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Bolivia

2013 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Moderate Advancement

In 2013, Bolivia made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government created regional sub-commissions to lead efforts to combat the worst forms of child labor in high-risk regions. The labor inspectorate increased its number of child labor inspections by over 100, and rescued 400 children under age 14 from child labor in the Santa Cruz area. In addition, the Government of Bolivia increased funding for a conditional cash transfer program aimed at bolstering school attendance. However, children continue to engage in child labor in agriculture and in the worst forms of child labor in mining. Child labor inspections remain insufficient relative to the scope of the problem, and the Government does not make key information publicly available, such as statistics on child trafficking cases or penalties applied to employers for child labor violations. The Government's National Plan to Eradicate Child Labor expired in 2010 and has not been updated.

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I. Prevalence and Sectoral Distribution of Child Labor

Children in Bolivia are engaged in child labor in agriculture and in the worst forms of child labor in mining. Research indicates that many children work in the informal sector. However, specific activities related to children's work in the informal sector are unknown. Indigenous children are particularly vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor.(1, 2) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Bolivia.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education
Working children, ages 7 to 14 (% and population): 20.2 (388,541)
Working children by sector, ages 7 to 14 (%)  
Agriculture 70.9
Industry 7.9
Services 21.2
School attendance, ages 7 to 14 (%): 96.2
Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%): 18.7
Primary completion rate (%): 92.3

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2011, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2014. (3)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Encuesta Continua de Hogares Survey, 2009. (4)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity
Sector/Industry Activity
Agriculture Planting and harvesting corn, cotton,*†and peanuts* (1, 5-9)
Production and harvesting of sugarcane†and Brazil nuts†(1, 2, 8-15)
Raising cattle* (1, 7)
Industry Mining†of gold†, silver, tin, and zinc (2, 6, 8, 14-16)
Production of bricks (5-7, 17)
Services Street work, including vending, shoe shining, and working as transportation assistants ( 6-9, 12, 14, 18)
Recycling garbage* (7)
Construction, activities unknown (12, 14, 19)
Domestic service (1, 7, 8, 14, 20)
Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡ Forced labor in mining, domestic service, and the production and harvesting of sugarcane and Brazil nuts (1, 2, 8-11, 14, 20-24)
Forced labor and debt bondage in agriculture, activities unknown (1, 9, 20, 22, 23)
Domestic service,* and mining,* sometimes as a result of human trafficking (9, 24, 25)
Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (9, 24, 25)

*Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
†Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a) - (c) of ILO C. 182.

Children produce and harvest sugarcane and Brazil nuts principally in the departments of Pando, Beni, Santa Cruz, and Tarija, although recent efforts and other factors have reportedly reduced the prevalence of child labor in these sectors.(1, 2, 9-15, 21-23) Some indigenous Guaraní families live in debt bondage and work on ranches, including cattle ranches, in the Chaco region.(1, 2, 5, 9, 12) Based on reports, this practice may have been reduced in recent years due, in part, to increased attention to the region and land tenure reform.(12) Bolivian families reportedly sell or rent their children to work in agriculture and mining near areas that border with Peru.(24, 25) Bolivian children have reportedly been trafficked to Argentina, where they are victims of forced labor in the production of textiles, grapes and in the sugar industry.(1,25, 26)



II. Legal Framework for the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Bolivia has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor
Convention Ratification
ILO C. 138, Minimum Age
ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor
UN CRC
UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict
UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography
Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

Bolivia ratified ILO Convention 189, Convention Concerning Decent Work for Domestic Workers on April 15, 2013.(27)

The Government has established relevant laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor
Standard Yes/No Age Related Legislation
Minimum Age for Work Yes 14 Article 126 of the Child and Adolescent Code (28)
Minimum Age for Hazardous Work Yes 18 Article 2, 133 of the Child and Adolescent Code (28)
List of Hazardous Occupations Prohibited for Children Yes   Article 134 of the Child and Adolescent Code (28)
Prohibition of Forced Labor Yes   Article 61 of the Constitution; Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling (29, 30)
Prohibition of Child Trafficking Yes   Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling (30)
Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children Yes   Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling (30)
Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities Yes   Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling (30)
Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment Yes 18 Article 11 of the Law of Military Service; Article 108 of the Constitution (29, 31)
Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service Yes 16 Law of Military Service; General Directive of Premilitary Recruitment (31-33)
Compulsory Education Age Yes 17 Article 81 of the Constitution (29)
Free Public Education Yes   Article 81 of the Constitution; Avelino Siñani-Elizardo Pérez Education Law (29, 34)

