris; 2011; http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/leading-the-international-agenda/efareport/.

54. Desarrollo y Autogestión. Combating Exploitive Child Labor through Education in Bolivia. Final Technical Progress Report; March 2011.

55. Government of Bolivia. Plan Interministerial Transitorio 2007-2008 para el Pueblo Guaraní; 2007.

56. OHCHR: Comite de Derechos Humanos. Examen de los informes presentado por los Estados partes en virtud del articulo 40 del Pacto: Tercer informe periodico de los Estado partes- Bolivia; November 14, 2011.

57. CRIN. MERCOSUR, CRIN, [online] [cited January 24, 2013]; http://www.crin.org/espanol/RM/mercosur.asp.

58. Comité Argentino de Seguimiento y Aplicación de la Convención Internacional de los Derechos del Niño. La Iniciativa Niñosur, una Instancia Regional que se Afirma, [online] April 2008 [cited June 17, 2011];

59. Grupo de Acción Regional. Grupo de Acción Regional de las Américas, Quienes Somos, [online] 2010 [cited January 24, 2013];

60. Brazilian Ministry of Tourism. Equador Assume Direção de Grupo Latino-Americano para a Proteção Infanto-Juvenil, [online] November 26, 2008 [cited January 30, 2013]; http://www.turismo.gov.br/turismo/noticias/todas_noticias/200811262.html.

61. Desarrollo y Autogestión. Combating Exploitive Child Labor through Education in Bolivia (Phase II). Technical Progress Report. Santa Cruz; October 2011.

62. Government of Bolivia. Instructivo VER/DGES 004/2011. La Paz; July 27, 2011.

63. Desarrollo y Autogestión. Combating Exploitive Child Labor through Education in Bolivia (Phase II). Technical Progress Report. Santa Cruz; October 2012.

64. Government of Bolivia. Formulario de Inscripción/Acutalización: Registro único de estudiantes (RUDE). La Paz; 2006. Report No. Resolución Ministerial N. 311/2006.

65. ILO-IPEC. Project to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor through Horizontal Cooperation in South America: Cooperative Agreement; 2009.

66. ILO-IPEC Geneva official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. July 17, 2010.