2013 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor
In 2013, Angola made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government passed a new trafficking in persons (TIP) law protecting all children from commercial sexual exploitation and from being used in illicit activities, and amended the penal code to criminalize TIP crimes. It also carried out the first investigation of a child trafficking case in 4 years and continued to participate in various child protection programs. However, children in Angola continue to engage in child labor in agriculture and mining. The country lacks a specific age for compulsory education, which makes children under age 14 vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor, as they are not required to be in school and are under the minimum legal age for work. Angola also lacks a mechanism to coordinate efforts to combat child labor, and there is little publicly available information on its efforts to enforce child labor law.
Children in Angola engage in child labor in agriculture and in mining.(1-3) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Angola.
|Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):||25.7 (694,458)|
|School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):||65.4|
|Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):||22.1|
|Primary completion rate (%):||54.3|
Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2011, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2014. (4)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2, 2001. (5)
Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.
|Agriculture||Work on tomato plantations,* production of rice* (3, 6-9)|
|High-seas fishing,* animal herding* (2, 9, 10)|
|Industry||Artisanal diamond mining (1-3)|
|Construction, brick making,* welding†(3, 8, 10, 11)|
|Services||Informal market vending, street work, car washing (2, 10, 12-14)|
|Working as porters, shining shoes* (9)|
|Domestic service (3, 10)|
|Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡||Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 3, 10, 12, 13)|
|Agriculture work as a result of human trafficking (2, 15)|
|Domestic service as a result of human trafficking (2, 15)|
|Drug trafficking, illicit activities, working as thieves in criminal gangs (8, 12, 16)|
*Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
†Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a) - (c) of ILO C. 182.
The Government has not conducted in-depth research on the worst forms of child labor; however, it collected general information on the prevalence of child labor in its 2008-2009 national well-being survey.(17) Angola has not used findings from this survey to develop any strategies to reduce child labor. There is no publicly available information suggesting that the Government has researched the impact of education policies on the prevalence of child labor.
On the country's streets engage in the commercial sexual exploitation, car washing, and the sale of goods.(2,3, 10, 12) In Huambo, children work at informal markets lifting loads, cooking, and selling goods such as meat and alcoholic beverages.(14) There are reports that Chinese companies employ children in brick-making factories and in rice production.(6, 8)
Limited evidence suggests that Angolan children are trafficked to Brazil, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Namibia, South Africa, and to Europe-primarily Portugal-to work in a wide variety of jobs, including those in domestic service and agriculture.(9) Girls as young as 12 years old are trafficked from the Democratic Republic of Congo to Angola.(8)
Angola has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).
|ILO C. 138, Minimum Age||✅|
|ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor||✅|
|UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict||✅|
|UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography||✅|
|Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons|
The Government has established relevant laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).
|Minimum Age for Work||Yes||14||The Labor Code (18)|
|Minimum Age for Hazardous Work||Yes||18||Act No. 2/00 (19)|
|List of Hazardous Occupations Prohibited for Children||Yes||Joint Executive Decree No. 171/10 (20)|
|Prohibition of Forced Labor||Yes||Constitution of Angola (3, 21, 22)|
|Prohibition of Child Trafficking||Yes||Articles 22 and 23 of Law No. 3 of 2014; Law on the Protection and Integral Development of Children; Constitution of Angola; Law 2/14 (3, 9, 21-23)|
|Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children||Yes||Articles 22 and 23 of Law No. 3 of 2014; Law Tourism Code; Law on the Protection and Integral Development of Children (3, 23, 24)|
|Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities||Yes||Articles 22 and 23 of Law No. 3 of 2014 (23)|
|Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment||Yes||18||Military service law 1/93 (9, 25)|
|Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service||Yes||18||Military service law 1/93 (9, 25)|
|Compulsory Education Age||Yes||12||Law No. 13 of 2001 (26)|
|Free Public Education||Yes||Law No. 13 of 2001 (26)|
During the reporting period, the Government passed a new TIP Law 3/14, which protects all children less than 18 years old from commercial sexual exploitation, prostitution, and from being used in illicit activities.(23)
The Government's list of hazardous work prohibits activities for minors including fireworks production, stone mining, animal slaughter, leather production, brick-making, paper-making, and pornography.(20, 27) Research did not uncover whether this hazardous work list sets forth all work prohibited to minors, or whether is amends existing prohibitions in the labor code.
