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Chapter IV: Footnotes

1.  A. Bequele and W.E. Myers, First Things First in Child Labour: Eliminating Work Detrimental to Children (Geneva: ILO/UNICEF 1995) 123 [hereinafter First Things First].

2.  Ibid. at 121-122.

3.  Strategies for Eliminating Child Labour: Prevention, Removal, and Rehabilitation (Oslo: International Conference on Child Labor, ILO/UNICEF, October 1997) 12. See generally Ziv Griliches, "Education, Human Capital, and Growth: A Personal Perspective," Journal of Labor Economics (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press and Economics Research Center/NORC, Vol. 15, No. 1, Part 2, January 1997) s330-s344.

4.  An additional 283 million children aged 12 to 17 (44 percent of children in this age group) are out of school. World Education Report, 1995 (Paris: UNESCO, 1995) 18-19. See also The State of the World's Children 1999 (New York: UNICEF, 1998) 7.

5.  First Things First at 125.

6.  See "Action against Child Labour through Education and Training" fact sheet (Geneva: ILO/IPEC, July 1997) 1 [hereinafter Action against Child Labour fact sheet].

7.  First Things First at 120.

8.  All 16 countries visited have ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, thus committing themselves to making primary education compulsory, available, and free to all children.

9.  Perú (Cartagena: Sistema Regional de Información sobre Trabajo Infantil - ILO/IPEC, 1997) 22 [hereinafter Perú]; Child Labour: Targeting the Intolerable (Geneva: ILO, 1996) 41 [hereinafter Targeting the Intolerable]; See also telephone interview with Jose Pezo, Peruvian Ministry of Education, by U.S. Department of Labor official (August 20, 1998) [hereinafter Interview with Jose Pezo].

10.  Interview with Jose Pezo.

11.  Implementation Report: Review of IPEC Experience 1995-97 (Geneva: ILO/IPEC, October 1997) 71 [hereinafter IPEC Implementation Report]. Theoretically, children should finish compulsory school by age 16, but on average, students are about two and a half years behind. See Francisco Verdera, El trabajo infantil en el Perú - Diagnóstico y propuestas para una política nacional (Lima: Institute of Peruvian Studies (IEP) and ILO, 1995) 23 [hereinafter El trabajo infantil en el Perú].

12.  The Ministry of Education has established that compulsory education consists of one year of pre-primary education, six years of primary (first through sixth grade), and three years of basic education (seventh through ninth grade). Article 39 of the Childhood and Youth Code requires children to remain in school until they complete their secondary education (through grade 12 or 13 depending on the occupation to be pursued). The Childhood and Youth Code, however, has been suspended until the year 2000. See Article 74 of the Constitution of Guatemala and Article 39 of the Childhood and Youth Code. See also faxes and telephone interviews with Maria Ester Ortega de Morales, Ministry of Education, by U.S. Department of Labor official (September 30, 1998 and October 8, 1998).

13.  Targeting the Intolerable at 41. See also Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1997 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of State, 1998) 585 [hereinafter Country Reports 1997].

14.  South Africa Schools Act of January 1, 1997. See South Africa Yearbook - 1997 (Pretoria: South African Communication Service, 1997) 331.

15.  Basic Education in Brazil: 1991-1997 (Brasília: Ministry of Education and Sports, 1997) 9 [hereinafter Basic Education in Brazil].

16.  Article 59 of Child Law 12 of 1996. UNESCO Statistical Yearbook 1997 (Paris: UNESCO, 1997) Table 3.1 at 3-7 [hereinafter UNESCO Statistical Yearbook 1997]. See also Nadia Ramsis Farah, Child Labour in Egypt within the context of the CRC (Cairo: Cairo Center for Development Studies/UNICEF, June 1997) 27 [hereinafter Child Labour in Egypt].

