2013 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor
In 2013, Argentina made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government enacted the Child Labor Law, which amends the Penal Code to penalize the economic exploitation of children with 1 to 4 years of prison. The Government also ratified the ILO Convention on Domestic Workers and enacted the Special Code on Contracting Domestic Workers, a law which prohibits children under the age of 16 from domestic work, and prohibits children between the ages of 16 and 18 from residing where they work. In addition, the Government continued to implement its National Plan to Combat Child Labor (2011-2015), and to administer social programs that expand educational opportunities for children. However, children in Argentina continue to engage in child labor in agriculture and the worst forms of child labor in commercial sexual exploitation. Argentina has not adopted a list of hazardous occupations that are prohibited to children, and appears to lack programs that target working children in all relevant sectors.
Children in Argentina are engaged in child labor in agriculture and in the worst forms of child labor in commercial sexual exploitation.(1-8) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Argentina.
|Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):||11.0 (366,235)|
|Working children by sector, ages 5 to 14 (%)|
|School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):||97.2|
|Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):||12.3|
|Primary completion rate (%):||109.3|
Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2011, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2014. ( 9)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Encuesta sobre Actividades de Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes Survey, 2004. ( 10)
Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.
|Agriculture||Harvesting bell peppers,* blueberries, carrots,* corn,* cotton, garlic, grapes, olives, onions,* potatoes,* strawberries, and tomatoes (3, 7, 11-19)|
|Harvesting yerba mate (1, 4, 20, 21)|
|Harvesting tobacco (7, 22, 23)|
|Industry||Production of garments (24, 25)|
|Production of bricks (14, 26, 27)|
|Services||Construction, activities unknown (7, 14, 28)|
|Street begging and performing, windshield-washing, automobile caretaking (14, 29, 30)|
|Refuse collection, recycling, and garbage scavenging (14, 29-32)|
|Domestic service (7, 29, 30, 33)|
|Manufacturing, activities unknown* (34)|
|Transporting goods* (18)|
|Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡||Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking ( 6, 7, 29, 30, 35, 36)|
|Forced labor in the production of garments (37-39)|
|Used in the production of pornography* (5)|
*Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
‡Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a) - (c) of ILO C. 182.
Children of Bolivian immigrants are engaged in child labor in agriculture and in the transportation of goods, as well as in forced child labor in the production of garments.(3,15,18, 39) Reports also indicate that Paraguayan children are trafficked to Argentina for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation.(6, 36, 40)
In 2012, the Government of Argentina began incorporating a national child labor survey into the Permanent Survey of Households. However, the survey does not fully encompass rural areas, leaving the prevalence of child labor in agricultural activities unknown.(32, 41) Preliminary results of the 2012 survey, which were released in 2013, indicated a decrease in child labor. However, the full results have not been made publicly available.(32)
Argentina has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).
|ILO C. 138, Minimum Age||✅|
|ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor||✅|
|UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict||✅|
|UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography||✅|
|Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons||✅|
In 2013, the Government ratified ILO Convention 189 Concerning Decent Work for Domestic Workers. Convention 189 requires signatories to specify a minimum age of employment for domestic workers, as well as ensure that work performed by domestic workers who are under the age of 18 and above the minimum age does not deprive them of compulsory education, or interfere with opportunities to participate in further education or vocational training.(42)
The Government has established relevant laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).
|Minimum Age for Work||Yes||16||Prohibition of Child Labor and the Protection of Adolescent Work Law (26.390); Child Labor Law (26.847); Child and Adolescent Rights Protection Law (26.061); Special Code on Contracting Domestic Workers (26.844) (43-46)|
|Minimum Age for Hazardous Work||Yes||18||Prohibition of Child Labor and the Protection of Adolescent Work Law (26.390) (43)|
|List of Hazardous Occupations Prohibited for Children||No|
|Prohibition of Forced Labor||Yes||Penal Code (Law 11.179); Prevention of and Sanction against Trafficking in Persons and Assistance to Victims Law (26.364); Modifications to Prevention of and Sanction against Trafficking in Persons and Assistance to Victims Law (26.842) (47-49)|
|Prohibition of Child Trafficking||Yes||Prevention of and Sanction against Trafficking in Persons and Assistance to Victims Law (26.364); Modifications to Prevention of and Sanction against Trafficking in Persons and Assistance to Victims Law (26.842); Child and Adolescent Rights Protection Law (26.061) (45,48, 49)|
|Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children||Yes||Crimes Against Sexual Integrity Law (25.087); Modifications to Prevention of and Sanction against Trafficking in Persons and Assistance to Victims Law (26.842); Penal Code (26.388) (49-51)|
|Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities||Yes||Possession and Trafficking of Drugs Law (23.737) (52)|
|Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment||N/A*|
|Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service||Yes||18||Voluntary Military Service Law (24.429) (53)|
|Compulsory Education Age||Yes||18||National Education Law (26.206) (54)|
|Free Public Education||Yes||Child and Adolescent Rights Protection Law (26.061) (45)|
*No conscription or no standing military.