In 2013, the Government also amended the penal code to criminalize TIP for sexual or labor purposes. The new law also penalizes employers or labor agents who confiscate workers' identity documents, switch contracts without the workers' consent, or withhold payment of salaries.(9) The penalty for sexual or labor trafficking, including acting as an agent of a trafficker, is 8 to 12 years in prison; custodial adults who allow children to engage in trafficking may be subject to 2 to 8 years in prison.(9)
The law establishes that primary education is for 6 years, but does not set a specific start age.(26) The Government reported to the UNESCO Institute of Statistics that education is compulsory until age 12, though it is unclear how this age was determined, as there is no such provision in the law, and research found no official policy statements on the topic.(4) Ending compulsory education age at 12 years leaves children ages 12 to 14 vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor, as they are not required to be in school but are under the minimum legal age for work.(22) A lack of school infrastructure and teaching materials deters children from attending school.(16) The Government cites the lack of human resources and schools as the main obstacles to providing education.(29) However, the Government also seeks to educate parents on the importance of education and is increasing the number of schools and teachers in the country.(3)
The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).
|The Ministry of Public Administration, Employment, and Social Security (MAPESS)||Enforce child labor laws and fine businesses that use child labor; cases requiring further investigation must be transferred to the Ministry of Interior and cases involving prosecution must be transferred to the Ministry of Justice.(3, 12, 22) Employ labor inspectors in all 18 provinces to carry out inspections and joint operations with tax authorities and social service providers.(3, 22, 30, 31)|
|National Children's Institute (INAC)||Receive complaints related to child labor.(22)|
|The Courts for Minors||Enforce legislation that protects children from violence, child labor, and prostitution.(32)|
|Ministry of the Interior and its agencies, including the National Police, Border Police, and Immigration Service||Enforce criminal laws related to trafficking.(33)|
Law enforcement agencies in Angola took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.
Labor Law Enforcement
In 2013, Angola employed 187 labor inspectors; it plans to hire an additional 138 inspectors. In 2013, government agencies charged with the protection of children and families received $1.09 million; however, it is unclear what amount was provided for labor inspections.(9) Inspectors, especially those outside of Luanda, lack necessary resources and sufficient training to carry out their work. In 2013, MAPESS and the ILO held a join training for child labor enforcement.(9) No information is available on how MAPESS conducts its own inspections or joint operations with tax authorities and social service providers.(9)
During the reporting period, MAPESS carried out inspections and fined companies for labor law violations; however no data is available on the number and nature of the inspections.(9)
No information is publically available on how the Courts for Minors enforce child protection legislation, including child labor and child prostitution.
Criminal Law Enforcement
In January 2013, the Angola government carried out the first trafficking investigation in more than 4 years. The case involved 54 children who were trafficked from the province of Huila to work on tomato farms in the southern province of Namibe.(8) The INAC investigated the case and met with MAPESS and local farming associations.(8) The 54 child-trafficking victims went to the Ministry of Assistance and Social Reintegration (MINARS) shelters before returning to their families.(8)
Another case involved teenagers from the province of Huila who were recruited by a Chinese construction company to work in the province of Zaire. The Police Criminal Investigation Unit (DNIC), in collaboration with the provincial arm of the National Institute for Children, rescued the victims and returned them to their families. The recruiter, a Chinese national, was arrested.(9) In 2013, another group of 10 minors from Huila province were reunited with their families after being trafficked to Namibe province. A criminal investigation has been initiated, but no additional information is available.(9)
The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).
|Coordinating Body||Role & Description|
|The Ministry of Assistance and Social Reintegration (MINARS) and the National Children's Institute (INAC)||Coordinate Government policies to protect the rights of children.(2, 22)|
|National Council of Children (CNAC)||Monitor the implementation of government policies to protect the rights of children through MINARS and INAC. Led by MINARS. Includes the INAC and 17 other ministries and civil society organizations.(2, 22)|
The process for selecting civil society members of the CNAC lacks transparency, and the UN CRC has expressed concern over this.(24)
The Government of Angola has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).