17.  Law No. 4306, passed on August 16, 1997. See interview with Esat Sagcan, Director General, General Directorate of Apprenticeship and Non-Formal Education, Ministry of National Education, by U.S. Department of Labor official (April 28, 1998). See also correspondence from Aysen Kulakoglu, Economic Counselor, Turkish Embassy in Washington, D.C. (August 26, 1998). Turkish families have the option of enrolling their children in school at either age six or age seven. See U.S. Embassy-Ankara fax (August 28, 1998).

18.  Education Act of 1978. See Report of the Commission on the Law Relating to Children in Tanzania (Dar es Salaam: Law Reform Commission, undated) 45 [hereinafter Law Relating to Children in Tanzania]. See also U.S. Embassy-Dar es Salaam fax (August 27, 1998).

19.  Country Reports 1997 at 599. See also Primary Education and Training Program USAID/Nicaragua, (Managua: USAID/Nicaragua, April 28, 1998) 2.

20.  Facts & Figures on Philippine Education (Pasig City: Department of Education, Culture and Sports, 1997) 11 [hereinafter Facts & Figures]. See also Feny de los Angeles-Bautista and Joanna C. Arriola, To Learn and to Earn: Education and Child Labor in the Philippines, Working Paper Series on Child Labor (Manila: ILO/IPEC, December 1995) 2 [hereinafter To Learn and to Earn].

21.  The Thai Ministry of Education has been pushing for an increase in the number of years of compulsory education since September 1995. A proposed education bill would increase compulsory schooling from six to nine years. Thailand Country Study towards a Best Practice Guide on Sustainable Action against Child Labor (Bangkok: ILO/IPEC, January 1998) 33, 38.

22.  IPEC Implementation Report at 28. See also UNESCO Statistical Yearbook 1998 (Paris: UNESCO, 1998) Table 3.1 at 3-10 [hereinafter UNESCO Statistical Yearbook 1998].

23.  Benson Oyuga, Collette Suda, and Afia Mugambi, A Study of Action against Child Labour in Kenya: Towards a Best Practice Guide on Sustainable Action Against Child Labour for Policy Makers (Nairobi: ILO/IPEC, 1997) 101 [hereinafter Action against Child Labour in Kenya].

24.  Public Hearings on International Child Labor (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor, February 13, 1998), submission by the Government of India [hereinafter Public Hearings India submission].

25.  Country Reports 1997 at 1669-70.

26.  Country Reports 1997 at 1690.

27.  These states and union territories are Assam, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, West Bengal, Chandigarh, Pondicherry, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. See Public Hearings India submission and UNESCO Statistical Yearbook 1997, Table 3.1 at 3-10 and 3-14.

28.  IPEC Implementation Report at 35.

29.  Country Reports 1997 at 1669-70.

30.  According to UNICEF, the Egyptian Ministry of Education is imposing school fees as high as 15.85 pounds (US$ 4.66) for primary education, regardless of the Constitutional mandate that makes education free for all children. See Child Labour in Egypt at 27.

31.  Collection methods and definitions can vary significantly between countries, making comparisons difficult. Also, since the length of primary school differs significantly among countries, those countries with less years of primary school generally have higher enrollment ratios (in large part because older children tend to have higher drop out rates), while those with more years will tend to have lower enrollment rates. For an in-depth discussion of the problems and weaknesses of educational data, see Jere R. Behrman and Mark R. Rosenzweig, "Caveat Emptor: Cross-Country Data on Education and the Labor Force," Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 44 (1994) 147-171; and World Development Indicators 1998 (Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1998) 79 [hereinafter World Development Indicators 1998].

32.  Because the number of years of primary school varies among countries, fourth or fifth grade is often used as a general measure of primary school retention.

33.  In India, the 1991 census found over 105 million children ages five to 14 years old out of school. S. Sinha, Collection and Dissemination of Data on Child Labour in Asia [DRAFT] (Bangkok: ILO/IPEC, 1998) Table 1, 107.