In June 2013, the departmental government of Santa Cruz drafted the implementing regulations for Law 046, the Departmental Law on Elimination of Child Labor and Protection of Working Adolescents. The regulations establish mechanisms for implementing the law and reinforce the implementation of the departmental plan for the elimination of child labor.(35)

Although the Labor Code and the Child and Adolescent Code regulate some aspects of apprenticeships to ensure child apprentices are able to attend school, the ILO Committee of Experts has noted that the law does not set a minimum age for apprenticeships.(28, 36, 37)



III. Enforcement of Laws on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement
Organization/Agency Role
Ministry of Labor (MOL) Enforce child labor laws. Inspectors conduct unprompted inspections in areas identified by the government as having pervasive child labor.(18) Areas include the sugarcane-producing regions of Santa Cruz and Tarija-Bermejo, as well as the Brazil nut-producing areas of Riberalta, and the mining sectors of Potosí.(38-40) In other sectors and regions, MOL staff conduct inspections in response to complaints but do not proactively inspect workplaces.(18, 41, 42) MOL has authority to fine violators and send cases to labor courts and to municipal offices of the Defender of Children.(18, 21) MOL's Fundamental Rights Unit has the specific responsibility to protect indigenous people and eradicate forced labor.(38)
Labor Courts Enforce penalties for labor laws.(18)
Attorney General's Office Oversee all trafficking investigations. Maintain a special trafficking in persons unit that adjudicates cases in the criminal court system. Attorney General's National Coordinator's office coordinates all national prosecutors' offices working on trafficking in persons cases.(25) Attorney General's Coordinator of Specialized Units for the Prosecution of Human Trafficking and Smuggling, Sexual Crimes, and Gender-Based Violence maintains a trafficking cases database.
Military Support anti-trafficking efforts by assisting police in detecting trafficking and child labor in border-crossing areas as required by the Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling.(43)
Defender of Children and Adolescents offices Protect children's rights and interests, often working with NGOs.(18, 21)
Bolivian National Police Address trafficking for sexual and labor exploitation by maintaining Special Police Investigative Units (SIUs) to address trafficking in persons for sexual and labor exploitation.(18, 40, 44) Maintained telephone hotlines for public to report child trafficking or commercial sexual exploitation of children.(18) SIUs identify trafficked children, then police refer victims to NGOs or to government's Departmental Social Services Agency (SEDEGES).(39)
Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Prosecutor's Office Coordinate with SIU police to address trafficking for sexual and labor exploitations. One office located in the capital of each of the departments.(40)
National Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Law Enforcement Units Special Force in the Fight against Crime (FELCC)'s Division of Trafficking and Smuggling of Persons coordinates national efforts to combat human trafficking. Police Unit for Migratory Control and Assistance (UPACOM) patrols the national borders and monitors for human trafficking.(25)

Law enforcement agencies in Bolivia took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2013, the Ministry of Labor (MOL) employed 78 inspectors nationwide, including four inspectors solely dedicated to conducting child labor inspections in the regions of Potosi, Bermejo, Riberalta, and Santa Cruz/Montero.(9, 40) These four inspectors carried out 163 child labor-specific inspections in 2013: 44 in Potosi, 27 in Bermejo, 11 in Santa Cruz/Montero, and 81 in Riberalta.(40) Although this constitutes over 100 more inspections than were carried out in 2012, the number of inspections is inadequate given the scope of the problem.(39) The Government provided inspectors with training on hazardous child labor and forced labor in six cities during the reporting period.(39, 40)

According to the Government, funding budgeted for inspections in 2013 was approximately $9,500 with an additional $43,500 provided by multilateral organizations.(40) The low funding level for inspections limits the Government's ability to adequately address child labor.(39, 40)

According to the MOL's annual report, 400 children under the age of 14 were rescued from the worst forms of child labor in Santa Cruz. Information about the services provided to these children, including whether or not they were withdrawn from child labor, is unavailable.(40) Information about the penalties and fines issued or paid regarding any type of child labor violations is also unavailable.(40)

