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2012 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

In 2012, Afghanistan made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government of Afghanistan established the High Commission for Combating Crimes of Abduction and Human Trafficking/Smuggling and approved the National Action Plan on Trafficking in Persons. The Government also worked to reduce the numbers of children illegally entering the Afghan National Police (ANP) and Afghan Local Police (ALP) through the establishment of Child Centers in the western provinces of Afghanistan. While these centers have prevented some children from joining the ANP, children continued to be recruited and used for military purposes by non-state groups, as well as by the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF), including the ANP and the ALP. Children in Afghanistan continue to engage in other worst forms of child labor, including forced labor in the production of bricks and dangerous work in agriculture.

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Prevalence and Sectoral Distribution of the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Children in Afghanistan are engaged in the worst forms of child labor. Such worst forms include the recruitment and use of children for military purposes, forced labor in the production of bricks, anddangerous work in agriculture.(3-9) Children work in agriculture in Afghanistan, including in the cultivation of poppies for opium production.(9, 10) Children working in agriculture may use dangerous tools and transport heavy loads.(11, 12) There is limited evidence that children also raise livestock or shepherd animals. A study found that some children raising or herding livestock may be physically abused by animal owners, and girls may be sexually harassed when herding far from home.(13) Children herding livestock may suffer injuries such as being bitten, butted, gored, or trampled by animals.(14)

Children engage in exploitative work in home-based carpet weaving. They work long hours with their families, use dangerous tools and equipment, carry heavy loads, are exposed to dangerous chemicals, and inhale harmful wool dust.(5, 9, 15, 16)

Children work as auto mechanics and as blacksmiths in metal workshops. These occupations expose them to occupational injuries such as cuts and burns.(5, 17) Children reportedly work on construction sites.(18) Children mine coal, which may lead to respiratory illnesses or injuries from explosions.(19-21) There is limited evidence that children also work in gem mining operations.(9, 17)

Children also work as domestic servants.(9, 16) Employers may require them to work long hours and perform strenuous tasks without sufficient food or shelter. Additionally, they may be isolated in private homes and are susceptible to physical and sexual abuse.(9, 16, 22, 23)

There is limited evidence that children gather, transport, and sell firewood, sometimes far from home, making them vulnerable to animal attacks, falls, car accidents, sexual abuse, or abuse from landowners.(13) Children also travel long distances and carry heavy loads in the collection of water.(24)

Children also work in brick factories for long hours in extreme heat or cold, under unhygienic conditions and in polluted environments. Some of these children labor in conditions of debt bondage.(5, 6, 16, 25-27)

Children are used in illicit activities related to narcotics, including drug smuggling across borders.(16, 17, 26, 28) Children are recruited and used for military purposes by non-state groups.(3, 4, 7-9, 29, 30) Reported instances of children serving in the ANSF, including the ANP and the ALP, declined during the reporting period. In most cases, it was reported that children altered their national identity cards to reflect an age of 18 or older, and at times with the knowledge of government officials.(3, 8, 9, 29, 30) Non-state armed groups such as the Haqqani Network, Hezb-i-Islami, Tora Bora Military Front, Jamat Sunat al-Dawa Salafia, and the Taliban recruit child soldiers; the Taliban and the Haqqani Network use children as suicide bombers.(3, 4, 26, 30-36) During 2012, the UN verified incidents involving the abduction of 66 boys and verified that the cases were attributed to the Taliban, some pro-government militias, and the ALP.(30) Armed groups, as well as other actors, also reportedly use children, especially boys, in commercial sexual exploitation, including baccha baazi (boy play). These children are required to dance for them and are often sexually exploited.(3, 4, 9, 16, 26, 30, 34)

