Skip to page content
Bureau of International Labor Affairs
Bookmark and Share

Bangladesh

2013 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Moderate Advancement

In 2013, Bangladesh made a moderate advancement in its efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government issued a Statutory Regulatory Order identifying 38 occupations considered hazardous for children ages 14 to 18 and adopted the Children's Act, which harmonizes national law with international standards on child protection, including extending the legal definition of a child to 18 years. The Government also increased its capacity to enforce child labor laws through the recruitment and training of an additional 39 labor inspectors, for a total of 183 labor inspectors. With support from the ILO, the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics conducted a National Child Labor Survey by including a child labor module in the National Labor Force Survey. However, children in Bangladesh continue to engage in child labor in agriculture and in services. In addition, the Government's Child Labor Unit is no longer functioning, children working in the informal sector lack protections, and the Domestic Workers Protection and Welfare Policy has yet to be approved.

Sections

Download the Report

Download a PDF of the Bangladesh report.

English (PDF) | Bengali (PDF)

Previous Reports:





I. Prevalence and Sectoral Distribution of Child Labor

Children in Bangladesh are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture and services.(1, 2) Child labor occurs more in rural areas than in urban areas and the type of work children are engaged in differs by geographic location.(1) Children working in the coastal areas, specifically in the Chittagong and Kuakata regions, may be employed in the shrimp and dried fish sector, while children working in the northern areas may be employed in the local cigarette or 'bidi' industry.(1) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Bangladesh.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education
Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population): 10.1 (3,717,540)
Working children by sector, ages 5 to 14 (%)  
Agriculture 45.5
Industry 18.5
Services 36.0
School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%): 81.2
Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%): 6.8
Primary completion rate (%): 74.6

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2011, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2014. (3)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from LFS Survey, 2005-2006. (4)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity
Sector/Industry Activity
Agriculture Farming, including gathering honey,* collecting tea leaves,* and poultry farming (2, 4-9)
Gathering and drying fish (2, 7, 10, 11)
Collecting and processing shrimp (2, 5, 12)
Industry Mining salt† (2, 5)
Production of bidis and cigarettes,†bricks,†footwear, garments and textiles, glass,†jute, leather,†matches,†soap,†and steel furniture† (2, 5-9, 13-21)
Ship breaking†(2, 19, 20)
Welding† (2, 22)
Construction, activities unknown† (6, 22)
Carpentry* (2)
Services Pulling rickshaws (2, 5, 22)
Repairing automobiles† (2, 5)
Domestic work (2, 18)
Street work, including garbage picking, recycling, vending, begging, and portering (2, 5, 6, 18)
Working in hotels and restaurants* (2, 5)
Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡ Forced labor in the drying of fish (23, 24)
Forced begging (25, 26)
Use of children in drug and arms smuggling (2, 5, 27)
Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 28, 29)
Street work and domestic service as a result of human trafficking (28, 29)

*Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
†Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a) - (c) of ILO C. 182.

Some children work under forced labor conditions in the dried fishing sector to help their families pay off debts to local moneylenders.(24) Some Bangladeshi children are trafficked internally and others across borders for commercial sexual exploitation.(28) Children are also trafficked internally for street work and domestic service.(28)

Although by law education is free and compulsory in Bangladesh, the associated costs of teacher fees, books, and uniforms prevent many children from attending school.(2, 7)



II. Legal Framework for the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Bangladesh has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor
Convention Ratification
ILO C. 138, Minimum Age  
ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor
UN CRC
UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict
UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography
Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons  

The Government has established relevant laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor
Standard Yes/No Age Related Legislation
Minimum Age for Work Yes 14 The Labor Code (30)
Minimum Age for Hazardous Work Yes 18 The Labor Code (30)
List of Hazardous Occupations Prohibited for Children Yes   List of Hazardous Occupations and Working Conditions Prohibited for Children 2011; List of Worst Forms of Work for Children 2013 (11, 31)
Prohibition of Forced Labor Yes   Articles 370 and 374 of the Penal Code; Chapter 1 and Chapter of the Human Trafficking and Deterrence Act of 2012; and Article 34 of the Constitution (32-34)
Prohibition of Child Trafficking Yes   The Human Trafficking and Deterrence and Suppression Act of 2012 (34)
Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children Yes   Article 372 and 373 of the Penal Code; Suppression of Immoral Traffic Act of 1933 (35); Suppression of Violence Against Women and Children Act (SVWCA) (2, 36); Articles 78 and 80 of the Children's Act 2013 (37)
Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities Yes   Penal Code; Suppression of Immoral Traffic Act of 1933 (35); Suppression of Violence Against Women and Children Act (SVWCA) (2, 36)
Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment N/A*    
Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service Yes 16, 17 Air Force (16 years plus 18 to 36 weeks training); Army (17 years plus nine months training) (2, 38)
Compulsory Education Age Yes 10 Primary Education (Compulsory) Act, 1990 (39)
Free Public Education Yes   Article 17 of the Constitution (33)