During the reporting period, the Government of Argentina enacted the Special Code on Contracting Domestic Workers (26.844). In addition to regulating the employment of domestic workers in private homes generally, this law specifically prohibits children under age 16 from working in the sector.(46, 55) It also prohibits those between the ages of 16 and 18 from doing such work if they have not finished their secondary education, and prohibits them from residing in the homes in which they work.(46) Also during the reporting period, the Government enacted the Child Labor Law (26.847). This addition to Argentina's Penal Code penalizes the economic exploitation of children with 1 to 4 years of prison.(44, 55)
Argentina has not adopted a comprehensive list of hazardous occupations prohibited for children.(36) Article 9 of the Prohibition of Child Labor and the Protection of Adolescent Work Law (26.390) prohibits children ages 16 to 18 from working between the hours of 8 p.m. and 6 a.m.(43) However, with regard to certain manufacturing jobs, Article 9 authorizes children ages 16 to 18 to work until 10 p.m.(43) This provision may expose children to risks related to night work. Article 2 of Law 26.388 of the Penal Code prohibits the use of children in pornographic shows and in the production, publication, and distribution of child pornography.(51) However, Law 26.388 does not criminalize the possession of child pornography for personal use.(28)
The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).
|Ministry of Labor, Employment, and Social Security (MTESS)||Enforce child labor laws, in part through its Coordinating Body for the Prevention of Child Labor and the Regulation of Adolescent Work, a body which trains and deploys inspectors of child labor and adolescent work. Oversee the Commission for the Eradication of Child Labor(CONAETI). (29, 56)|
|Ministry of Justice and Human Rights||Maintain a Tribunal for disputes in domestic service work and hotlines for reporting cases of child labor and forced labor.(57)|
|Office for the Rescue and Caring of Victims of Trafficking||Provide legal and other assistance to victims of trafficking for forced labor or commercial sexual exploitation, including child victims. Part of the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights.(30, 58, 59)|
|Ministry of the Public Prosecutor's Anti-Trafficking Division (PROTEX)||Prosecute crimes of trafficking in persons for labor and commercial sexual exploitation; instruct federal personnel in the investigation of trafficking; and design criminal policy in trafficking. Replaces the Specialized Office for the Investigation of Kidnapping and Trafficking in Persons (UFASE). (60-63)|
|National Immigration Directorate||Direct the National Immigration Police; oversee the rights of migrants; and assist in investigating cases of international trafficking.(15, 64)|
|Federal Police||Conduct trafficking investigations through its Trafficking in Persons Division.(25)|
|Federal Administration of Public Revenue (AFIP)||Ensure employer compliance with national laws; assist in workplace and labor-related inspections; and initiate prosecutions of labor violations through the Penal Section of its Social Security Directorate.(25, 65, 66)|
Law enforcement agencies in Argentina took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.
Labor Law Enforcement
In 2013, the Ministry of Labor, Employment, and Social Security (MTESS) employed 547 labor inspectors.(67) While some information on specific inspections is publicly available, a comprehensive count of inspections carried out in 2013 is not publicly available.(68) Moreover, comprehensive information on the particular sectors in which these inspections were carried out, as well as on any sanctions imposed as a result of them, is not publicly available. It is not known whether inspectors received training during the reporting period.