Afghanistan is a source and destination country for trafficking in persons. Trafficking within Afghanistan is more prevalent than transnational trafficking.(16) Afghan children are trafficked internally for forced labor, including debt bondage in the brick industry, forced begging, commercial sexual exploitation, and domestic service. In addition, there is limited evidence that children are trafficked for forced labor in the carpet industry.(16) Also, anecdotal evidence suggests that some girls find themselves forced into commercial sexual exploitation by their husbands.(6, 37) Children are trafficked transnationally to Pakistan, Iran, and Saudi Arabia for commercial sexual exploitation, forced begging, and drug smuggling. Boys are also trafficked to Pakistan for paramilitary training and to Iran for forced labor in the agriculture and construction sectors.(6, 16) Girls are trafficked internationally to other countries, particularly to Pakistan, Iran, and India, for commercial sexual exploitation and forced domestic service.(6, 16) Girls from other countries are trafficked to Afghanistan for commercial sexual exploitation.(16, 31)

Afghanistan is plagued by insecurity and violence; this has led to grave abuses against children.(29) These include the killing and maiming of children in attacks on schools.(7, 38) These conditions make it more difficult for children to attend school on a regular basis. According to the Ministry of Education (2011-2012), while enrollment has risen since the fall of the Taliban, there are significant gender and geographic disparities.(39)

There are reports of children working on the streets, but specific information on hazards is unknown.(5, 9, 40, 41)



Laws and Regulations on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Labor Code sets the minimum age for work and for hazardous employment at 18.(9, 42) A child may work as an apprentice at age 14. According to the Labor Code, children between ages 15 and 18 may engage in light work up to 35 hours per week, but the Code does not specify what tasks are considered as “light types of work”.(9, 42)

The Labor Code prohibits the recruitment of children younger than age 18 for work that is harmful to their health or causes physical damage or disability.(42) However, the Government of Afghanistan has not defined hazardous working conditions and occupations prohibited for children.(9, 41) The Labor Code also does not prescribe penalties for child labor violations.(41)

The Constitution prohibits forced labor.(43) The Decree of the President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Concerning the Enforcement of the Law on Combating Abduction and Human Trafficking/Smuggling specifically prohibits trafficking in persons, both domestically and internationally.(44, 45) The law prescribes stronger penalties for trafficking of children than trafficking of adults.(44) Research does not show any laws to prohibit child commercial sexual exploitation, pornography, and use of children illicit activities.

The legal age for military service in the Afghan National Army (ANA) and for service in the ANP is 18. The ANA and ANP have no compulsory recruitment; recruitment is voluntary.(32, 46)

According to the Constitution, children and adults in Afghanistan are entitled to free education up to and including college.(9, 41) Children in Afghanistan are required to attend 6 years of primary school and 3 years of secondary school, approximately through age 15.(41)



Institutional Mechanisms for Coordination and Enforcement

The Ministry of Labor, Social Affairs, Martyrs, and Disabled (MOLSAMD) leads and coordinates government efforts to address child labor.(5, 47) The Government also participates in the Child Protection Action Network (CPAN) with NGOs and UN agencies. CPAN monitors child rights violations, including child labor, in 51 districts across 28 out of 34 provinces.(41, 48) In January 2012, the Government established the High Commission for Combating Crimes of Abduction and Human Trafficking/Smuggling.(16) The Ministry of Justice (MOJ) coordinates this Inter-Ministerial High Commission, which addresses trafficking in persons in general.(6, 16) The Ministry of Women’s Affairs (MOWA) is responsible for combating the trafficking of girls through targeted policy and advocacy.(16)

Afghanistan has two coordinating mechanisms to address the issue of children and armed conflict. The Government, led by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA), participates in a UN Task Force on Children and Armed Conflict, which consists of UNICEF, the UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan, the Office of the Commissioner for Human Rights, UNODC, the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, UNHCR, WHO, the Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission, and two NGOs. The Task Force’s purpose is to prevent the recruitment and use of child soldiers.(18, 49) The Government also has an Inter-Ministerial Steering Committee on Children and Armed Conflict with representatives from MFA, MOJ, MOWA, the National Directorate of Security and the ministries of Defense, Interior, Health, Social Affairs, and Education.(18) In general, the UN-led Task Force is responsible for monitoring the outcomes of the Inter-Ministerial Task Force on Children and Armed Conflict.(18, 34, 49)

