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2012 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

In 2012, Angola made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government passed a comprehensive law on the protection and development of children, which enumerates a list of rights conferred to children under age 18. The Government continued to administer some programs to combat child labor. However, Angola’s legal framework lacks a minimum age for hazardous work and does not prohibit all forms of human trafficking. In addition, the country lacks a specific age for compulsory education that makes children under age 14 vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor, as they are not required to be in school and are under the minimum legal age for work. Gaps also remain in law enforcement efforts and interinstitutional coordination. Children continue to engage in the worst forms of child labor, particularly in hazardous activities in agriculture.

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Learn More: ILAB in Angola | Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor | Previous Reports:



Prevalence and Sectoral Distribution of the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Children in Angola are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, particularly in dangerous activities in agriculture. Although evidence is limited, children reportedly work in the production of bananas and pineapples, during which they apply pesticides and carry heavy loads.(3) Limited reporting suggests that some children work on tomato plantations.(4) Although evidence is limited, there are reports of forced child labor in the production of rice.(4-6). Children working in agriculture may also use dangerous tools and apply harmful pesticides.(7) Children also work in animal herding, which can subject them to injuries and expose them to disease.(3, 8) Although the extent of the problem is unknown, children reportedly work in high seas fishing, during which they are susceptible to risks such as drowning. These children may also work long hours and perform physically demanding tasks.(4, 9-11) Some children in rural areas work in artisanal diamond mining.(4, 11, 12) Although evidence is limited, children reportedly produce charcoal, which makes them susceptible to burns and carrying heavy loads.(3)

In urban areas, children reportedly work in construction and welding.(9) Limited reporting suggests some children also work in brick-making factories.(4) Children in Huambo work in informal markets lifting loads, cooking, and selling goods such as meat and alcoholic beverages. Children working in informal markets risk exposure to extreme elements, physical injuries, and burns.(3, 13) Children working in the streets engage in commercial sexual exploitation, car washing, and the sale of goods.(4, 9, 11, 14) Children working in the streets can be exposed to the sun and heat, air pollution, heavy vehicular traffic, raw sewage, and criminal and gang activity.(3, 9)

Children in Luanda reportedly work as domestic servants.(4, 9) They may be required to work long hours, performing strenuous tasks, without sufficient food or shelter. These children may be isolated in private homes and are susceptible to physical and sexual abuse.(15, 16)

Children are forced to act as couriers in illegal cross-border trade between Angola and Namibia in order to avoid import fees.(12, 17) They are used in the sale and transport of illegal drugs and are victims of sexual exploitation.(4, 14, 18) Children are also reportedly recruited by criminal gangs to work as thieves.(4, 19)

Angola is a source and destination country for trafficking in children.(11, 17) Children are trafficked for work in agriculture, domestic service, and commercial sexual exploitation.(17, 20) Angolan children are trafficked to Brazil, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Namibia, South Africa, and to Europe—primarily Portugal—to perform a wide variety of work.(17, 20)



Laws and Regulations on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Labor Code sets the minimum age for employment at age 14.(21) The Labor Code requires children between ages 14 and 16 to obtain consent from their guardians to work, although such consent is not required if the children are married or otherwise deemed an adult.(21) The Labor Code prohibits minors from performing hazardous work, and work that could harm their moral development, such as work in bars and discos, however the term minor is not defined.(21)

The Government of Angola has established a list of hazardous work activities and materials, such as toxic substances, that are prohibited for minors. Some prohibited activities include fireworks production, stone mining, animal slaughter, leather production, brick-making, paper-making, and pornography.(26, 27) Research did not uncover if there is a link between the hazardous work list and work prohibited to minors by the Labor Code, or whether the hazardous work list amends the prohibitions in the Labor Code. Neither the Labor Code nor the hazardous work list specifically prohibits children from working in some dangerous activities they are known to engage in, such as high seas fishing, mining, and street work.