Criminal Law Enforcement
While the Ministry of the Public Prosecutor's Anti-Trafficking Division (PROTEX) has published a report on labor trafficking that includes information on investigations and prosecutions, the report does not disaggregate child labor investigations and prosecutions by year, making these numbers for the reporting period unknown.(63)
The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).
|Coordinating Body||Role & Description|
|National Commission for the Eradication of Child Labor (CONAETI)||Coordinate efforts to monitor and eradicate child labor at the national level and implement Argentina's National Plan for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor.(29, 69-72) Comprised of the Ministry of Labor, Employment, and Social Security; the Ministry of Social Development; the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights; the Ministry of Security; the Ministry of the Interior; and the Ministry of Health. Includes representatives from the Argentine Industrial Union, the General Confederation of Labor, and the National Secretariat of the Argentine Episcopal Conference are also members.(29) UNICEF and IPEC also provide advisors. Overseen by the Ministry of Labor.(29)|
|Provincial Commissions for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor (COPRETI)||Coordinate efforts, with oversight by CONAETI, to prevent and eradicate child labor at the provincial level.(29, 70, 73). Comprised of representatives of governmental and non-governmental institutions, labor unions, and religious institutions. There are 23 provincial commissions.(29, 70, 73)|
|National Secretariat for Childhood, Adolescence, and Family (SENNAF)||Establish, through its Childhood and Adolescence Protectorate, public policies that secure rights of children and adolescents; coordinates efforts with other Ministries and entities of civil society; based within the Ministry of Social Development.(74)|
|Federal Council for Childhood, Adolescence, and Family||Uphold rights of children and adolescents; deliberate on, assess, and plan public policies on child and adolescent rights; and secure the transfer of federal monies to fund provincial programs. Composed of representatives from national and provincial agencies that coordinate with the SENNAF and formed through the Ministry of Social Development.(75, 76)|
|Child and Adolescent Labor Monitoring Office (OTIA)||Conduct qualitative and quantitative research on child and adolescent labor to provide policy analysis and inform programming to eradicate child labor and regulate adolescent labor. Created through the Undersecretariat of Technical Programming and Labor Studies of the Ministry of Labor.(70, 77)|
|Coordinating Unit for Children and Adolescents in Danger of Commercial Sexual Exploitation||Provide guidance to relevant institutions and run workshops and research programs regarding commercial sexual exploitation, as well as assist children, adolescents, and their families. Formed within the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights.(78)|
|Network of Businesses Against Child Labor||Develop initiatives to sensitize stakeholders to issues of child labor and programs to prevent and eradicate child labor. Developed through a partnership between the Ministry of Labor, CONAETI, and the businesses that comprise it.(69, 79)|
|Council for the Rights of Children and Adolescents (CDNNyA)||Develop programs and policies on child labor and the sexual exploitation of children for the City of Buenos Aires.(29, 35)|
As part of its coordinating and reporting efforts, the Child and Adolescent Labor Monitoring Office (OTIA) reported that, in November 2013, the MTESS met with the Brick Workers Union (UOLRA) to discuss the Union's efforts to protect adolescent work and eradicate child labor in brick production.(32) The OTIA also reported that, in July 2013, an International Seminar convened various stakeholders to discuss inequalities among children in urban sectors. Participants included the Research Center for Urban Social Policy at the National University of Tres de Febrero, UNICEF, and the Arcor Foundation.(32)
The Government of Argentina has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).
|National Plan for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and the Regulation of Adolescent Work (2011-2015)||Calls for actions to address child labor and regulate adolescent work, including awareness-raising, inter-institutional collaboration, stronger inspection mechanisms, and programming in rural and urban settings. Implemented by CONAETI and seeks to mainstream child labor issues into labor and health policies.(71, 80, 81)|
|National Action Plan for the Rights of Children and Adolescents (2012-2015)||Promotes dignity and rights of children and adolescents in Argentina. Objectives include preventing and eliminating child labor, including its worst forms.(82)|
|Third Program for Decent Work for Argentina (2012-2015)||Pursues a decent work and social wellbeing agenda in the context of Argentina's Millennium Development Goals (2003-2015) and in consultation with the ILO. Social and economic objectives include the prevention and eradication of child labor.(32, 83)|
|MERCOSUR United Against Child Labor Campaign||Develops public awareness about the need to combat child labor in MERCOSUR. Addresses child labor in agriculture, domestic work, and sexual exploitation, with particular emphasis on communities along country borders.(84)|
|Second Presidential Declaration on the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor in MERCOSUR (2012)||Promotes greater articulation between governmental agencies, levels of government, and with civil society among MERCOSUR members.(83)|
|MERCOSUR Southern Child Initiative||Aims to defend the rights of children and adolescents in the region by raising awareness and seeking coordination among members states regarding the commercial sexual exploitation of children, child trafficking and pornography, child labor, and migrant labor; by improving country legal frameworks to harmonize them with international conventions affecting children; and by exchanging best practices.(85)|
|Regional Plan for Adolescent Work (2011)||Promotes decent work for adolescent workers. Articulated within MERCOSUR's Strategy for Employment Growth.(83)|
In November 2013, the Government participated in the XVIII Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor to foster continued dialogue and cooperation on labor issues throughout the Americas. The joint declaration of the Conference promotes social dialogue to address child labor and reaffirms country participants' commitment to work with civil society organizations to advance efforts toward the eradication of child labor.(86)
In 2013, the Government of Argentina funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).