MOLSAMD is responsible for enforcing the Labor Code, including laws to combat child labor. It employs 20 labor inspectors to cover the country’s 34 provinces.(41) The number of labor inspectors is not sufficient to enforce Afghan laws on child labor.(41) Labor inspectors work in an advisory capacity only, and business owners have the right to refuse an inspector’s visit.(41) Labor inspectors made 152 general inspections in Kabul and four other provinces. Research did not determine whether these included child labor or not.(41) Labor inspectors did not receive training on child labor during the reporting period. In addition, there do not appear to be any mechanisms to reach children involved in the worst forms of child labor in the informal sector.(41)

The Ministry of Interior (MOI) is charged with enforcing laws related to hazardous child labor, forced child labor, child trafficking, and child sexual exploitation.(17) During the reporting period, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s Immigration and Customs Enforcement agency trained officials from the Afghan MOI and the ANP on how to conduct investigations and identify and arrest traffickers.(23) Specifically, the MOI has an anti-trafficking in persons/smuggling unit, which increased from 7 to 26 officers during the reporting period.(16) However, there was no budget for field-based investigations during the reporting period and officers assigned for field-based investigations were often sent to other locations to perform other duties.(16, 41) It is therefore unclear how the MOI investigates trafficking.(16, 41) MFA also becomes involved in international trafficking cases.(16)

During the reporting period, 11 cases of forced labor identified through inspections were referred to CPAN. While these cases were referred to CPAN, which monitors child labor violations, there was no further information on the details of ages of the victims.(41)

The MOI does not keep statistics regarding the number of violations involving the worst forms of child labor or child trafficking as well as the number of prosecutions and convictions.(16, 41) In addition, the Dari language does not distinguish between human trafficking and human smuggling, complicating enforcement and data collection efforts.(16)

During the reporting period, the Government supported an awareness campaign to combat child soldiering. The Ministry of Defense and the MOI distributed materials to personnel, explaining that the use of children under age 18 in the military forces was forbidden and advertised a hotline to report cases.(16)



Government Policies on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government of Afghanistan has committed, through an Action Plan, to prevent the recruitment of minors into the ANA and the ANP, including the ALP and the National Directorate of Security.(34, 50) The Plan is implemented by the Government’s Inter-Ministerial Steering Committee on Children and Armed Conflict and monitored by the UN’s Task Force on Children and Armed Conflict and by UNICEF. The Action Plan also includes measures to prevent young boys from being victims of baccha baazi (boy play).(51) During the reporting period, the Steering Committee met to discuss the Action Plan, and the Government of Afghanistan has submitted ongoing monitoring reports to the UN Task Force.(30) There is no further information on the implementation of the Action Plan.

In January 2013, the High Commission for Combating Crimes of Abduction and Human Trafficking/Smuggling approved the National Action Plan on Trafficking in Persons, which sets out a timeline for specific actions to be taken by members of the High Commission to address trafficking.(16)

The Ministry of Education’s National Education Strategic Plan establishes goals to improve access to and the quality of education.(52) The question of whether this Plan has had an indirect impact on child labor does not appear to have been addressed.



Social Programs to Eliminate or Prevent the Worst Forms of Child Labor

During the reporting period, MOLSAMD implemented more than 30 programs to provide services to children at risk, some of which may be children vulnerable to child labor. MOLSAMD also implements awareness raising campaigns(41) MOLSAMD continued to implement a $24 million, 4-year social protection program, which runs from 2009 to 2013, and is funded by the European Commission. The program includes components to combat child labor through the provision of vocational training, family reintegration, schooling, and literacy training for the most vulnerable.(53, 54) Additionally, MOLSAMD, through a provincial-level youth department and a district-level youth committee, is currently implementing a UNICEF-funded project for child laborers in the brick kiln sector in Jalalabad.(27)

Few children in Afghanistan have formal birth registrations.(5, 16) The lack of a birth registration makes it difficult to monitor and enforce laws such as the minimum age for employment and military recruitment. The Committee on Children Against Armed Conflict’s Western Region Task Force created Child Centers in the western provinces of Afghanistan. Of these, the Badghis and Herat Child Centers prevented children from enlisting in the ANP and the Ghor Child Center prevented children from enlisting in the ANA.(30) Research found no evidence, however, that the Government has implemented or supported programs to remove or rehabilitate children already involved in armed conflict.