*No conscription or no standing military.

The Labor Code excludes many sectors of the economy in which children work, including small farms, family enterprises, street work, and domestic service.(30) However, in 2013, the Government of Bangladesh revised the Labor Code to include further protections in formal establishments for children ages 14 to 18. In particular, the amendments require employers to obtain clear age documentation and mandate that the government periodically update the list of hazardous occupations for children ages 14 to 18.(40) In 2013, the Government issued a Statutory Regulatory Order and published a list of hazardous work prohibited for children ages 14 to 18.(41) The list highlights 38 occupations including ship breaking, leather manufacturing, construction, and automobile repair.(31)

In addition, the Government of Bangladesh adopted the Children's Act of 2013 (Act No. 24 of 2013), which harmonizes national law with international standards on child protection, including extending the legal definition of childhood to 18 years.(7, 37, 42)

The 2010 National Education Policy raised the age of compulsory education from grade five (age 10) to grade eight (age 14); however, until the law is amended to reflect the new compulsory education age, the policy is not enforceable.(2, 43-45) This standard makes children ages 11 to 14 particularly vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor, as they are not required to be in school and might engage in activities that jeopardize their health and safety.



III. Enforcement of Laws on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement
Organization/Agency Role
Office of the Chief Inspector of the Department of Inspection for Factories and Establishments, Ministry of Labor and Employment (MOLE) Enforce labor laws, including those on child labor.(2, 43, 46)
Ministry of Home Affairs (MOHA) Enforce the country's forced labor and anti-trafficking laws, including child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation. Operate an anti-trafficking police unit in Dhaka, composed of seven police officers charged with investigating all forms of trafficking. Provide anti-trafficking training to police officers and other public officials and chair an inter-ministerial anti-trafficking committee that oversees and monitors national- and district-level efforts to combat human trafficking.(2, 41, 47, 48)
Child Protection Networks Respond to a broad spectrum of violations against children, including child labor. Overseen by the Ministry of Social Welfare (MSW). Composed of officials from a variety of sectors mandated to act on prevention, prosecution, and protection of any violations; monitor interventions; and develop referral mechanisms at the district and sub-district (upazilla) levels between law enforcement and social welfare services.(2, 6, 7, 41)
Rescue, Recovery, Repatriation, and Reintegration Task Force Provide referrals for children trafficked from India per process outlined in Standard Procedures (SOP) Guidelines. Operated by the Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and UNICEF's Task Force.(25)

Law enforcement agencies in Bangladesh took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2013, the Directorate of the Chief Inspector of Factories and Establishments (DFIE), within the Ministry of Labor and Employment (MOLE), employed 183 labor inspectors nationwide. This marked an increase of 39 from the previous year.(7, 41, 46, 49) In addition, in January 2014, the Government issued orders to hire an additional 392 labor inspectors; which once implemented would bring the total number of labor inspectors to 575.(49) As of July 2014, these new labor inspectors have yet to be hired because of bureaucratic challenges.(41, 50) DFIE conducts unannounced inspections in both factories and small businesses to investigate various labor issues, including child labor. In 2013, DFIE conducted approximately 500 inspections per month.(41) Working from one of 31 offices located across the country, each inspector conducts between 4 and 20 inspections monthly, depending on the inspector's capacity and number of facilities.(2, 41) Five inspection teams are assigned to monitoring labor violations in the shrimp sector, and specialized monitoring teams regularly inspect export factories in the ready-made garment sector.(2, 43, 51) In 2013, the ILO and the German Government provided training to new labor inspectors, including on the Labor Code (as well as child labor) and inspection techniques.(52)