Criminal Law Enforcement

The Government continued implementing the Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling, which requires various agencies to support public policies to prevent and detect human trafficking.(40) The MOL continued the process it began in early 2013 to create a national registry of employment agencies, with the goal of identifying agencies engaged in the illegal recruitment and trafficking of children.(39, 40)

In 2013, the National Police maintained 15 SIUs to address trafficking in persons for sexual and labor exploitation.(40) However, there is no information available on the number of SIU investigators responsible for enforcing criminal laws on the worst forms of child labor. Training for SIU anti-trafficking police is not adequate.(40) There is no indication that police received training on the worst forms of child labor. Although there is a penalty of imprisonment for child labor exploitation and trafficking, no information is available on the number of investigations or convictions.(40)



IV. Coordination of Government Efforts on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor
Coordinating Body Role & Description
Inter-Institutional Commission to Progressively Eradicate Child Labor (CNEPTI) Coordinate various agencies and other entities involved in child labor issues. Led by the Ministry of Labor.(18) CNEPTI includes Ministry of Justice, local courts, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Health, and several NGOs.(18) Goal is to create a national plan to combat child labor for 2014-2018.(40)
Steering Committee for Zero Child Labor in Sugarcane Production Coordinate efforts to eliminate child labor in sugarcane production. Formed with support from the MOL and the participation of the regional government of Santa Cruz, Bolivian municipal governments, the IBCE, and various NGOs.(13)
National Council against Human Trafficking and Smuggling (National Council) Implement the Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling. Chaired by the Minister of Justice and composed of the ministers of nine ministries.(39, 40) Drafted a 2013-2018 national Comprehensive Action Plan to address human trafficking.(25)
Directorate General for the Fight against Trafficking and Smuggling Coordinate nationwide policy. Counter-trafficking unit established in October 2013 by the Ministry of Government's Vice Ministry of Citizen Security.(40)
Inter-Ministerial Team Assist in development of National Labor Plan 2014-2018. Created by Ministry of Labor in 2013 from Ministries of Justice, Health, Education and Government.(40)

Coordination of activities between the members of the Inter-Institutional Commission to Progressively Eradicate Child Labor (CNEPTI) has been challenging, and meetings have been infrequent.(18, 45) However, the National Council against Human Trafficking and Smuggling (National Council) has met monthly since the Trafficking Law was passed in July 2012.(39) In 2013, department-level governments improved coordination in response to the Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling, which mandates the creation of departmental human trafficking councils.(40) Eight of the nine department governments now have departmental counter-trafficking councils, comprised of law enforcement, judicial, and civil society officials.(39, 40) The MOL created regional sub-commissions to lead efforts to combat the worst forms of child labor in the cities of Potosi, Bermejo, Santa Cruz/Montero, and Riberalta. The sub-commissions coordinate efforts with local municipal and departmental labor offices.(25, 40)



V. Government Policies on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government of Bolivia has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).

Table 7. Policies Related to Child Labor
Policy Description
Transitional Plan for Guaraní Communities*/ Plan Interministerial Transitorio del Pueblo Guaraní (PIT) Addressed the forced labor of Guaraní families in the Chaco region and supported agrarian land reform and economic alternatives for Guaraní families.(5, 20, 46)
Human Trafficking and Smuggling Comprehensive Action Plan (2013-2018)* Serves as basis for national policies to address human trafficking. Drafted by the National Council in compliance with the Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling.(25)

*The impact of this policy on child labor does not appear to have been studied.

In November, the Government participated in the XVIII Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor to foster continued dialogue and cooperation on labor issues throughout the Americas. The joint declaration of the Conference promotes social dialogue to address child labor and reaffirms country participants' commitment to work with civil society organizations to advance efforts toward the eradication of child labor.(47)

Bolivia's policy framework for addressing child labor, the National Plan for the Progressive Eradication of Child Labor (2000-2010), expired in 2010; a new plan was not established during the reporting period. The Plan identified mining, sugarcane harvesting, commercial sexual exploitation, and domestic service as priority areas in combating exploitative child labor.(48)

The 2008 Education for All (EFA) Global Monitoring Report, published by UNESCO, indicates that Bolivia will likely attain the EFA goal of universal primary enrollment by 2015.(49, 50) However, secondary school attendance rates are low, and many children are falling behind in school because they work, a problem that is being acknowledged and addressed through the implementation of the Avelino Siñani-Elizardo Pérez Education Law.(49, 51)