Government agencies sometimes refer child trafficking victims to NGO-run facilities or orphanages, or place them with government social service agencies.(16) MOLSAMD has oversight of three shelters for trafficking victims. While NGOs operated the shelters, MOLSAMD was responsible for the registration of victims, safety and security of the facilities, and for the reintegration assistance.(16) In general, trafficking shelters provide assistance to boys under age 16.Research found no evidence of shelters providing services for boys 16 to 18.(6) Also, as female victims are not disaggregated by age, it is difficult to determine if underage girl trafficking victims are being assisted with services.(6, 16)

There are currently no programs for children engaged in the worst forms of child labor, particularly in agriculture.



Based on the reporting above, the following actions would advance the elimination of the worst forms of child labor in Afghanistan:

Area

Suggested Actions

Year(s) Action Recommended

Laws and Regulations

Designate hazardous working conditions and occupations prohibited for children.

2009, 2010, 2011, 2012

Specify what tasks are considered as “light types of work” for children ages 15 to 18.

2012

Revise the Labor Code to specify penalties for child labor violations.

2010, 2011, 2012

Clarify whether laws exist to prohibit child commercial sexual exploitation, pornography, and use of children in illicit activities.

2012

Clearly define human trafficking in accordance with international conventions.

2011, 2012

Coordination and Enforcement

Increase the number of labor inspectors and provide them with training on child labor laws and regulations.

2011, 2012

Enable labor inspectors to have access to businesses for enforcement of laws, including child labor laws.

2011, 2012

Create mechanisms to protect children currently in the worst forms of child labor in the informal sector.

2012

Provide a budget to the MOI to enforce laws concerning trafficking.

2012

Collect data on the number of child labor violations, prosecutions, and convictions.

2009, 2010, 2011, 2012

Policies

Take measures to fully implement the Action Plan on Children and Armed Conflict.

2010, 2011, 2012

Assess whether the National Education Strategic Plan has an impact on child labor.

2009, 2010, 2011, 2012

Collect and make publicly available data on the age and gender of forced labor and trafficking victims.

2011, 2012

Social Programs

Implement rehabilitation and reintegration programs for children affected by armed conflict.

2009, 2010, 2011, 2012

Clarify whether government and NGO-run shelters can provide services to girls.

2010, 2011, 2012

Expand government and NGO-run shelters to provide services to older boys ages 16 to 18.

2010, 2011, 2012

Create programs to address the worst forms of child labor in brick production and agriculture.

2009, 2011, 2012

 



1. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total; accessed February 4, 2013; http://www.uis.unesco.org/Pages/default.aspx?SPSLanguage=EN. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

2. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. February 5, 2013. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

3. UN Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict. Visit of the Special Representative for Children & Armed Conflict to Afghanistan February 20-26, 2010. Mission Report. New York; 2010.

4. Integrated Regional Information Networks. "Afghanistan: Fears Over Child Recruitment, Abuse by Pro-Government Militias." IRINnews.org [online] January 20, 2011 [cited March 1, 2013]; http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportID=91676.

5. Altai Consulting. A Rapid Assessment on Child Labour in Kabul. Kabul; January 2008.

6. U.S. Embassy- Kabul. reporting, March 19, 2012.

7. UN Security Council. Report of the Secretary General on Children and Armed Conflict in Afghanistan; February 3, 2011. http://www.undocs.org/S/2011/55.

8. Child Soldiers International. "Appendix II: Data Summary on Recruitment Ages of National Armies," in Louder Than Words, An Agenda for Action to End State Use of Child Soldiers. London; 2012; http://www.child-soldiers.org/user_uploads/pdf/appendix2datasummarytableonrecruitmentagesofnationalarmies9687452.pdf.

9. U.S. Department of State. "Afghanistan," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2012. Washington, DC; April 19, 2013; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2012&dlid=204393.

10. Integrated Regional Information Networks. "Afghanistan: Students Play Truant to Work in Helmand's Poppy Fields." IRINnews.org [online] March 18, 2008 [cited March 1, 2013]; http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportID=77346.