No enforcement data were publicly available during the reporting period, including the number of child labor investigations, prosecutions, and convictions. While reports indicate that child labor inspections occurred in export garment factories and shrimp processing, child labor inspections were infrequent, with no oversight of the children working in the informal sector, including unregistered subcontractors in the garment sector.(6, 21) On March 30, 2014, MOLE, with support from the ILO, launched a publicly accessible database for labor inspections in all export factories in the ready-made garment sector. The inspection information is under review for quality control and has yet to be included in the database.(7, 41)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2013, the Government reported 377 trafficking cases resulting in 172 prosecutions and 14 convictions. No information is available as to whether these investigations, prosecutions, and convictions involved child victims of human trafficking.(25)

The Ministry of Social Welfare (MOSW) provides services to trafficking victims. However, there is no systematic referral system for the police to inform the MOSW about trafficking victims.(25) To date, the Government of Bangladesh and the Government of India have not formally signed an MOU to bring the Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) of the Rescue, Recovery, Repatriation, and Reintegration Task Force into official use, although NGOs report that the two governments are using this system.(25) NGOs also note that there are no formal referral mechanisms for children trafficked from other countries. They allege that government officials refer victims back to the NGOs that initially identified and rescued them.(25)



IV. Coordination of Government Efforts on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor
Coordinating Body Role & Description
Child Labor Unit, MOLE Coordinate and supervise programs to combat child labor, monitor child labor elimination program activities, and oversee the collection and storage of data in the Child Labor Monitoring Information System.(48, 51, 53)
National Child Labor Welfare Council Coordinate various government agencies and NGOs that implement programs to reduce child labor and eliminate the worst forms of child labor. Ensure child labor programs align with the National Child Labor Eradication Policy (NCLEP). Prepare annual reports on the state of child labor. Monitor child labor at the district and subdistrict (upazilla) levels.(2, 6, 7, 46, 54, 55)
Counter-Trafficking National Coordination Committee, MOHA Work with other government agencies and international and national NGOs through bimonthly coordination meetings on trafficking, including child trafficking. Oversee district countertrafficking committees, which oversee anti-trafficking committees for subdistricts and for smaller administrative units (unions).(25, 28, 41)

MOLE's Child Labor Unit is no longer functioning. However, MOLE is working to create a permanent body on child labor within its ministry. MOLE's proposal for this permanent body is currently pending with the Ministry of Public Administration.(41)



V. Government Policies on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government of Bangladesh has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).

Table 7. Policies Related to Child Labor
Policy Description
National Child Labor Eradication Policy (NCLEP) (2010) Aims to eliminate the worst forms of child labor by 2015 by initiating interventions that will sustainably remove children from the worst forms of child labor and provide them with viable work alternatives.(43, 46, 56)
Child Labor National Plan of Action (NPA) (2012-2016) Lays out NCLEP's implementation strategy and includes elimination of child labor in other sectoral plans and strategies.(55)
Sixth Five-Year Plan (2011-2015) Includes the elimination of child labor as a government priority and identifies the NCLEP as the policy and NPA as the plan to eliminate it.(57)
National Plan of Action to Combat Human Trafficking (2012-2014) Recognizes the Government's ratification of international conventions on child labor and the development of NCLEP as the means to address child labor.(58)
National Labor Policy Includes provisions on the prohibition of child labor in both the informal and formal sector in urban and rural areas. Specifies that the Government will take necessary actions to ensure children do not engage in hazardous labor and creates opportunities for children to access primary education.(59)
National Education Policy (2010)* Specifies the Government's education policy, including pre-primary, primary, secondary, vocational and technical, higher, and non-formal education policies.(45)
National Plan of Action for Education for All (2003-2015) Targets child laborers for non-formal basic education programs.(60)
National Skills Development Policy (2011) Outlines skills development program for legally working-age children as a means of contributing to a workplace free from child labor.(61)
National Policy for Children (2011) Acknowledges NCLEP's strategy to eliminate child labor.(62)

*The impact of this policy on child labor does not appear to have been studied.

