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Evaluation Summary: ADROS: Combating Child Labor Through Education in Morocco

Project and Evaluation Facts

Region/Country:  NORTH AFRICA/Morocco
Grantee:  Management Systems International (MSI)
Project Duration:  August 6, 2003– March 31, 2008
Fiscal Year Funded and Funding Level:
FY 2002 USD 3,100,000
Type of Evaluation:  Final
Date of Evaluation:  February 2008
Mode of Evaluation:  Independent
Evaluator(s):  Susan Schaefer Davis, PhD

Background and Context

Summary of Project Objectives and Focus
Adros was a four-and-a-half-year project that aimed to reduce the incidence of child labor in Morocco through the provision of educational services.  The project operated in Rabat/Salé, Casablanca/Mohammedia, and Marrakech/ El Kelaâ, and was predominantly focused on children engaged in or at risk of engaging in exploitative domestic work.  The project was guided by the following Development and Immediate Objectives:

Development Objective:  Curtail the employment of underage child domestic workers.

Immediate Objectives:

  • Withdraw or prevent girls from exploitive domestic work through the provision of educational services;
  • Raise awareness about the employment conditions and educational status of child domestic workers;
  • Support legislative and policy development to protect and educate child domestic workers.

The project was designed to work closely with government actors, NGOs, and international organizations.

Purpose and Scope of Evaluation

The final evaluation examined project performance during the cooperative agreement in relation to

stated objectives. Specifically, the evaluation reviewed and assessed activities with respect to their relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impact, and sustainability. Further, the evaluation was designed to inform the development of future EI programs and to highlight best practices as well as areas for improvement.

Methodology of Evaluation

The evaluation was based on a desk review of relevant documentation, followed by a field mission to all three regions from the 20th of January to the 7th of February 2008. The field work consisted of site visits, interviews, and other information gathering collection techniques involving stakeholders including government representatives, NGO’s, project staff, teachers, children, and parents of beneficiaries. The evaluation was affected in accordance with the terms of reference (TOR), as prepared by Macro International with input from USDOL and other key stakeholders.

Evaluationís Main Findings & Conclusions

Performance Summary

Despite preliminary challenges in reaching the target sector, at its conclusion, Adros has enrolled 7,334 children in educational services, exceeding its target of 6,340. In addition, the project has effectively raised awareness about child labor, and has served to positively affect the national enabling environment through partnerships with select ministries and participation in the National Steering Committee on Child Labor.

Nonetheless, in order to ensure greater sustainability and augment effectiveness, the evaluator contends that Adros should strengthen coordination with government actors, improve its monitoring and evaluation system, and provide facilitators/teachers with more training in different pedagogical methods.

Lessons Learned & Recommendations

Lessons Learned

  • Due to an increase in public awareness, this is an excellent time for work against child labor in Morocco;
  • In some cases, prevention is better—and more cost-effective—than withdrawal;
  • Modification of the project’s original design to include children working in other forms of exploitive labor in addition to child domestic labor, and to focus on preventing children from working, allowed the project to reach numbers beyond its original target;
  • Responsive, participatory, and caring management is effective and serves as a good model for future projects;
  • Field visits inspire both core staff and implementing partners to work harder;
  • Teamwork and fitting into ongoing Government of Morocco (GOM) and international child labor programs is highly productive;
  • Coordination with GOM partners needs to be carefully attended to;
  • Advocacy and awareness-building with the GOM and international partners is very productive;
  • Capacity-building is desired and effective;
  • Close monitoring and contingent payment lead to good educational results;
  • Children‘s working status, including during the summer, was not tracked and should be, although it is very difficult;
  • High completion rates in non-formal education do not guarantee entry into formal or vocational education as long as family financial needs remain a limiting factor; and
  • Sustainable impacts were obtained through advocacy work on awareness, formulation of child labor laws, and the capacity-building development of GOM agencies, NGO partners, and teachers/facilitators.

Key Recommendations

  • Continue some work with child domestic laborers, if possible, as even if they cannot be counted as withdrawn, non-formal education seems to benefit  those who cannot leave work;
  • Consider increasing pay levels for NGOs/facilitators;
  • Each NGO should have one person who coordinates with Adros;
  • Identify partners that can help youth start businesses, subsequent to education or vocational training;
  • Establish a more routine system that gives staff time off as compensation for working long hours and often on weekends;
  • Consider expanding advocacy and awareness activities;
  • Pursue coordination with the Government, since several of their agencies have programs that Dima Adros may benefit from and/or may be helpful in promoting;
  • Consider working with the GOM Ministry of Social Development and Solidarity on their campaign to register and evaluate 2,000 NGOs;  
  • Re-evaluate project monitoring to make it less burdensome for the staff;
  • Establish clearer lines of communication between USDOL and grantees;
  • Develop a system of tracking to determine whether a child in the program does or does not work until age 15 or is engaged in the worst forms of child labor (WFCL);
  • Provide facilitators/teachers more training in multi-level classroom teaching, communication, and psychological approaches, including other educational information (children‘s rights, environment) in the teaching materials;
  • Provide NGOs with training in fundraising and proposal writing so as to enable them to tap other sources of funding;
  • Support students with books and tutoring after they finish non-formal education classes; and
  • Work in the context of the whole family, since family finances are a major factor for whether education is continued.