VI. Social Programs to Address the Worst Forms of Child Labor

In 2013, the Government of Bolivia funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Social Programs to Address Child Labor
Program Description
Juancito Pinto subsidy program*‡ Government program operates a conditional cash transfer program for all primary school students to increase school attendance and reduce dropout rate.(2, 18, 39) Limited evidence suggests the program contributed to increased school attendance and reduced dropout rates.(18, 39) Provides students with a yearly subsidy of approximately $30 if the student maintains an attendance rate of at least 75 percent.(39) Almost two million students participate in the program.(21, 41)Government expanded this program in 2013.(40)
ÑPK: Combating Indigenous Child Labor in Bolivia: II Phase $6-million USDOL-funded, 4-year project, implemented by Desarollo y Autogestión (DyA), which works to reduce the worst forms of child labor by improving educational and livelihood opportunities for families in the departments of Chuquisaca, La Paz, and Santa Cruz.(7) Began in 2010, and assists 3,100 children and 1,300 households in both urban and rural areas. Collaborates with the Ministry of Education to expand the Leveling Program.(7)
Leveling Program‡ Ministry of Education directive requires all public schools to offer an accelerated education "Leveling" program so that children who are falling behind in school because of work can catch up.(52, 53) Municipalities and District Education Departments of Mojocoya, El Alto, Camiri, San Julian, and Pailon have plans of action, timetables and the needed resources to operate the leveling, multi-grade, after-school, and technical high school programs. Implementation started in January 2013.Municipalities must assign resources to implement the program.(35) Program was underfunded in 2012, but has now secured sustained funding and resources.(54) Ministry of Education adapted its national school enrollment form for the 2012 academic year to capture statistics on the number of children enrolled in the Leveling Program, in addition to the number of hours and the type of work children do.(55, 56)
Combating the Worst Forms of Child Labor through Horizontal Cooperation in South America $6.75 million USDOL-funded, 4-year project implemented by ILO-IPEC to combat the worst forms of child labor through horizontal cooperation in South America; ended in September 2013. Promoted collaboration across Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Paraguay to combat the worst forms of child labor among the most socially excluded populations, including indigenous children and children of African descent. Withdrew 3,047 children from and prevented 5,478 from engaging in the worst forms of child labor.(57, 58)
Bolivian Foreign Trade Institute's (IBCE) Triple Seal Initiative (El Instituto Boliviano de Comercio Exterior Triple Sello) Ministry of Labor collaborated with the Bolivian Institute of Standardization and Quality (IBNOCA), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Bolivia, and the ILO to develop a voluntary certification program to denote companies that comply with Bolivian law and ILO conventions regarding child labor, forced labor, and worker discrimination in the production of their goods.(13, 39, 59)Triple Seal Alliance in Santa Cruz is working to diminish child labor under the Let's Team Up (Hagamos Equipo) Campaign.(59, 60) The Alliance brought together UNICEF and organizations linked to the sugarcane industry. They are working toward a Triple Seal certification of sugarcane growers to attest to the inexistence of child labor in sugarcane.(61)
Regional Action Group for the Americas (Grupo de Acción Regional para las Américas) Conducts prevention and awareness-raising campaigns to combat the commercial sexual exploitation of children in Latin America. Members include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela.(62, 63) Bolivia's Secretariat of Tourism is a member.(64)
Program to Protect the Rights of Children and Adolescents* Government collaborates with UNICEF in 17 Bolivian chestnut and sugarcane producing municipalities to provide education assistance, with funding from the Italian Government and the Swiss Cooperation Agency. The program has helped to improve the living conditions of 2,300 families and return 3,400 children to school.(65)
Ministry of Education/ Plurinational Public Management School (Escuela de Gestión Publica Plurinacional, EGPP)† EGPP instituted a child labor module in its training program for public officials from various government agencies in August 2013. Project staff participated in the preparation of module, review of materials, as well as contributed comments, suggestions, and support materials.(45, 54) Child labor module was a permanent part of training program for civil servants.(54)
Human Rights of Children and Adolescents in Sugarcane Harvesting, Brazil Nut Processing, and Mining † Government program to combat worst forms of child labor. Ombudsman's Office launched the program in April 2013 in Bermejo (Tarija), Cerro Rico (Potosí), and Riberalta (Beni). Main goal is to promote effective, sustainable policies and actions for the gradual elimination of the worst forms of child labor, along with labor and social protection for working adolescents between ages 14 and 17.(45, 54) The DyA project participated in preparatory meetings, provided guidance and input for the design.(54) In the Department of Santa Cruz, a commission consisting of a representative from the Departmental Government, a representative from the MOL's Office of the Defender of Children, and an NGO representative from the Hagamos Equipo departmental anti-child labor NGO network inspected 583 of the approximate 4,000 existing sugarcane production plantations. Inspections found more than 80percent of the audited plantations no longer use child labor.(13, 66)
Child Trafficking Awareness Raising Campaigns Government coordinated with The Bolivian Network to conduct public awareness and education campaign to educate the public, including youth and children, about the Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling. Campaign also targeted more than 3,000 professionals, including administrators of justice, members of the Public Ministry, public defenders, departmental SEDEGES officials, and civil society organizations.(25) National Council partnered with UNICEF to publish a guide for children, youth and adults explaining the new law. The partnership also created a children's cell phone game to teach about the dangers of trafficking.(25)
Student Documentation Program In 2014, the General Service of Personal Identification launched the Civil Registration Service program to provide documentation to 1.7 million undocumented students.(25)