11. International Labour Office. Children in hazardous work: What we know, what we need to do. Geneva, International Labour Organization; 2011. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/---publ/documents/publication/wcms_155428.pdf. While country-specific information on the dangers children face in agriculture is not available, research studies and other reports have documented the dangerous nature of tasks in agriculture and their accompanying occupational exposures, injuries and potential health consequences to children working in the sector.

12. International Labour Office. Farming, International Labour Organization, [online] January 31, 2012 [cited November 2, 2012]; http://www.ilo.org/ipec/areas/Agriculture/WCMS_172416/lang--en/index.htm.

13. Pamela Hunte, Anastasiya Hozyaninva. Factors Influencing Decisions to Use Child Labour: A Case Study of Poor Households in Badakhshan. Kabul, Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit; 2008. http://www.areu.org.af/EditionDetails.aspx?EditionId=159&ContentId=7&ParentId=7.

14. International Labour Office. Livestock Production, International Labour Organization, [online] January 31, 2012 [cited November 2, 2012]; http://www.ilo.org/ipec/areas/Agriculture/WCMS_172431/lang--en/index.htm.

15. Amanda Sim, Marie-Lousie Hoilund-Carlsen. Factors Influencing Decisions to Use Child Labour: A Case Study of Poor Households in Herat. Kabul, Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit; August 2008.

16. U.S. Embassy- Kabul. reporting, February 26, 2013.

17. U.S. Embassy- Kabul. reporting, March 15, 2010a.

18. U.S. Embassy- Kabul. reporting, January 26, 2011.

19. Nichols, M. "Afghanistan Vows to "Set Standards" on Child Labor in Mines." Reuters News Service, Afghanistan, August 12, 2011. http://ca.reuters.com/articlePrint?articleId=CATRE77B12V20110812.

20. Integrated Regional Information Networks. "Afghanistan: Risking One's Health for a Pittance." IRINnews.org [online] May 26, 2009 [cited March 1, 2013]; http://www.irinnews.org/PrintReport.aspx?ReportID=84551.

21. Nissenbaum, D. "Teenager Films Afghan Child Labor- School Documentary Project Seeks to Illuminate Open Secret: Young Boys at Work in Remote Coal Mines." Wall Street Journal- Eastern Edition, New York, July 14, 2012; World News. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702303640804577491511393159548.html.

22. International Labour Office. Children in hazardous work: What we know, what we need to do. Geneva, International Labour Organization; 2011. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/---publ/documents/publication/wcms_155428.pdf. While country-specific information on the dangers children face in domestic work is not available, research studies and other reports have documented the dangerous nature of tasks in domestic work and their accompanying occupational exposures, injuries and potential health consequences to children working in the sector.

23. International Labour Office. Domestic Labour, International Labour Organization, [online] January 31, 2012 [cited November 2, 2012]; http://www.ilo.org/ipec/areas/Childdomesticlabour/lang--en/index.htm.

24. U.S. Embassy- Kabul official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 14, 2013.

25. Integrated Regional Information Networks. "Afghanistan: Children Work in Brick Factories to Help Pay Off Family Debts." IRINnews.org [online] April 8, 2008 [cited March 1, 2013]; http://www.irinnews.org/PrintReport.aspx?ReportID=77662.

26. U.S. Department of State. "Afghanistan," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2012. Washington, DC; June 19, 2012; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/192594.pdf.

27. UNICEF official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 5, 2011.

28. Aliev Iskander, Mirzojalal Shohjamlov. Tajik Law Opens Window for Young Afghan Drug Smugglers, Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty, [online] April 4, 2010 [cited March 1, 2013]; http://www.rferl.org/content/Tajik_Law_Opens_Window_For_Young_Afghan_Drug_Smugglers/2002156.html.

29. UN Security Council. Children and Armed Conflict: Report of the Secretary General. New York; April 26, 2012. Report No. A/66/782-S/2012/261. http://unispal.un.org/UNISPAL.NSF/0/6A89029BD14B9B2285257A4B00711127.

30. UN Security Council. Children and Armed Conflict: Report of the Secretary General. New York; May 15, 2013. http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/67/845.