34.  As many as 11.2 million Pakistani children five- to nine-years old were not in school in 1996. State of Human Rights in 1996 (Lahore: Human Rights Commission of Pakistan, 1996) 169 [hereinafter Human Rights in Pakistan].

35.  Contrary to other countries, the attendance ratio (64 percent) in Tanzania is higher than the enrollment ratio (48 percent). This discrepancy stems from the fact that the reported attendance ratio does not include children in the three highest years of primary school; and, therefore, likely overestimates the percentage of all primary school-age children attending school. See The State of the World's Children 1999 (New York: UNICEF, 1998) [hereinafter The State of the World's Children 1999].

36.  Interview with Alejandro de la Canal, Director General of Planning, Programming, and Budget, Secretariat of Public Education, by U.S. Department of Labor official (April 21, 1998) [hereinafter Interview with Alejandro de la Canal].

37.  Based on a 1995 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) on children seven to 12 years old. See The State of the World's Children 1999.

38.  Calculated from 1995 national household survey as reported in Brasil: Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicilios--1995 (Rio de Janeiro: Fundação Instituto de Geografia e Estatística--IBGE, 1995) Tables 3.4 and 1.1.

39.  UNESCO Statistical Yearbook 1998, Table 3.2 at 3-58; and The State of the World's Children 1999.

40.  Walter Alarcón Glasinovich, Mauricio García Moreno, Irene Rizzini, María Cristina Salazar, Catalina Turbay, and Carlos Antonio Rodríguez, Mejores escuelas: menos trabajo infantil - trabajo infanto-juvenil y educación en Brasil, Colombia, Guatemala, Ecuador y Peru (Florence: International Child Development Centre; Bogota: UNICEF Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, 1996) 301 [hereinafter Mejores escuelas].

41.  The State of the World's Children 1999 at 108.

42.  Desarrollo Social y Construcción de la Paz: Plan de Acción 1996-2000 (Guatemala: Secretaría General de Planificación, November 1996) 42-43 [hereinafter Desarrollo Social y Construcción de la Paz].

43.  Universal Primary Education: A Review (Dhaka: Primary & Mass Education Division, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, 1996) 6.

44.  Educational financial data may vary based on definitions and calculation methods used by individual countries. In general, figures refer only to money spent on public education and certain subsidies devoted to private schools and do not include money spent by private and religious schools, which could account for a large proportion of expenditures in certain developing countries. For a discussion on the characteristics and limitations of educational financial data, see World Development Indicators 1998 at 75.

45.  Unless otherwise noted, all data described in this section are reported from national governments as published in UNESCO Statistical Yearbook 1998, Tables 4.1 and 4.2.

46.  Ibid. at Table 4.1, 4-8; Table 4.2, 4-23

47.  Electronic correspondence from Marcos Vinicius P. Gama, First Counselor, Brazilian Embassy-Washington, D.C., to U.S. Department of Labor official (September 10, 1998); UNESCO Statistical Yearbook 1998, Table 4.2 at 4-24.

48.  The additional resources for this project came from the privatization of a cellular telephone company. "O principal objectivo é tirar das ruas os menores carentes," CIDADANIA (Brasília: Secretaria de Assistência Social, no. 1, January-March 1998) 17.

49.  IPEC Implementation Report at 45.

50.  Facts & Figures at 29-30. However, some researchers have noted that "real per capita spending is not commensurate to the demands of a responsive public education system, especially in light of the continuing growth in the child and youth population. Decades of under investment in public education had taken its toll on an already burdened system. The constantly growing needs of the public educational system merit a significantly larger investment in education." See To Learn and to Earn at 5.

51.  UNESCO Statistical Yearbook 1998, Table 4.2 at 4-23.

52.  Ibid. at Table 4.1, 4-11.

53.  Ibid. at 4-5.

54.  Ibid. at 4-14.

55.  Economic Incentives for Children and Families to Eliminate or Reduce Child Labor (Geneva: ILO, May 1996) 9 [hereinafter Economic Incentives].