*The impact of this program on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
†Program was launched during the reporting period.
‡Program is funded by the Government of Bolivia.

Although Bolivia has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem, particularly in domestic work, the production of Brazil nuts, forced labor in the Chaco region, urban work, mining, and commercial sexual exploitation.



VII. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Bolivia (Table 9).

Table 9. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including Its Worst Forms
Area Suggested Action Year(s) Suggested
Laws Amend legislation to prohibit children under age 14 from participating in apprenticeships. 2010 - 2013
Enforcement Provide sufficient training and resources to increase the capacity of the MOL and National Police to ensure effective enforcement of child labor laws. 2013
Ensure that General Labor Inspectors conduct unprompted inspections in all sectors and geographical areas. 2011 - 2013
Collect and make publicly available statistics on child labor for all regions, including the number of investigations, number of children found in child labor as a result of inspections, prosecutions, sentences, and penalties applied. 2009 - 2013
Ensure that the number of inspectors and inspections is adequate. 2013
Collect and make publicly available statistics on trafficking cases disaggregated by adults and minors. 2011 - 2013
Collect and make publicly available information about the number of investigators responsible for enforcing criminal laws on the worst forms of child labor, the number of investigations, prosecutions, convictions, and the penalties applied. 2013
Coordination Develop concrete mechanisms to improve the coordination of the CNEPTI, including the frequency of meetings, following the model established in 2012 by the National Council Against Trafficking. 2009 - 2013
Government Policies Conduct research to determine the activities carried out by children working in construction and debt bondage in agriculture to inform policies and programs. 2013
Assess the impact existing policies have had on reducing the worst forms of child labor. 2013
Establish and implement a new National Plan for the Progressive Eradication of Child Labor. 2010 - 2012
Further develop national policies to support the continued implementation of the Avelino Siñani-Elizardo Pérez Education Law, which guarantees equal educational opportunities for all, including children who are falling behind in school because they work. 2010 - 2013
Social Programs Assess the impact the Juancito Pinto subsidy program and the Program to Protect the Rights of Children and Adolescents may have on child labor. 2010 - 2013
Conduct research to determine specific activities related to children's work in the informal sector in order to inform policies and programs. 2013
Allocate the needed resources for the implementation of an accelerated learning program that supports the Avelino Siñani Education Law and helps both primary and secondary school children who are falling behind in school because they work. 2011 - 2013
Develop programs and devote resources to improving attendance in secondary schools. 2011 - 2013
Expand social programs to address the worst forms of child labor in areas where hazardous child labor exists, particularly in the production of Brazil nuts, in forced labor in the Chaco region, urban work, domestic service, mining, and commercial sexual exploitation. 2009 - 2013



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2. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Bolivia (ratification: 2003) Published: 2009; accessed February 21, 2012; https:// www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:1:0::NO:::.

3. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed February 10, 2014]; http://www.uis.unesco.org/Pages/default.aspx?SPSLanguage=EN . Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

4. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Encuesta Continua de Hogares, 2009. Analysis received February 13, 2014. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

5. Ministry of Labor official. Interview with USDOL official. February 14, 2011.

6. Ministry of Education official. Interview with USDOL official. February 15, 2011.

7. Desarrollo y Autogestión. Combating Exploitive Child Labor through Education in Bolivia (Phase II): Project Document. Santa Cruz; January 2011.

8. U.S. Department of State. "Bolivia," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2012. Washington, DC; April 19, 2013; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2012&dlid=204430.

9. U.S. Department of State. "Bolivia," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper.

10. Government of Bolivia. Sin Tiempo para soñar: Situación de los niños, niñas, adolescentes y sus familias en la zafra y el beneficiado de la castaña . La Paz; 2009.

11. UNICEF. Trabajo Infantil en Bolivia, UNICEF, [online] 2011 [cited April 17, 2014]; http://www.unicef.org/bolivia/proteccion_17111.htm.

12. Desarrollo y Autogestion. Interview with USDOL official. February 3, 2012.

13. ILO-IPEC. Project to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor through Horizontal Cooperation in South America. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2011.

14. ILO-IPEC and Instituto Nacional de Estadística de Bolivia. Magnitud y Características del Trabajo Infantil en Bolivia: Informe Nacional 2008. La Paz; 2010. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=14835.

15. Friedman Rudovsky, N. "German's story: Swapping Sugar Cane Fields for School in Bolivia." unicef.org [online] June 10, 2011 [cited April 17, 2014]; http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/bolivia_58846.html.

16. Shahriari, S. "Photos: a life in Bolivia's mines." globalpost.com [online] March 22, 2010 [cited April 17, 2014]; http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/bolivia/100316/bolivia-children-mines.

17. Filomeno, M. "Trabajo Niños ladrilleros trabajan en la noche y la madrugada en La Paz." Pagina Siete, La Paz, October 11, 2012; Sociedad.

18. U.S. Embassy- La Paz. reporting, February 1, 2010.

19. CIES International. Estudio sobre la situación laboral de adolescentes trabajadores; January 2012.

20. UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues. Misión a Bolivia: Informe y Recomendaciones. La Paz; 2009. http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/UNPFII_Mission_Report_Bolivia_ES.pdf.

21. U.S. Embassy- La Paz. reporting, January 31, 2012.

22. U.S. Embassy- La Paz. reporting, December 28, 2011.

23. U.S. Embassy- La Paz. reporting, December 23, 2011.

24. U.S. Department of State. "Bolivia," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2012. Washington, DC; June 19, 2013; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2013/index.htm.

25. U.S. Embassy- La Paz. reporting, March 6, 2014.

26. U.S. Embassy- La Paz. reporting, February 14, 2014.

27. Government of Bolivia. C.189 Domestic Workers Convention, 100th ILC session (16 Jun 2011), enacted http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:11300:0::NO::P11300_INSTRUMENT_ID:2551460

28. Government of Bolivia. Ley del Código del Niño, Niña y Adolescente, Ley No. 2026, enacted October 27, 1999. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/55837/68387/S99BOL01.htm.

29. Government of Bolivia. Nueva Constitución Política del Estado, enacted October 2008. http://eju.tv/2008/10/nueva-constitucion-politica-del-estado-de-bolivia/.

30. Government of Bolivia. Ley Integral Contra la Trata y Tráfico de Personas, Ley No. 263, enacted July 31, 2012. http://bolivia.infoleyes.com/shownorm.php?id=3946.

31. Government of Bolivia. Ley del Servicio Nacional de Defensa, enacted August 1, 1966. http://www.resdal.org/Archivo/bolivia-ley-servicio-nacional-defensa.htm.

32. Child Soldiers International. Louder Than Words: An agenda for action to end state use of child soldiers. London; September 2012. http://www.child-soldiers.org/global_report_reader.php?id=562

33. Government of Bolivia. Directiva General de Reclutamiento para el Servicio Premilitar No. 12/13 Categoria 2013-2014, enacted http://www.mindef.gob.bo/mindef/sites/default/files/Servicio_Premilitar.htm.

34. Government of Bolivia. Ley de Educación: Avelino Sinai-Elizardo Perez, No. 054, enacted November 8, 2010.

35. Desarrollo y Autogestión. Combating Exploitive Child Labor through Education in Bolivia (Phase II). Technical Progress Report. Santa Cruz; October 2013.

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