|The Eleven Commitments for Angolan Children*||Outlines the main policies for protecting children's rights; goals include protecting children from exploitation and providing education to every child.(34, 35)|
|National Strategy to Prevent and Mitigate Violence Against Children*||Guides the Government's efforts to address violence against children.(24)|
|Plan of Action and Intervention against the Sexual and Commercial Exploitation of Children (NPAI SCEC)||Aims to protect and defend the rights of child victims of sexual and commercial exploitation, including the rehabilitation and social inclusion of the victims.(36)|
|Free birth registration and free identification cards*||Provides free birth registration for children under age 5 and free identification cards for children under age 11, thereby promoting their enrollment in school and their access to social services.(24, 37). Research indicates, as found by the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC), that a lack of resources limits the Government's free birth registration policy, and there has not been significant progress on increasing birth registration.(24, 38)|
|The 2005 Angolan Poverty Reduction Strategy*||Serves as the main policy document that guides the Government's antipoverty actions. Supports the Millennium Development Goals and includes as its objectives poverty reduction, democratic governance, crisis prevention, and recovery, environmental protection, and sustainable development.(39)|
|National Education for All Plan*||Aims to achieve universal primary education by 2015.(2)|
|Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (CPLP)||Includes Angola and other members of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (Cabo Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe). Approved four target areas where these countries will focus efforts to combat child labor: exchange of information and experiences, awareness-raising campaigns, use of statistical methodologies to collect child labor data, and technical cooperation and training .(40-43) During the reporting period, the Government participated in technical meetings with CPLP counterparts, and representatives of Government agencies participated in the child labor conference in Brazil. Angola helped produce and distribute a 30-minute documentary on the child labor situation in CPLP countries. Documentary aired in all five countries.(44)|
*The impact of this policy on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
During the reporting period, Angola held the VI Annual National Child Forum with the theme "Protected Child, Stronger Nation".(45)
In 2013, the Government of Angola funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).
|Mobile schools‡||Ministry of Education program that provides education in mobile schools to migrant children who work with their parents in herding cattle.(9) Programs exist in different provinces including Benguela and the diamond-producing provinces of Lunda Norte and Lunda Sul.(9) Some mobile schools also have kitchens, which facilitate in the Government's school meal program.(9, 45) Programs also include clinics in rural areas. In 2013, the first solar energy mobile school was opened in Luanda.(45, 46)|
|Tackling Child Labor through Education (TACKLE) project||Jointly launched by the European Commission and the ILO to combat child labor through education in 12 African and the Caribbean countries and the Pacific group of states (ACP).(47) Collaborated in the production of a documentary on child labor scheduled to air on major television networks in Portuguese-speaking countries in 2013.(48)|
|Microcredit project‡||MAPESS program that provides cash assistance so their children are not forced to work.(9)|
|Free Professional Training‡*||MAPESS program that provides free professional training for youth.(9)|
|Education, Communications, and Art in Defense of Child and Adolescent Rights (ECOAR): the end of child labor!||ECOAR program for teacher training to help raise awareness of the causes and consequences of child labor. One of the main partners of the program is the National Union of Angolan Workers-Central Trade Union (UNTA-CS), which already trained 40 teachers in different schools in Luanda.(13)|
|System of Indicators for Angolan Children*‡||Government program, launched in 2008, which tracks the System of Indicators for Angolan Children.(24) The System has not been fully developed due to a lack of resources.(24)|
|Free meals for children*‡||Government program offering free meals for school children.(3, 22) One such program in Benguela, supported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, NGOs, and the Government of Angola, is reported to have fed more than 220,000 school children. The Angolan Ministry of Education reports similar programs in the provinces of Lunda Norte and Lunda Sul.(3)|
|Child Protection Networks‡*||National Children's Institute (INAC) and Government partner with civil society organizations program to assist victims of trafficking through child protection networks at the local level.(22)|
|Schools for Africa Phase II Program*||UNICEF, the Nelson Mandela Foundation, and the Hamburg Society school program, which seeks to benefit 8 million children in 11 African countries by providing greater access to education. As of 2011, the program had reached more than 2,430,000 children in Angola.(49)|
|Children's shelters, including for child trafficking victims‡||Ministry of Family and Women's Promotion (MINFAMU) and the Organization of Angolan Women children's shelters. There are 51 children's shelters available for child trafficking victims.(8)|
*The impact of this program on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
‡Program is funded by the Government of Angola.