During the reporting period, senior government officials, international organizations, and officials of Bangladeshi NGOs met to discuss the Domestic Workers Protection and Welfare Policy, which was drafted in 2010. If implemented, the Policy would help protect the rights of child domestic workers and include domestic service on the List of Hazardous Occupations and Working Conditions Prohibited for Children; it continues to await official approval.(7, 63)



VI. Social Programs to Address the Worst Forms of Child Labor

In 2013, the Government of Bangladesh funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Social Programs to Address Child Labor
Program Description
Eradication of Hazardous Child Labor , Phase III‡ Three-year government program that targets 50,000 children between ages 10 and 14 for withdrawal from hazardous labor through non-formal education and skills development training.(43, 64)
Initiative to Eliminate Child Labor from Urban Slums and Rural Areas Collaboration between UNICEF, the Ministries of Women and Children's Affairs, and MOSW. Two-year project that provides conditional cash transfers and employment training, outreach and referral services, and social protection services for 500,000 children and 30,000 adolescents.(2)
Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce (CLEAR) Child Labor Project† $7.7 million USDOL-funded, 4-year capacity building project implemented by the ILO in at least 10 countries, to build local and national capacity of the Government to address child labor. In Bangladesh, aims to build local and national capacity of the Government to address child labor by improving legislation on child labor. This includes bringing local or national laws into compliance with international standards; improving monitoring and enforcement of laws and policies on child labor; developing, validating, adopting, and implementing the NPA; and enhancing the implementation of national and local policies and programs aimed at the reduction and prevention of child labor.(65)
Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues Project USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries, to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016 established by the Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to improve the evidence base on child labor and forced labor through data collection and research in Bangladesh.(66)
Expanding the Evidence Base and Reinforcing Policy Research for Scaling Up and Accelerating Action Against Child Labor USDOL-funded, 3-year project implemented by ILO-IPEC to provide technical assistance to develop a national child labor survey. The Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics collected data from January 1 to December 31, 2013 for a National Child Labor Survey as part of the Labor Force Survey. Final report scheduled to be published and disseminated in 2014.(67, 68)
Trafficking Project USAID-funded project that builds the capacity of the police to identify and prosecute traffickers, expand public awareness on trafficking, and provide services to trafficking victims.(2, 46)
Shelter Project‡ Nine shelters provide services to women and children who have experienced violence, including trafficking.(2, 46)
Child Helpline* Project funded by the Danish International Development Agency that provides child helpline service.(2, 46, 69)
Community-Based Working Child Protection Project‡ MOHA project that aims to combat human trafficking in Dhaka. Objectives include enhancing preventive and protective measures, improving victim care, and strengthening the Government's capacity to prosecute trafficking-related crimes.(7, 36, 46, 51, 70)
Actions for Combating Trafficking in Persons‡ In collaboration with the government, IOM-implemented project that aims to combat human trafficking, enhance preventive and protective measures, improve victim care, and strengthen the Government's capacity to prosecute trafficking-related crimes.(36, 46, 51, 70)
Employment Generation for the Ultra Poor*‡ Government program that provides short-term employment for the rural poor.(71, 72) From 2012 to 2013, the Government of Bangladesh allocated approximately $148 million for this program.(73)
Vulnerable Group Development Program*‡ Government program that provides vulnerable families with food assistance and training in alternative income-generating opportunities.(46, 74, 75) Government of Bangladesh allocated approximately $96 million to this program in 2012 and 2013.(73)

*The impact of this program on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
†Program was launched during the reporting period.
‡Program is funded by the Government of Bangladesh.

Although Bangladesh has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to address the extent of the problem in the informal sector.



VII. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Bangladesh (Table 9).

Table 9. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including Its Worst Forms
Area Suggested Action Year(s) Suggested
Laws Enact legislation to provide protections for children working in domestic service, on the streets, in small-scale agriculture and family enterprises. 2009 - 2013
Ratify the Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons. 2013
Amend the law to reflect the policy that education is compulsory through grade eight and to match the minimum age for work. 2012 - 2013
Enforcement Publish statistics, disaggregated by age, on the number of child labor and trafficking inspections conducted and the prosecutions and convictions that ensued. 2012 - 2013
Develop and implement a labor inspection strategy that targets child labor in the informal sector and that conducts inspections with sufficient frequency. 2013
Create a service referral mechanism for all trafficked children. 2013
Coordination Approve MOLE's proposal for a permanent child labor coordinating mechanism to combat child labor. 2013
Government Policies Finalize and enact the Domestic Workers Protection and Welfare Policy draft. 2013
Assess the impact that existing education policies may have on reducing child labor. 2013
Social Programs Implement programs to overcome the prohibitive fees associated with education and to specifically address the worst forms of child labor in the informal sector. 2013
Assess the impact that existing social protection programs may have on reducing child labor. 2010 - 2013