|Universal Child Allowance Program (Asignación Universal)*‡||Government of Argentina program funded in part by the World Bank that provides a monthly cash transfer to unemployed parents and workers in the informal economy contingent upon parents' fulfillment of health and education requirements for their children.(32, 87, 88) Created in 2009 and expanded in 2011 to include pregnant women. Currently covers 3.5 million children under the age of 18.(32)|
|CONAETI Awareness-Raising Campaigns||CONAETI/Network of Businesses Against Child Labor campaigns that make businesses and the general public aware of child labor in sourcing and supply chains.(79)|
|Harvest Day Care and Future Programs (Jardines de Cosecha y Porvenir)||CORPRETI/Network of Businesses against Child Labor coordinated programs that aim to reduce child labor in crops, such as tobacco and blueberries, where labor is often performed by entire families. Children are placed in day care centers that have educational and recreational programming.(11, 89-93)|
|Heads of Household Program (Programa Jefes de Hogar)*‡||Ministry of Labor program that seeks to improve the employability of families who have experienced economic hardship.(94)|
|UNICEF Argentina's Program for the Protection of Children's Rights||Works to protect children from child labor, commercial sexual exploitation, violence, and abuse. Fosters the development of protection systems and dialogue between civil society and local, provincial, and federal state agencies. Priority areas for 2011-2014 concern indigenous and immigrant children and the urban poor.(95)|
|Regional Action Group for the Americas (Grupo de Acción Regional para las Américas)||Conducts prevention and awareness-raising campaigns that combat the commercial sexual exploitation of children in Latin America. Members include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela.(96-98).|
|Elimination of Child Labor in Latin America (Phase 4)||$4.5 million Government of Spain-funded, 4-year project implemented by ILO-IPEC to combat child labor in 19 countries, including Argentina.(99)|
|Education and Monitoring Program for the Eradication of Child Labor||$1.3 million Government of Spain-funded, 2-year project implemented by ILO-IPEC that aims to strengthen public policies and government capacity to combat child labor in 19 countries in Latin America, including Argentina. Includes the objective of developing information systems on the worst forms of child labor.(99)|
*The impact of this program on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
‡Program is funded by the Government of Argentina.
During the reporting period, Argentina continued to implement social programs designed to combat child labor. However, programs that address child labor in agriculture do not address the scope of the problem in the sector, and research did not find programs that specifically targeted children working in urban activities such as refuse collection or street begging and performing.
Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Argentina (Table 9).
|Area||Suggested Action||Year(s) Suggested|
|Laws||Create a list of hazardous occupations prohibited for children.||2009 - 2013|
|Expand the prohibition on night work to children ages 16 to 18 who work in manufacturing.||2011 - 2013|
|Criminalize the possession of child pornography.||2009 - 2013|
|Enforcement||Make information publicly available on numbers of labor inspections, the sectors in which inspections are carried out, the sanctions imposed as a result, and labor inspectorate training related to child labor.||2009 - 2013|
|Make information publicly available on the numbers of criminal investigations and prosecutions of child labor-related crimes.||2013|
|Social Programs||Fully incorporate rural areas into the Permanent Survey of Households and make findings on child labor publicly available.||2013|
|Assess the impact that social programs, especially the cash transfer programs, may have on reducing the worst forms of child labor.||2010 - 2013|
|Expand programs that target child labor in agricultural activities.||2012 - 2013|
|Develop specific programs that target child labor in informal urban activities such as refuse collection or street begging and performing.||2009 - 2013|
1. Claudia Sapa, and Ana Victoria Espinoza. "Tareferos, marginalidad y exclusión detrás de la yerba mate." Argentina Investiga: Divulgación y Noticias Universitarias, Misiones, October 1, 2012; Noticia. http://infouniversidades.siu.edu.ar/noticia.php?titulo=tareferos,_marginalidad_y_exclusion_detras_de_la_yerba_mate&id=1711.
2. CONAETI. Trabajo Infantil Rural, [previously online] November 28, 2011 [cited Jan 17, 2012]; http://www.trabajo.gov.ar/conaeti/que_es/rural.htm.
4. Roffredo, R. "Trabajo infantil rural en la zafra de la yerba mate," in Décimo Congreso Nacional de Estudios de Trabajo; August 4, 2011; Buenos Aires; http://www.aset.org.ar/congresos/10/ponencias/p13_Roffredo.pdf.
5. CONAETI. Trabajo Infantil Urbano, [previously online] November 28, 2011 [cited Jan 17, 2012]; http://www.trabajo.gov.ar/conaeti/que_es/urbano.htm.
8. IDB. La Trata y el Tráfico de Niños y Adolescentes para fines Explotación Sexual, IDB, [online] December 31, 2011 [cited February 7, 2013]; http://www.iadb.org/es/proyectos/project-information-page,1303.html?id=RG-T1266.
9. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total.; accessed [February 10, 2014]; http://www.uis.unesco.org/Pages/default.aspx?SPSLanguage=EN . Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.
10. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Encuesta sobre Actividades de Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes, 2004. Analysis received February 13, 2014. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.
11. Ministerio de Trabajo de la Provincia de Entre Rios. Se abrirán centros de Cuidado Infantil o Jardines de Cosecha para evitar el trabajo infantil, Gobierno de Entre Rios, [online] [cited January 10, 2014]; http://www.entrerios.gov.ar/mintrabajo/index.php?cod=1199¬icia=ver_noticia&modulo=noticia#.
14. Ministerio de Trabajo Justicia y Gobierno. El Gobierno conmemora el Día Mundial contra el Trabajo Infantil, Prensa - Gobierno de Mendoza, [online] June 11, 2012 [cited November 21, 2012]; http://prensa.mendoza.gov.ar/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=7955:el-gobierno-conmemora-el-dia-mundial-contra-el-trabajo-infantil&catid=40:trabajo&Itemid=61.
20. Mundo Gremial. "Trabajo Infantil: el oscuro y multimillonario negocio de la Yerba Mate." November 16, 2013. http://mundogremial.com/analisis-y-opinion/trabajo-infantil-el-oscuro-y-multimillonario-negocio-de-la-yerba-mate-4234.
21. Misiones Online. "Impulsan campaña por una "yerba mate sin trabajo infantil"." October 13, 2013; Sociedad. http://img.misionesonline.net/noticias/index?dia=28&mes=10&anio=2013&permalink=impulsan-campa-a-por-una-yerba-mate-sin-trabajo-infantil.
23. Susana Aparicio, Martín Campos, Graciela Cardarelli, Magdalena Chiara, Gabriela Dorrego, Elena Duro, et al. El trabajo infantil en la Argentina: Análisis y desafíos para la política pública. Buenos Aires; July 2007. http://www.trabajo.gov.ar/left/estadisticas/otia/centroDoc/verDocumento.asp?id=146.
25. Terra. "Detectan trabajo infantil y trata de personas en talleres textiles." Terra, October 03, 2013. http://noticias.terra.com.ar/detectan-trabajo-infantil-y-trata-de-personas-en-talleres-textiles,6d685a8c76e71410VgnCLD2000000dc6eb0aRCRD.html.
31. Organización Internacional para las Migraciones. Lucha Contra el Trabajo Infantil Cartonero en la Villa 31 y 31 Bis de Retiro - Buenos Aires, Organización Internacional para las Migraciones, [online] [cited April 2, 2014]; http://www.argentina.iom.int/no/index.php/actividades/programas-y-proyectos/cooperacion-tecnica-sobre-migracion/lucha-contra-el-trabajo-infantil-cartonero-en-la-villa-31-y-31-bis-de-retiro.
33. Universidad Católica Argentina. Encuesta de la Deuda Social Argentina. Bulletin. Buenos Aires, Universidad Católica Argentina- Fundacion Telefonia; 2010. http://www.uca.edu.ar/uca/common/grupo81/files/Bolet-n_trabajo_infantil_-_Bar-metro.pdf.
35. Bruno Domeniconi, Cristina Erbaro, and Carmella Vives. Consejo de los Derechos de Niñas, Niños y Adolescentes: Datos Estadísticos correspondientes al año 2009. Statistics. Buenos Aires; 2009. http://estatico.buenosaires.gov.ar/areas/chicos/doc_y_pub/informe_estadistico_datos_2009.pdf.
36. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Argentina (ratification: 2001) Published: 2011; accessed February 7, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/iloquery.htm.
39. "Niñez Indígena en América Latina: Situación y Perspectivas." Compilación de documentos de trabajo para el Encuentro Latinoamericano, Cartagena de Indias, del 8 al 10 de marzo de 2010. ILO-IPEC white paper. http://white.oit.org.pe/ipec/documentos/publi_encuentro_final.pdf.
41. Jueguen, F. "Se reduce el trabajo infantil, pero para el Indec casi no existe." La Nación, Buenos Aires, February 12, 2013. http://www.lanacion.com.ar/1553971-se-reduce-el-trabajo-infantil-pero-para-el-indec-casi-no-existe.
43. Government of Argentina. Prohibición del Trabajo Infantíl y Protección del Trabajo Adolescente, 26.390, enacted June 4, 2008. http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/140000-144999/141792/norma.htm.
44. Government of Argentina. Código Penal. Incorpórase artículo N° 148 bis., Trabajo Infantil, 26.847, enacted March 20, 2013. http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/210000-214999/210491/norma.htm.
45. Government of Argentina. Ley Integral de Protección de Derechos de las Niñas, Niños y Adolescentes, 26.061, enacted September 28, 2005. http://www.infoleg.gob.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/110000-114999/110778/norma.htm.
46. Government of Argentina. Régimen Especial de Contrato de Trabajo para el Personal de Casas Particulares, 26.844, enacted March 13, 2013. http://www.infoleg.gob.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/210000-214999/210489/norma.htm.
48. Government of Argentina. Prevención y Sanción de la Trata de Personas y Asistencia a Sus Víctimas, 26.364, enacted April 29, 2008. http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/140000-144999/140100/norma.htm.
49. Government of Argentina. Prevención y Sanción de la Trata de Personas y Asistencia a Sus Víctimas (Modificaciones), 26.842, enacted December 26, 2012. http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/205000-209999/206554/norma.htm.
55. Casa Rosada: Presidencia de la Nación de Argentina. Promulgación de las leyes del personal doméstico y de penalización de utilización de man de obra infantil: Palabras de la Presidenta de la Nación , Casa Rosada: Presidencia de la Nación de Argentina, [online] [cited April 25, 2013]; http://www.presidencia.gob.ar/informacion/actividad-oficial/26426.
56. Ministerio de Trabajo. Coordinación de Prevención del Trabajo Infantil y Protección del Trabajo Adolescente, Ministerio de Trabajo, Empleo y Seguridad Social, [online] [cited January 10, 2014]; http://www.trabajo.gob.ar/cooditia/.
58. Ministerio de Justicia y Derechos Humanos. Oficina de Rescate y Acompañamiento a Personas Damnificadas por el Delito de Trata de Personas, Ministerio de Justicia y Derechos Humanos, [cited January 13 2013]; http://www.jus.gov.ar/areas-tematicas/trata-de-personas.aspx.
61. Unidad Fiscal de Asistencia en Secuestros Extorsivos y Trata de Personas (UFASE). Informe anual y resumen ejecutivo 2012, [cited http://www.mpf.gov.ar/docs/Links/Ufase/Informe_anual_2012_UFASE.pdf.
62. Ministerio Público Fiscal. Procuraduría de Trata y Explotación de Personas (PROTEX) Institucional, [cited June 3 2014]; http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:7VLQ2X16S_sJ:www.mpf.gob.ar/protex/+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us.
63. Procuraduría de Trata y Explotación de Personas del Ministerio Público Fiscal. Trata Laboral en Argentina: El tratamiento judicial de los casos en el fuero federal; 2014. http://fiscales.gob.ar/trata/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2014/02/Informe_Trata_laboral_en_Arg_Genero.pdf.
67. Ministerio de Trabajo Empleo y Seguridad Social de la Nación. Inspectores, Ministerio de Trabajo Empleo y Seguridad Social de la Nación, [online] [cited April 2, 2014]; http://www.trabajo.gov.ar/inspeccion/inspectores/.
70. Observatorio de Trabajo Infantil y Adolescente. Manual para la constitución del observatorio regional sobre trabajo infantil y adolescente, Ministerio de Trabajo, [cited February 2, 2014]; http://www.undp.org.ar/docs/Libros_y_Publicaciones/Manual_Observatorio_Regional_Trabajo_Infantil.pdf.
71. Oficina Internacional del Trabajo. Prevenir y erradicar el trabajo infantil en Argentina. online; November 2011. http://www.oit.org.ar/documentos/trabajo_infantil.pdf.
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