31. U.S. Embassy- Kabul. reporting, March 2, 2011.

32. Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers. "Afghanistan," in Child Soldiers Global Report 2008. London; 2008; http://www.childsoldiersglobalreport.org/files/country_pdfs/FINAL_2008_Global_Report.pdf.

33. Crowley, P. Statement by Peter Crowley, UNICEF Representative in Afghanistan, on the Occasion of International Children's Day, UNICEF, [cited March 1, 2013]; http://www.unicef.org/rosa/media_7046.htm?q=printme.

34. Integrated Regional Information Networks. "Afghanistan: UN Urges More Action on Child Rights." IRINnews.org [online] February 9, 2011 [cited March 1, 2013]; http://www.rawa.org/temp/runews/2011/02/09/afghanistan-un-urges-more-action-on-child-rights.html.

35. Integrated Regional Information Networks. "Afghanistan: Taliban Deny Children Being Used as Suicide Bombers." IRINnews.org [online] May 23, 2011 [cited March 1, 2013]; http://www.irinnews.org/report.aspx?reportid=92790.

36. Farmer, B. "Brainwashed into Believing They Will Survive: the Boy Bombers of Afghanistan." The Daily Telegraph, London, January 14, 2012; News. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/afghanistan/9014282/Afghan-boy-suicide-bombers-tell-how-they-are-brainwashed-into-believing-they-will-survive.html.

37. Human Rights Watch. "I Had to Run Away" The Imprisonment of Women and Girls for "Moral Crimes" in Afghanistan. New York; March 2012. http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/afghanistan0312webwcover_0.pdf.

38. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention: Concluding Observations: Afghanistan; April 8, 2011. Report No. CRC/C/AFG/CO/1. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/docs/CRC_C_AFG_CO_1.doc.

39. Government of Afghanistan. 1390 (2011/2012 EMIS Statistical Analytical Report); 2012.

40. Adeli, B. Afghanistan: Child Street Workers Vulnerable to Abuse, Institute for War and Peace Reporting, [online] October 15, 2011 [cited March 1, 2013]; http://www.rawa.org/temp/runews/2011/10/15/afghanistan-child-street-workers-vulnerable-to-abuse.html.

41. U.S. Embassy- Kabul. reporting, January 31, 2013.

42. Government of Afghanistan. Labour Code, enacted February 4, 2007. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.details?p_lang=en&p_country=AFG&p_classification=01.02&p_origin=COUNTRY&p_sortby=SORTBY_COUNTRY.

43. Government of Afghanistan. Constitution, enacted 2004.

44. U.S. Embassy- Kabul. reporting, March 15, 2010b.

45. Government of Afghanistan. Decree of the President of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Concerning the Enforcement of the Law on Combating Abduction and Human Trafficking, 52, enacted 2008.

46. U.S. Embassy- Kabul official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 2, 2011.

47. Macro International. Child Labor in Afghanistan: A Four-Province Study in Kabul, Kandahar, Nangarhar, and Balkh. Calverton, MD; February 8, 2008.

48. Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit. "Confronting Child Labour in Afghanistan Workshop Proceedings," in Confronting Child Labour in Afghanistan Workshop; March 21, 2009; Kabul; http://www.areu.org.af/Uploads/EditionPdfs/956E-Confronting%20Child%20Labour%20in%20Afghanistan%20Workshop%20Proceedings%202009.pdf.

49. U.S. Embassy- Kabul official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 21, 2011.

50. UN Security Council. Children and Armed Conflict. New York; April 23, 2011. http://unispal.un.org/UNISPAL.NSF/0/70BF34991DA5D6B08525788E004BA583.

51. ReliefWeb. UN Envoy on Children and Armed Conflict Wraps up Kabul Visit, [online] January 31, 2011 [cited March 1, 2013]; http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/EGUA-8DNPL7?OpenDocument.

52. Ministry of Education. National Education Strategic Plan for Afghanistan. Kabul, Government of Afghanistan, ; 2007. http://bit.ly/141dtLI.

53. U.S. Embassy- Kabul. reporting, January 23, 2009.

54. European Commission. State of Play; July 2012. http://eeas.europa.eu/delegations/afghanistan/documents/page_content/eu_afghanistan_state_of_play_0712_en.pdf.