1. Understanding Children's Work. Understanding Children's Work in Bangladesh. Rome; July 2011.

2. U.S. Embassy- Dhaka. reporting, February 13, 2013.

3. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed February 10, 2014]; http://www.uis.unesco.org/Pages/default.aspx?SPSLanguage=EN . Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

4. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from LFS Survey, 2005-06. Analysis received February 13, 2014. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

5. International Trade Union Confederation. Internationally Recognized Core Labour Standards in Bangladesh. Geneva; September 24 and 26, 2012. http://www.ituc-csi.org/IMG/pdf/bangladesh-final.pdf.

6. U.S. Department of State. "Bangladesh," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 5, 2014; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/220600.pdf.

7. U.S. Embassy- Dhaka. reporting, January 23, 2014.

8. Government of Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. Baseline Survey for Determining Hazardous Child Labor Sectors in Bangladesh, 2005. Dhaka; July 2006.

9. UNICEF. Assessment of the Situation of Children and Women in the Tea Gardens of Bangladesh. New York; 2011.

10. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics and ILO. Pilot Survey 2010: Working Children in Dry Fish Industry in Bangladesh. Dhaka; December 2011. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/---ilo-dhaka/documents/publication/wcms_173352.pdf.

11. Government of Bangladesh. List of Hazardous Occupations and Working Conditions for Children. Dhaka; 2011.

12. Environmental Justice Foundation. Impossibly Cheap: Abuse and Injustice in Bangladesh's Shrimp Industry. London; 2014. http://ejfoundation.org/sites/default/files/public/Impossibly_Cheap_Web.pdf.

13. Manik, M. "Child Labour at Brick Crushing Factory in Bangladesh." demotix.com [online] January 7, 2014 [cited March 7, 2014]; http://www.demotix.com/news/3625453/child-labour-brick-crushing-factory-bangladesh/all-media.

14. Gayle, D. "Inside the Perilous Brick-Making Factories in Bangladesh: Millions of Workers Face Harsh Conditions as They Toil to Keep Pace with the Country's Breakneck Construction Boom." The Daily Mail, London, August 17, 2013. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2396250/Bangladesh-brick-factories--Millions-workers-face-harsh-conditions.html.

15. Abul Barkat, Ashraf Uddin Chowdhury, Nigar Nargis, Mashfiqur Rahman, Md. Shahnewaz Khan, Ananda Kumar PK., et al. The Economics of Tobacco and Tobacco Taxation in BangladeshTobacco Free Kids; 2012. http://global.tobaccofreekids.org/files/pdfs/en/Bangladesh_tobacco_taxes_report.pdf.

16. Human Rights Watch. Toxic Tanneries: The Health Repercussions of Bangladesh's Hazaribagh Leather. New York; October 2012. http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/bangladesh1012webwcover.pdf.

17. UCANEWS. "The Extremely Unhealthy Life of the Bangladesh Tannery Worker." ucanews.com [online] March 5, 2014 [cited March 7, 2014]; http://www.ucanews.com/news/the-extremely-unhealthy-life-of-the-bangladesh-tannery-worker/70421.

18. International Research on Working Children. The Worst Forms of Child Labour in Asia: Main Findings from Bangladesh and Nepal. Leiden; 2010. http://resourcecentre.savethechildren.se/sites/default/files/documents/3990.pdf.

19. Alam, S. "Unsafe Ship Breaking: Sitakunda Yard, a Ticking Time-Bomb." The Financial Express, Dhaka, February 5, 2011; Saturday Feature. http://recyclingships.blogspot.com/2011/02/unsafe-ship-breaking-sitakunda-yard.html.

20. Federation for Human Rights. "Bangladesh Shipbreaking Still Dirty and Dangerous with at Least 20 Deaths in 2013." fidh.org [online] December 13, 2013 [cited March 7, 2014]; http://www.fidh.org/en/asia/bangladesh/14395-bangladesh-shipbreaking-still-dirty-and-dangerous-with-at-least-20-deaths.