In August 2012, the Angolan Government passed a “Law on the Protection and Integral Development of Children,” the purpose of which is to harmonize the legal instruments and designated institutions in order to ensure children’s rights in Angola.(4) The Act enumerates a list of rights conferred to children under 18 years of age and formalizes the establishment of a national hotline to support children’s rights, including protections against child labor.(4, 28) The law also specifically urges the state to pass laws prohibiting the trafficking of children and the use of children in pornography.(4)

The Constitution of Angola prohibits forced labor, trafficking, and slavery.(4, 23, 29) However, Angola does not specifically prohibit all forms of human trafficking, including trafficking for purposes of forced labor.(4, 17, 25) Although the Government has not formally approved a new Penal Code, it follows the regulations established in the Draft Code, which prohibits the sale of children under age 14, commercial sexual exploitation of children, trafficking of children for sexual purposes, and the use of children under age 16 in pornography.(30) In addition, the Constitution forbids the extradition of Angolan nationals, which may hamper regional efforts to prosecute Angolan nationals involved in international trafficking.(12, 30) The Government established a Tourism Code to combat commercial sexual exploitation.(31) However, penalties for the commercial sexual exploitation of children are not as stringent as penalties for other serious crimes.(17)

The Draft Penal Code sets the minimum age for voluntary recruitment into the armed forces at 18 for men and 20 for women and conscription age at 18.(32) Information was not available on whether there are laws regulating the use of children in illicit activities such as drug trafficking.

Law No. 13 of 2001 establishes free and compulsory primary education. The law also establishes that primary education is for 6 years, but does not set a specific start age.(22) The Government reported to the UNESCO Institute of Statistics that education is compulsory until age 12, though it is unclear how this age was determined as there is no such provision in the law, and research found no official policy statements on the topic.(1) This age makes children ages 12 to 14 vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor, as they are not required to be in school and are under the minimum legal age for work.(23) In addition, a lack of school infrastructure and teaching materials deters children from attending school. In some cases, adolescents share classrooms with small children.(19)



Institutional Mechanisms for Coordination and Enforcement

The Ministry of Assistance and Social Reintegration (MINARS) and the National Children’s Institute (INAC) coordinate Government policies to protect the rights of children, while the National Council of Children (CNAC) monitors their implementation.(11, 23) The CNAC is led by MINARS and includes the INAC and 17 other ministries and civil society organizations.(11, 23) The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC) has expressed concern about the lack of transparency in the selection of civil society members of the CNAC.(31)

The Ministry of Public Administration, Employment, and Social Security (MAPESS) is responsible for the enforcement of child labor laws.(14, 23) MAPESS has the authority to fine businesses that use child labor, but cases requiring further investigation must be transferred to the Ministry of Interior. Cases involving prosecution must be transferred to the Ministry of Justice.(4, 14, 23) MAPESS employs labor inspectors in all 18 provinces; they carry out inspections and joint operations with tax authorities and social service providers, though no information is available on how the inspections or joint operations are conducted.(4, 23, 33, 34) The INAC can also receive complaints related to child labor, though it is not clear whether these complaints are investigated by labor inspectors.(23) There is no information available on the number of labor inspectors, inspections performed, or fines levied for child labor infractions during the reporting period.(4)

In 2012, the national budget provided $136 million to agencies responsible for protecting children and families, though no information is available about how much was dedicated to labor inspection activities.(4) The ILO Committee of Experts has expressed concerns about the remuneration gaps and working conditions among inspection staff.(35, 36)

The Courts for Minors enforce child protection legislation, which seeks to protect children from violence, including child labor and prostitution.(37) However, there is no information available about activities to combat child labor carried out by the courts.

The Ministry of the Interior and its agencies, including the National Police, Border Police, and Immigration Service, enforce criminal laws related to trafficking.(20) There is no information on law enforcement officials trained in child trafficking or information on investigations and prosecutions of child trafficking during the reporting period.




Government Policies on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The 11 Commitments for Angolan Children outlines the main policies for protecting children’s rights; its goals include protecting children from exploitation and providing education to every child.(38, 39) The Government has established the National Strategy to Prevent and Mitigate Violence Against Children to guide its efforts to address violence against children.(31) The Government of Angola has a national policy to provide free birth registration for children under age 5 and free identification cards for children under age 11, which can promote children’s enrollment in school and facilitates their access to social services.(31, 40) However, according to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC), a lack of resources limits the Government’s free birth registration policy, and there has not been significant progress on increasing birth registration since 2002.(31, 41)

The Government has not conducted in-depth research on the worst forms of child labor; however, it collected general information on the prevalence of child labor in its 2008-2009 national well-being survey.(42) Findings from this survey were not integrated into any strategies to reduce child labor.