During the reporting period, the Government hosted many activities to raise child labor awareness, including seminars, radio debates, and two child labor conferences.(9)
Although Angola has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem. Research did not identify programs that target children engaged in some of the worst forms of child labor, such as trafficking in agriculture, street work, domestic service, mining, and forced labor.
Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Angola (Table 9).
|Area||Suggested Action||Year(s) Suggested|
|Laws||Ratify the Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons.||2013|
|Ensure that the legal framework fully prohibits hazardous work for children.||2011 - 2013|
|Consider including dangerous work in all types of mining, and street work as hazardous work prohibited to children.||2011 - 2013|
|Consider allowing the extradition of Angolan nationals involved in cases of international trafficking of children.||2009 - 2013|
|Make education compulsory to age 14.||2009 - 2013|
|Enforcement||Make information publicly available about how labor inspections are conducted, the number of labor inspections performed, and resulting penalties, including child labor violations.||2011 - 2013|
|Make information publicly available about how the Courts for Minors' enforce child protection legislation, including child labor and child prostitution.||2011 - 2013|
|Make information publicly available about law enforcement officials' training on child trafficking issues, and the number of investigations and prosecutions of child trafficking.||2011 - 2013|
|Ensure that complaints related to child labor are investigated by relevant government agencies.||2010 - 2013|
|Strengthen the labor inspection system, including providing adequate pay to inspection staff.||2009 - 2013|
|Coordination||Release details on the selection process for civil society members of the CNAC.||2012 - 2013|
|Government Policies||Use the results of the 2008-2009 national well-being survey to consider the targeting of existing policies and social programs to working children.||2009 - 2013|
|Assess the impact that existing policies may have on addressing child labor.||2011 - 2013|
|Conduct research on the worst forms of child labor.||2010 - 2013|
|Accelerate birth registration and identification processes to promote school enrollment and provide social services to vulnerable children.||2010 - 2013|
|Provide more teachers, schools, and funding for education.||2013|
|Social Programs||Provide sufficient funds to implement the Eleven Commitments for Angolan Children and monitor the System of Indicators for Angolan Children.||2010 - 2013|
|Develop and implement programs that target children engaged in agriculture, street work, domestic service, mining, and forced labor and trafficking in these activities.||2010 - 2013|
|Assess the impact that existing programs may have on child labor.||2011 - 2013|
2. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 44 of the Convention: Angola. Geneva; February 26, 2010. Report No. CRC/C/AGO/2-4. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/docs/CRC.C.AGO.2-4.doc.
4. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed February 10, 2014]; http://www.uis.unesco.org/Pages/default.aspx?SPSLanguage=EN . Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.
5. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2, 2001 Analysis received February 13, 2014. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.
6. Voice of America. "Angola: Trabalho Infantil em Plantações Chinesas." voaportugues.com [online] December 15, 2010 [cited February 20, 2014]; http://www.voanews.com/portuguese/news/12_15_angola_china_childlabour_voanews-111943619.html.
7. Gayeta, A. "UNICEF Denuncia Exploração de Menores em Angola." voaportugues.com [online] December 24, 2010 [cited February 20, 2014]; http://www.voanews.com/portuguese/news/12_24_2010_unicef_angola_labor_minors-112425824.html.
11. Vieira, A. "Child Labour Cases on the Rise in Angola " africareview.com [online] June 6, 2013 [cited March 3, 2014]; http://www.africareview.com/News/Child-labour-cases-on-the-rise-in-Angola-/-/979180/1874160/-/kryvs6/-/index.html.
12. U.S. Department of State. "Angola," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2013&dlid=220081EXECUTIVE
13. ILO-IPEC. Angola: Estudo sobre a Aplicação das Convenções n.° 138 e n.° 182 da OIT e Suas Recomendações na Legislação Nacional dos Países da CPLP . Geneva; December 2012. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_222484/lang--en/index.htm.