21. ICF International Inc. Child Labor in the Informal Garment Production in Bangladesh. Washington, DC; August 2012.

22. Mohammad Nashir Uddin, Mohammad Hamiduzzaman, and Bernhard G. Gunter. "Physical and Psychological Implications of Risky Child Labor: A Study in Sylhet City, Bangladesh." Bangladesh Development Research Working Paper Series, (no. 8)(July 2009); http://www.bangladeshstudies.org/files/WPS_no8.pdf.

23. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. Working Children in Dry Fish Industry in Bangladesh. Dhaka; December 2011.

24. Jensen, KB. "Child Slavery and the Fish Processing Industry in Bangladesh." Focus on Georgraphy, 56(no. 2)(2013);

25. U.S. Embassy- Dhaka. reporting, March 3, 2014.

26. Hammadi, S. "Bangladesh Arrest Uncovers Evidence of Children Forced into Begging." The Guardian, London, January 9, 2011. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/jan/09/bangladesh-arrest-forced-begging.

27. Human Rights Watch. Trigger Happy: Excessive Use of Force by Indian Troops at the Bangladesh Border. New York; December 2010. http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/bangladesh1210Web.pdf.

28. U.S. Department of State. "Bangladesh," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2013. Washington, DC; June 19, 2013;

29. Integrated Regional Information Networks. "More Data Needed on Abandoned Children, Trafficking." IRINnews.org [online] September 6, 2012 [cited December 13, 2013]; www.irinnews.org/printreport.aspx?reportid=96250.

30. Government of Bangladesh. Labour Code, enacted June 2, 2006.

31. Ministry of Labor and Employment-Child Labor Unit. List of Worst Forms of Works for Children. Dhaka, Government of Bangladesh; 2013.

32. Government of Bangladesh. Penal Code, Act No. XLV, enacted 1860.

33. Government of Bangladesh. Constitution, enacted March 26, 1971.

34. Government of Bangladesh. The Prevention and Suppression of Human Trafficking Act, enacted 2012.

35. Government of Bangladesh. Response of the Government of Bangladesh to the Questionnaire on Violence against Women. Dhaka; 2010. www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/CRC/docs/study/responses/Bangladesh.pdf.

36. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Bangladesh (ratification:2000) Published: 2010; accessed December 3, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:11003:0::NO:::.

37. Government of Bangladesh. Children's Act, No. 24, enacted June 20, 2013.

38. Child Soldiers International. "Appendix II: Data Summary Table on Recruitment Ages of National Armies," in Louder than Words: An Agenda for Action to End State Use of Child Soldiers. London; 2012; www.child-soldiers.org.

39. Government of Bangladesh. Primary Education (Compulsory) Act, 1990, enacted 1990.

40. Government of Bangladesh. Labor Code, enacted July 22, 2013.

41. U.S. Embassy Dhaka official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 23, 2014.

42. ILO NATLEX National Labor Law Database. Children's Act, 2013 (Act No. 24 of 2013); accessed December 3, 2013; www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.details?p_lang=en&p_country=BGD&p_classification=04&p_origin=COUNTRY&p_sortby=SORTBY_COUNTRY.

43. ILO. 2012 Annual Review Under the Follow-up to the ILO 1998 Declaration Compilation of Baseline Tables. Annual Review. Geneva; 2012. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/@ed_norm/@declaration/documents/publication/wcms_091263.pdf.

44. U.S. Embassy Dhaka official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 13, 2013.

45. Government of Bangladesh. National Education Policy. Dhaka; 2010.

46. Government of Bangladesh. Written Communication Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (November 26, 2012) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Washington, DC; January 2013.

47. U.S. Embassy- Dhaka. reporting, February 19, 2013.

48. Save the Children. A Study on Child Rights Governance in Bangladesh Dhaka; 2012. http://www.scribd.com/doc/118626953/A-Study-on-Child-Rights-Governance-Situation-in-Bangladesh.

49. ILO. ILO Welcomes the Upgrading of the Bangladesh Labour Inspectorate. Press Release. Dhaka; February 9, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dhaka/Informationresources/Publicinformation/Pressreleases/WCMS_235289/lang--en/index.htm.