The Government has incorporated access to education into some of its broader development policies. The 2005 Angolan Poverty Reduction Strategy is the main policy document that guides the Government’s antipoverty actions.(43) The Strategy recognizes that a leading cause of poverty is lack of access to basic services, such as education. The Strategy also recognizes that children drop out of school to help their families meet their basic needs.(44) The Government cites the lack of human resources and insufficient schools as the main obstacles to providing education.(44) To improve and expand access to the education system, the Government in 2001 developed the National Education for All Plan, which aims to achieve universal primary education by 2015.(11) In the past, the CRC and UNICEF have pointed out that education funding is inadequate.(31, 41) During the reporting period, the Angolan Government approved a budget that will increase social spending to 34 percent of the total budget; 8.9 percent is projected to go toward education, up from 5 percent during the previous reporting period.(45) The Government also seeks to educate parents on the importance of education and is increasing the number of schools and teachers in the country.(4) There is no publicly available information suggesting that the Government has researched the impact of education policies on the prevalence of child labor.

Angola and other members of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries approved four target areas where they will focus efforts to combat child labor, which include the exchange of information and experiences, awareness-raising campaigns, the use of statistical methodologies to collect child labor data, and technical cooperation and training.(46-48)



Social Programs to Eliminate or Prevent the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Prior to the reporting period, the Government implemented the 11 Commitments for Angolan Children by carrying out a public campaign to raise awareness of the commitments among local governments, civil society organizations, and religious and traditional leaders.(49, 50) The Government also worked with local governments to ensure that child-related issues were incorporated into local services.(49, 51)

In 2008, the Government launched the System of Indicators for Angolan Children to track the implementation of the 11 Commitments; however, the CRC has noted that the System has not been fully developed due to a lack of resources.(31)

During the reporting period, the Government of Angola continued to administer ongoing programs that aim to combat child labor. These programs include providing microcredit opportunities to families, helping families keep children in school while families migrate with cattle herds, and job training programs for youth.(4, 23) The Government also provides free meals for school children.(4, 23) One such program in Benguela, supported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, NGOs, and the Government of Angola, is reported to have fed more than 220,000 school children. According to the Angolan Ministry of Education, there are similar programs in the diamond producing provinces of Lunda Norte and Lunda Sul.(4) Through the INAC, the Government partners with civil society organizations to assist victims of trafficking through child protection networks at the local level.(23) Research did not indicate if there are any Government programs to reach children engaged in dangerous activities in agriculture, street work, domestic service, informal mining, forced labor, or cross-border couriering.

During the reporting period, the Government of Angola participated in a 2-year, USDOL-funded $500,000 project to strengthen the capacity of Lusophone countries in Africa. The project, which ran from December 2010 to December 2012, supported capacity building and enhanced dialogue among national stakeholders in preparation of the development of a national action plan. It also promoted cooperation among participating countries, complementing another South-South initiative funded by the Government of Brazil.(52) In addition, the Government of Angola participates in a project funded by the EU to combat child labor through education in 11 countries, including Angola.(53)

Angola receives support from international donors to improve vulnerable children’s access to education. Since 2010, UNICEF, the Nelson Mandela Foundation, and the Hamburg Society have run the Schools for Africa Phase II Program, which seeks to benefit 8 million children in 11 African countries. In Angola the program has reached more than 7,000 children and is slated to expand to benefit an additional 5,000 children.(54) UNICEF works in partnership with the Government to identify and assist undocumented children.(39) The question of whether these programs have had an impact on child labor does not appear to have been addressed.



Based on the reporting above, the following actions would advance the elimination of the worst forms of child labor in Angola:

Area

Suggested Actions

Year(s) Action Recommended

Laws and Regulations

Make education compulsory to age 14.

2009, 2010, 2011,2012

Set a legal minimum age for hazardous work.

2010, 2011, 2012

Ensure that the legal framework fully prohibits hazardous work for children.

2011, 2012

Consider including dangerous work in fishing, mining, and street work as hazardous work prohibited to children.

2011, 2012

Formally approve the Draft Penal Code and increase penalties and prohibitions related to the trafficking of children, specifically

  • Prohibit all forms of trafficking of children, including for forced labor.
  • Increase penalties for commercial sexual exploitation of children.

2009, 2010, 2011, 2012

Consider allowing the extradition of Angolan nationals involved in cases of international human trafficking of children.

2009, 2011, 2012

Coordination and Enforcement

Make information publicly available about how labor inspections are conducted, the number of labor inspections performed, and resulting penalties, including child labor infractions.

2011, 2012

Ensure that complaints related to child labor are investigated by relevant government agencies.

2010, 2011, 2012

Strengthen the labor inspection system, including providing adequate remuneration to inspection staff.

2009, 2010, 2011, 2012

Make information publicly available about the Courts for Minors’ activities to enforce child protection legislation, including child labor and child prostitution.

2011, 2012

Make process of selection of civil society members of the CNAC transparent.

2012

Make information publicly available about law enforcement officials’ training on child trafficking issues, and the number of investigations and prosecutions of child trafficking.

2011, 2012

Policies

Use the results of the national well-being survey to consider the targeting of existing policies and social programs to working children.

2009, 2010, 2011, 2012

Conduct research on the worst forms of child labor.

2010, 2011, 2012

Accelerate child birth registration and identification processes to facilitate school enrollment, provide social services to vulnerable children, and reduce children’s risk of being trafficked.

2010, 2011, 2012

Assess the impact that existing policies, such as the National Education for All Plan, may have on addressing child labor.

2011, 2012

Social Programs

Provide funds to ensure the implementation of the 11 Commitments for Angolan Children and the System of Indicators for Angolan Children monitoring system.

2010, 2011, 2012

Develop and implement programs that target children engaged in agriculture, street work, domestic service, mining, and forced labor, including cross-border child couriering.

2010, 2011, 2012

Assess the impact that existing programs—such as the provision of microcredit, assistance to migrant families, and youth job training—may have on child labor.

2011, 2012



1. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total.; accessed February 4, 2013; http://www.uis.unesco.org/Pages/default.aspx?SPSLanguage=EN. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

2. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. February 5, 2013. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

3. Interactive Social Analysis. Onjoi: Baseline Study on Child Labor and Education in Benguela. Luanda; 2008 April.

4. U.S. Embassy- Luanda. reporting, February 13, 2013.

5. Voice of America. "Angola: Trabalho Infantil em Plantações Chinesas." voanews.com [online] December 15, 2010 [cited February 20, 2013]; http://www.voanews.com/portuguese/news/12_15_angola_china_childlabour_voanews-111943619.html.

6. Voice of America. "UNICEF Denuncia Exploração de Menores em Angola." voanews.com [online] December 24, 2010 [cited February 20, 2013]; http://www.voanews.com/portuguese/news/12_24_2010_unicef_angola_labor_minors-112425824.html.

7. International Labour Office. Children in hazardous work: What we know, What we need to do. Geneva, International Labour Organization; 2011. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/---publ/documents/publication/wcms_155428.pdf While country-specific information on the dangers children face in agriculture is not available, research studies and other reports have documented the dangerous nature of tasks in agriculture and their accompanying occupational exposures, injuries and potential health consequences to children working in the sector.

8. ILO. Children in hazardous work; 2011. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/@dgreports/@dcomm/@publ/documents/publication/wcms_155428.pdf.

9. ICF Macro. Children Working in Luanda, Angola. Washington, DC; 2009.

10. International Labour Office. Children in hazardous work: What we know, What we need to do. Geneva, International Labour Organization; 2011. While country-specific information on the dangers children face in fishing is not available, research studies and other reports have documented the dangerous nature of tasks in fishing and their accompanying occupational exposures, injuries and potential health consequences to children working in the sector.

11. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 44 of the Convention: Angola. Government of Angola, Periodic Reports of States Parties: Angola. February 26, 2010. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/docs/CRC.C.AGO.2-4.doc.