17. Ministry of Planning. Inquérito Integrado Sobre o Bem-Estar da População (IBEP) 2008-09 . Luanda, National Institute of Statistics; August 2010. http://cnsc2009forum.bligoo.com/media/users/4/211695/files/23110/Grelha_de_Indicadores_IBEP_2010.pdf.
19. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Angola (ratification: 2001) Submitted: 2011; accessed February 20, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/pdconv.pl?host=status01&textbase=iloeng&document=27006&chapter=9&query=Angola%40ref&highlight=&querytype=bool&context=0.
24. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 44 of the Convention: Concluding Observations: Angola. Geneva; October 11, 2010. Report No. CRC/C/AGO/CO/2-4. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/docs/co/CRC-C-AGO-CO-2-4.doc.
25. Child Soldiers International. "Appendix II: Data Summary on Recruitment Ages of National Armies," in Louder Than Words: An Agenda for Action to End State Use of Child Soldiers. London; 2012; http://www.child-soldiers.org/global_report_reader.php?id=562.
27. Government of Angola. Decreto Executivo Conjunto No. 171/10 de 12 de Dezembro que Aprova a Lista de Actividades Proíbidas ou Condicionadas a Menores, enacted December 24, 2010. http://www.casacivilpr.com/pt/documentos/bd46c403a820f6aecb2d2e6da52e1738876cc089.pdf.
30. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81) Angola (ratification: 1976) Published: 2009; accessed January 10, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/pdconv.pl?host=status01&textbase=iloeng&document=22485&chapter=9&query=Angola%40ref&highlight=&querytype=bool&context=0.
34. "Conselho Nacional da Criança Faz Balanço." Jornal de Angola, Luanda, January 25, 2011. http://jornaldeangola.sapo.ao/20/0/conselho_nacional_da_crianca_faz_balanco.
36. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Angola (ratification: 2001) Published: 2011; accessed February 20, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/pdconv.pl?host=status01&textbase=iloeng&document=12686&chapter=6&query=Angola%40ref&highlight=&querytype=bool&context=0.
37. Felton, S. With Free Birth Registration, Angola Promotes a Child's Right to Legal Identity, UNICEF, [online] August 10, 2010 [cited February 20, 2014]; http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/angola_55501.html.
40. Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries. Declaracão de Luanda . Luanda, Ministras e os Ministros do Trabalho e dos Assuntos Sociais dos Países da Comunidade de Língua Portuguesa; March 29, 2011. http://www.cplp.org/id-2281.aspx.
41. Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries. Resolução sobre a Prevenção e a Eliminação da Exploração do Trabalho Infantil na CPLP . Luanda; March 29, 2011. http://www.cplp.org/Default.aspx?ID=2281.
43. Agência Angola Press. "Angola Apresenta Declaração em Nome da CPLP na Sessão da OIT." portalangpop.co.ao [online] March 20, 2014 [cited May 21, 2014]; http://www.portalangop.co.ao/angola/pt_pt/noticias/sociedade/2014/2/12/Angola-apresenta-declaracao-nome-CPLP-sessao-OIT,1f86ff1d-8a3c-4b92-85c4-25f113650d71.html.
44. Agência Angola Press. "Documentário sobre Trabalho Infantil nos PALOP Será Difundido no Final do Mês." portalangpop.co.ao [online] January 22, 2013 [cited May 21, 2014]; http://www.portalangop.co.ao/angola/pt_pt/noticias/africa/2013/0/4/Documentario-sobre-trabalho-infantil-nos-PALOP-sera-difundido-final-mes,527b6a96-2b6e-46ea-83f3-d3f1f436136b.html.
47. ILO-IPEC. Tackling child Labour through Education in African, Caribbean and the Pacific (ACP) States (TACKLE) Geneva; 2014. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/projects/global/tackle/angola/lang--en/index.htm.
48. ILO-IPEC. Good Practices in Tacking Child Labor through Education: Selected Examples from the IPEC TACKLE Project Geneva; 2013. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/download.do?type=document&id=22956.
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