50. Staff correspondent. "Govt Fails to Recruit Addl Factory Inspectors within Extended Time." New Age, Dhaka, July 2, 2014. http://newagebd.net/26795/govt-fails-to-recruit-addl-factory-inspectors-within-extended-time/#sthash.hZ51xJdH.X8iGjynO.dpuf

51. Ministry of Labour and Employment. Annual Review concerning Country Baseline Update under the ILO Declaration. Dhaka; August 7, 2011.

52. ILO. New Labour Inspectors on Board to Ensure Compliance. Press Release. Dhaka; January 22, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dhaka/Informationresources/Publicinformation/Pressreleases/WCMS_234532/lang--en/index.htm.

53. U.S. Department of State. "Bangladesh," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2012. Washington, DC; April 19, 2013; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2012&dlid=204395.

54. Bangladesh National Women Lawyers Association. Universal Periodic Review (UPR) to the United Nations Human Rights Council. Dhaka; October 2012.

55. Government of Bangladesh. National Plan of Action for Implementing the National Child Labour Elimination Policy (2012-2016). Dhaka; 2013.

56. Ministry of Labour and Employment. National Child Labour Eradication Policy 2010. Dhaka; March 2010.

57. Government of Bangladesh. Sixth Five Year Plan (FY2011-FY2015). Dhaka; 2011.

58. Ministry of Home Affairs. National Plan of Action for Combating Human Trafficking 2012-2014. Dhaka, Government of Bangladesh; January 2012. http://actbd.org/doc/NPA%20FINAL%20DRAFT%2026-01.pdf.

59. Ministry of Labor and Employment. National Labor Policy. Dhaka, Government of Bangladesh; 2012.

60. Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, Ministry of Primary and Mass Education. National Plan of Action for Education for All 2003-2015 Components. Dhaka; 2003. http://www.mopme.gov.bd/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=456&Itemid=475.

61. Ministry of Education. National Skills Development Policy. Dhaka, Government of Bangladesh; 2011. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/---ilo-dhaka/documents/publication/wcms_113958.pdf.

62. Ministry of Women and Children's Affairs. National Children Policy. Dhaka, Government of Bangladesh; February 2011. http://www.mowca.gov.bd/wp-content/uploads/National-Child-Policy-2011.pdf.

63. "Approval of Draft Domestic Worker Protection and Welfare Policy 2010." The Daily Star, Dhaka, December 28, 2013; Round Table. http://www.thedailystar.net/round-table/approval-of-draft-domestic-worker-protection-and-welfare-policy-2010-4307.

64. Ministry of Labour and Employment. Selection of NGOs for Survey, Non-Formal Education, and Skills Development Training. Dhaka; 2011.

65. ILO-IPEC. Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce (CLEAR) Child Labor Project. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; April 2014.

66. ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; April 2014.

67. ILO-IPEC. Global SIMPOC. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2013.

68. ILO-IPEC. Global SIMPOC. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; April 2013.

69. Child Helpline International. Recommendations to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Amsterdam, CRIN; 2009. http://www.crin.org/docs/Bangladesh_CHI_NGO_Report.doc.

70. Child Rights International Network. Bangladesh: Children's Rights in International Labour Organization Reports. London; April 30, 2012. http://www.crin.org/resources/infodetail.asp?ID=28291.

71. Ahmad, R. "Safety Net Scheme Draws Global Focus." The Daily Star, Dhaka, October 4, 2011. http://archive.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=205103.

72. "Bangladesh Starts Employment Generation Program for Extreme Poor." China Daily USA, New York, January 21, 2010; Global General. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/world/2010-01/21/content_9358496.htm.

73. Government of Bangladesh. Social Safety Net Programs Budget 2012-2013. Dhaka.

74. Ministry of Women and Children Affairs. Medium Term Expenditure. Dhaka; 2011. www.mof.gov.bd/en/budget/11_12/mtbf/en/30_Women.pdf.

75. Vulnerable Group Development Program, HEED Bangladesh, [online] August 27, 2011 [cited April 4, 2014]; http://www.heed-bangladesh.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=74&Itemid=104.

Related

Map of Bangladesh

Labor Rights in BangladeshMap of Bangladesh
Learn what we are doing to to protect the rights of workers

Further Research

Bangladesh's List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor