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Anguilla


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2012 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

In 2012, Anguilla made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. During the reporting period, the Government participated in a number of activities to improve child protection, including a child abuse awareness campaign where it distributed informational materials and ran radio and television announcements. It also published and distributed a booklet of policy guidelines for safeguarding children. However, the Government appears to lack a list of hazardous work prohibited to children and has not developed an institutional framework or targeted programs to address the commercial sexual exploitation of children. Although evidence is limited, children are reportedly involved in commercial sexual exploitation in Anguilla.

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Prevalence and Sectoral Distribution of the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Some children in Anguilla are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, specifically in commercial sexual exploitation.(1, 2) Children reportedly perform sex acts in exchange for money and gifts.(1) Evidence suggests that, in some cases, these transactions occur with the knowledge, consent and, sometimes, initiation of the child’s parent.(1) However, information about the nature and prevalence of the problem remains limited.



Laws and Regulations on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Education Act sets the minimum age for employment at 14. It also prohibits children of compulsory school age (up to age 17) from working during school hours.(3, 4) The Employment of Children (Restriction) Act prohibits children younger than age 12 from working in any capacity, including light work. Under the Employment of Children (Restriction) Act, children ages 12 to 14 may not work during the school day, and there are limitations on work times and the total number of hours they may work.(3, 5) In addition, they are prohibited from work that may be physically hazardous or requires heavy lifting.(5)

The Employment of Women, Young Persons, and Children Act prohibits all children younger than age 17 from working in industrial undertakings or at night. This provision may leave children age 17 vulnerable to dangerous work in industrial undertakings or at night.(3) The Governor of the Territory has the authority to expand restrictions on child labor.(5) Research did not identify whether Anguilla has a comprehensive list of hazardous work prohibited for children.

The Constitution prohibits slavery and forced labor.(6) The Criminal Code prohibits the prostitution and abduction of children, and the publishing or circulation of indecent materials. The Code also prohibits the use of children for illicit activities.(3, 7) During the reporting period, the Government began drafting legislation that would strengthen protections against child abuse. However, the legislation has not yet been passed, and it is unclear how it may address the worst forms of child labor.(8)

Defense in Anguilla is the responsibility of the United Kingdom (UK). There is no military conscription, and the minimum age for voluntary military recruitment is 16.(9, 10)

The Education Act makes education compulsory to age 17.(3, 11) The law also guarantees free education until age 17.(12)



Institutional Mechanisms for Coordination and Enforcement

Anguilla has formed a multiagency Child Protection Steering Committee to implement the Child Protection National Action Plan.(13) The Ministry of Health and Social Development (MHSD) is the main coordinating agency responsible for child protection in Anguilla. The MHSD employs social workers to manage and investigate child protection cases.(14) It also works with the Royal Anguilla Police Force to investigate cases involving child abuse, although it is not clear what responsibility the Police Force has for enforcing laws against the worst forms of child labor, particularly commercial sexual exploitation.(15) Research found no evidence that the Government of Anguilla has established a coordinating mechanism to combat the commercial sexual exploitation of children.

The Employment of Children (Restriction) Act designates the Labor Commissioner as responsible for enforcing child labor laws. The Act authorizes the Labor Commissioner to investigate work sites where children are believed to be employed, and to prosecute, conduct, or defend any information, complaint, or other proceeding arising under the Employment of Children (Restriction) Act.(5)

Research found no evidence that the Government of Anguilla collects data related to cases involving the commercial sexual exploitation of children.



Government Policies on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government has developed a Child Protection National Action Plan, which calls for the establishment of a child protection protocol and legislative and institutional frameworks to address issues impacting children and their families.(16) The Government has developed Safeguarding and Child Protection Protocols and Procedures that assist in the development of future legislation on child protection, designates clear responsibilities for government agencies, and serves as a guide for recognizing and referring child protection cases.(15, 17) The question of whether this policy has had an impact on the commercial sexual exploitation of children does not appear to have been addressed.



Social Programs to Eliminate or Prevent the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government of Anguilla continued to participate in Safeguarding Children in the Overseas Territories (SCOT) Program through the program’s completion in October 2012. SCOT was sponsored by the UK’s Department for International Development.(8, 13, 15) Through the SCOT Program, participating governments received support to implement policies, procedures, and best practices to ensure children’s health and safety. In Anguilla, the SCOT program has helped the Government develop child protection protocols, including partnerships with civil society organizations.(13, 18) Additionally, under the SCOT Program, joint training has occurred among the police force, social workers, health workers and teachers to encourage effective reporting and management of child abuse cases.(19) During the reporting period, the Government published policy guidelines for safeguarding children from abuse in Anguilla. The booklet was distributed to government employees, teachers, and other stakeholders that work closely with children.(8, 17) It includes information on how to report child abuse.(17)

During the reporting period, the Government participated in various other activities to address physical, emotional, and sexual abuse of children, including an awareness campaign that distributed informational material and ran radio and television announcements.(8, 20)

The question of whether these programs have an impact on the commercial sexual exploitation of children does not appear to have been addressed. Research found no evidence that the Government has carried out programs to directly combat commercial sexual exploitation of children.



Based on the reporting above, the following actions would advance the elimination of the worst forms of child labor in Anguilla:

Area

Suggested Actions

Year(s) Action Recommended

Laws and Regulations

Amend the law to ensure that children age 17 are protected from dangerous work in industrial sectors.

2011, 2012

Clarify whether Anguilla has codified a list of hazardous activities prohibited for children under age 18.

2011, 2012

Coordination and Enforcement

Establish a coordinating mechanism to combat the commercial sexual exploitation of children.

2009, 2010, 2011, 2012

Collect, analyze, and disseminate information regarding the enforcement of relevant laws protecting children from commercial sexual exploitation.

2009, 2010, 2011, 2012

Policies

Assess the impact that the Child Protection National Action Plan and Safeguarding and Child Protection Protocols and Procedures may have on addressing commercial sexual exploitation of children.

2010, 2011, 2012

Social Programs

Collect, analyze, and disseminate information regarding the prevalence and nature of the commercial sexual exploitation of children and other worst forms of child labor to guide the development of policies and programs to address the problem.

2009, 2010, 2011, 2012

Assess the impact of existing social programs on the commercial sexual exploitation of children.

2010, 2011, 2012

Implement programs to address the commercial sexual exploitation of children.

2011, 2012

 



1. Adele D. Jones, Ena Trotman Jemmott. Child Sexual Abuse in the Eastern Caribbean: The report of a study carried out across the eastern Caribbean during the period October 2008 to June 2009 Huddersfield and London, UNICEF Office for Barbados and the Eastern Caribbean, University of Huddersfield, and Action for Children; 2009. http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/files/Child_Sexual_Abuse_in_the_Eastern_Caribbean_Final_9_Nov.pdf.

2. U.S. Department of State. "United Kingdom," in Human Rights Report- 2012. Washington DC; April 19, 2013; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/204562.pdf.

3. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention: Third and Fourth Periodic Reports of States Parties Due in 2007: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Geneva; February 25, 2008. Report No. CRC/C/GBR4. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/docs/AdvanceVersions/CRC_C_GBR_4.doc.

4. Government of Anguilla. Education Act, enacted 2011.

5. Anafia Norton, PenelopeTaylor, Patrick Vakaoti, Marie Wernham, Freida M'Cormack. Protect Me with Love and Care: A Baseline Report for Creating a Future Free from Violence, Abuse and Exploitation of Girls and Boys in Fiji. Suva, UNICEF Pacific; 2008. http://www.unicef.org/pacificislands/partners_10989.html.

6. Ali, S. Violence against the Girl Child in the Pacific Islands Region. United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women and UNICEF Expert Group Meeting on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination and Violence against the Girl Child. Florence: September 25-28, 2006. http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/egm/elim-disc-viol-girlchild/ExpertPapers/EP.14%20%20Ali.pdf.

7. Government of Anguilla. Anguilla Criminal Code, C140, enacted December 15, 2000. https://www.anguillalaws.com/Acts.asp.

8. U.S. Embassy- London. reporting, January 31, 2013.

9. Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Anguilla; accessed https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html.

10. Child Soldiers International. "Appendix II: Data Summary on Recruitment Ages of National Armies," in Louder than Words: An Agenda for Action to End State Use of Child Soldiers. London; September 2012; http://www.child-soldiers.org/global_report_reader.php?id=562.

11. Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Education Act 1996, enacted July 24, 1996. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1996/56/contents.

12. UNESCO. Education for All Global Monitoring Report: Reaching the Marginalized. Paris; 2010. www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/leading-the-international-agenda/efareport/reports/2010-marginalization/.

13. Anguillia Correspondent. "Focus on Child Protection Protocols – Phase Three." The Anguillian, The Valley, February 26, 2010; Local News. [source on file].

14. Skellekie, S. "The Status of Foster Care in Anguilla," in Regional Foster Care Conference 2009; Anguilla; http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CGkQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.caribbeanfostercare.com%2Ffiles%2FANGUILLA.pdf&ei=nbWzT96pNIai8ATPkNX6CA&usg=AFQjCNGLGuEeHnZaDFHf9vCIiP-rTQNOGw.

15. Government of Anguilla. Safeguarding Children in Anguilla, An Abbreviated Guide; 2011.

16. Christian, I. "Heartically Yours: Building Capacity for Social Protection." The Anguillian, The Valley, September 19, 2008. [source on file].

17. Government of Anguilla- Ministry of Health and Social Development. Safeguarding Children in Anguilla: A Policy Guideline; 2012. [source on file].

18. U.S. Embassy- London. reporting, December 9, 2010.

19. U.S. Embassy- London. reporting, January 19, 2012.

20. Government of Anguilla, Ministry of Health and Social Development. Proposal for Safeguarding of Children Awareness Raising Activities. The Valley; 2012. [source on file].