12. U.S. Embassy- Luanda. reporting, March 2, 2010.

13. Constantino, J. "Trabalho infantil é estimulado pelos pais." [previously online] October 15, 2010 [cited 2010]; Hard copy on file.

14. U.S. Department of State. "Angola," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2012. Washington, DC; April 19, 2013; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2012/af/186163.htm.

15. International Labour Office. Children in hazardous work: What we know, What we need to do. Geneva, International Labour Organization; 2011. While country-specific information on the dangers children face in domestic work is not available, research studies and other reports have documented the dangerous nature of tasks in domestic work and their accompanying occupational exposures, injuries and potential health consequences to children working in the sector.

16. International Labour Office. Domestic Labour, ILO, [online] [cited October 26, 2012]; http://www.ilo.org/ipec/areas/Childdomesticlabour/lang--en/index.htm.

17. U.S. Department of State. "Angola," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2011. Washington, DC; June 27, 2011; http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2011/index.htm.

18. Manuel, T. "Casos de violência contra menores estão a aumentar no Kwanza-Sul." Jornal de Angola, December 11, 2010. http://jornaldeangola.sapo.ao/14/13/casos_de_violencia_contra_menores_estao_a_aumentar_no_kwanza-sul.

19. ILO. The Worst Forms of Child labor in Conflict and Post Conflict Settings: Results from a Research Project. Turin, International Training Centre; 2010. http://training.itcilo.org/ils/ils_childlabour/training_materials/English/Brochure%20CL%20In%20conflict_EN.pdf.

20. U.S. Embassy- Luanda. reporting, February 22, 2011.

21. Government of Angola. Lei Geral do Trabalho de Angola, enacted June 2, 2010. http://www.angolanainternet.ao/portalempresas/images/documentos/lei_geral_trabalho.pdf.

22. Government of Angola. Lei de Bases do Sistema de Educação, Lei N.º 13/01, enacted December 31, 2001. http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Angola/Angola_Lei_de_educacao.pdf.

23. U.S. Embassy- Luanda. reporting, February 1, 2012.

24. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Angola (ratification: 2001) Submitted: 2011; accessed February 20, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/pdconv.pl?host=status01&textbase=iloeng&document=27006&chapter=9&query=Angola%40ref&highlight=&querytype=bool&context=0.

25. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Angola (ratification: 2001) Published: 2011; accessed February 20, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/pdconv.pl?host=status01&textbase=iloeng&document=12686&chapter=6&query=Angola%40ref&highlight=&querytype=bool&context=0.

26. Government of Angola. Decreto Executivo Conjunto No. 171/10 de 12 de Dezembro que aprova a lista de actividades proíbidas ou condicionadas a menores, enacted December 24, 2010. http://www.casacivilpr.com/pt/documentos/bd46c403a820f6aecb2d2e6da52e1738876cc089.pdf.

27. AVM Advogados. Trabalhos proibidos ou condicionados a menores, [cited July 17, 2013]; http://www.avm-advogados.com/newsletter/old/2011-03/newsletter_avm_2011-03_PT.pdf.

28. "Lei sobre protecção da criança já entrou em vigor em Angola." [previously online] September 12, 2012 [cited 2012]; Hard copy on file.

29. Government of Angola. Constituição da República de Angola, enacted January 21, 2010. http://www.comissaoconstitucional.ao/pdfs/constituicao-da-republica-de-angola.pdf.

30. Government of Angola. Anteprojecto de Código Penal, enacted 2006. http://www.saflii.org/ao/legis/num_act/cp76.pdf.

31. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 44 of the Convention. Concluding Observations: Angola; October 11, 2010. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/docs/co/CRC-C-AGO-CO-2-4.doc.

32. Child Soldiers International. "Appendix II: Data Summary on Recruitment Ages of National Armies," in Louder Than Words: An Agenda for Action to End State Use of Child Soldiers. London; 2012; http://www.child-soldiers.org/global_report_reader.php?id=562.

33. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81) Angola (ratification: 1976) Published: 2009; accessed 2009; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/pdconv.pl?host=status01&textbase=iloeng&document=22485&chapter=9&query=Angola%40ref&highlight=&querytype=bool&context=0.

34. U.S. Embassy- Luanda. reporting, February 16, 2011.

35. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81) Angola (ratification: 1976) Submitted: 2010; accessed February 20, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/pdconv.pl?host=status01&textbase=iloeng&document=24072&chapter=9&query=Angola%40ref&highlight=&querytype=bool&context=0.

36. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (no. 81) Angola (ratification: 1976) Published: 2012; accessed January 3, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_NAME,P11110_COMMENT_YEAR:2698548,102999,Angola,2011.

37. Government of Angola. Lei sobre o Julgado de Menores, Lei N.º 9/96, enacted April 19, 1996. http://www.law.yale.edu/rcw/rcw/jurisdictions/afm/angola/frontpage.htm#_edn9.

38. "Conselho Nacional da Criança faz balanço." Jornal de Angola, January 25, 2011. http://jornaldeangola.sapo.ao/20/0/conselho_nacional_da_crianca_faz_balanco.

39. UNICEF. Angola: Background, [online] [cited February 20, 2013]; http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/angola_502.html.

40. Felton, S. Schools for Africa: Transforming Lives through Education, UNICEF, [online] [cited February 20, 2013]; http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/angola_55501.html.

41. Reis, H. "Representante da UNICEF elogia apoios às crianças." Jornal de Angola, January 13, 2011. http://jornaldeangola.sapo.ao/27/0/representante_da_unicef_elogia_apoios_as_criancas.

42. Government of Angola Ministry of Planning. Inquérito Integrado Sobre o Bem-Estar da População (IBEP) 2008-09; 2010. http://cnsc2009forum.bligoo.com/media/users/4/211695/files/23110/Grelha_de_Indicadores_IBEP_2010.pdf.

43. United Nations Development Programme. Angola: Poverty Reduction, [online] [cited February 20, 2013]; http://www.ao.undp.org/Poverty%20Reduction.htm.

44. Government of Angola. Estratégia de Combate à Pobreza; 2005. http://mirror.undp.org/angola/LinkRtf/ECP-Angola2005.pdf.

45. McClelland, C. "Angola Approves $69 Billion Budget with $4.1 Billion Deficit." Bloomberg, February 14, 2013. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-02-14/angola-approves-69-billion-budget-with-4-1-billion-deficit.html.

46. Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries. Declaracão de Luanda. Luanda, Ministras e os Ministros do Trabalho e dos Assuntos Sociais dos Países da Comunidade de Língua Portuguesa; March 29, 2011. http://www.cplp.org/id-2281.aspx.

47. Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries. Resolução sobre a Prevenção e a Eliminação da Exploração do Trabalho Infantil na CPLP. Luanda; March 29, 2011. http://www.cplp.org/Default.aspx?ID=2281.

48. Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries. II Reunião de pontos focais para área do Trabalho Infantil da CPLP. Maputo; October 28, 2010. http://www.cplp.org/Default.aspx?ID=2281.

49. Conselho Nacional da Criança. Programas Sectoriais Dedicados a Implementação dos 11 Compromissos, [previously online] [cited February 20, 2013]; Hard copy on file.

50. Government of Angola Ministry of Assitance and Social Reintegration and National Council for Children. Estrategia de Divulgação dos 11 Compromissos; 2008. http://cnsc2009forum.bligoo.com/media/users/10/512353/files/23110/Estrat_gia_de_divulga_o_dos_11_compromissos_pela_crian_a.pdf.

51. Conselho Nacional da Criança. Linha Orientadora dos 11 Compromissos para a Criança ao Nível Municipal, [online] [cited February 20, 2013]; http://bit.ly/IGLbd1.

52. USDOL. Technical Cooperation Project Summary: Supporting Actions to Meet the 2015 Targets to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labour in Lusophone Countries in Africa through Knowledge, Awareness Raising and South-South Cooperation; 2011. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/LusophoneAfr_CECL.pdf.

53. ILO-IPEC. Tackle Child Labor through Education: Moving Children from Work to School in 11 Countries. Geneva; June 2008. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=8511.

54. UNICEF. Schools for Africa: Transforming Lives through Education, [online] [cited April 25, 2011]; http://www.schoolsforafrica.com/results/31_resultsbycountry.htm.