56.  Action against Child Labor fact sheet at 1.

57.  Targeting the Intolerable at 38.

58.  For further analysis of why working children drop out of school, see Child Labour Surveys: Results of Methodological Surveys in Four Countries 1992-93 (Geneva: ILO/IPEC, 1996) 57-61 [hereinafter Child Labour Surveys].

59.  The Philippines is an exception: it was found that rural working children had higher school attendance (67 percent) than urban working children (33 percent). See "Education of the Working Children: Are Working Children Going to School?" fact sheet from Survey of Children 5-17 Years Old: July 1995 (Manila: National Statistics Office, July 1995) 2 [hereinafter Survey of Children 5-17 Years Old].

60.  Indicadores sobre crianças e adolescentes: Brasil, 1991-1996 (Brasília: Fundação Instituto de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE), UNICEF, 1997) 136, 138.

61.  Plano estratégico de combate a exploração do trabalho infantil na região citrícola (Aracaju: Governo de Sergipe, Secretaria do Estado da Ação Social e do Trabalho, October 1997) 47.

62.  Child Labor in Brazil (Brasília: Presidência da República, Câmara de Política Social, 1997) 75 [hereinafter Child Labor in Brazil].

63.  Infancia y adolescencia en México at 65.

64.  Ibid. at 63.

65.  Perú at 31.

66.  Mejores escuelas at 305.

67.  "Especial - seguimiento a la convención de los derechos de la niña y el niño" in Niñez y Adolescencia (Lima: Grupo de Iniciativa Nacional por los Derechos del Niño - GIN, no. 2, August-October, 1997) 4.

68.  School qualification refers to the achievement of South African minimum educational standards. See Dawie Bosch and Adele Gordon, Eliminating Child Labour in South African Commercial Agriculture: Education and Legal Action (Geneva: ILO, 1996) 30.

69.  Industrial Health Research Group, Project Report: Health and Safety of Workers on Western Cape Fruit Farms (Cape Town: University of Cape Town, February 1998) 10. It appears that instruction in the Afrikaans language is still an obstacle to universal education in South Africa. See "Apartheid Still Rules in Rural Schools," Weekly Mail & Guardian (Johannesburg), February 2, 1996.

70.  Interview with Marcia Selalibera, Director of Foundation for the Social Promotion of Mato Grosso do Sul (PROMOSUL), by U.S. Department of Labor officials (May 12, 1998); Interview with Iracema Ramalho do Valle, Director of Sindicato dos Trabalhadores Rurais, by U.S. Department of Labor officials (May 12, 1998); Interview with Jose Sederino Belo, assistant to the Vice Mayor of Cabo de Santo Agostinho, by U.S. Department of Labor officials (May 18, 1998).

71.  Interview with Marta Silva Campos and Carola Carbajal, Instituto de Estudos Especiais da PUC/SP, by U.S. Department of Labor officials (May 8, 1998). See also interview with Ivanilda Ribeiro Alves, Executive Director, Social Assistance, by U.S. Department of Labor officials (May 12, 1998); and interview with Regina Covas, Ministry of Education and Sports, by U.S. Department of Labor officials (May 14, 1998).

72.  Human Rights in Pakistan at 15.

73.  Mejores escuelas at 295.

74.  Ibid.

75.  See School Register of Needs Survey (Pretoria: South Africa Department of Education, August 1997) 9. A total of 57,499 additional classrooms were needed in 1996 to accommodate all of South Africa's primary and secondary school students. Ibid.

76.  Child Labor in Tanzania (Geneva: ILO/IPEC, 1992) 16 [hereinafter Child Labor in Tanzania].

77.  Desarrollo social y construcción de la paz at 41.

78.  Human Rights in Pakistan at 169.

79.  Economic Incentives at 10.

80.  The State of the World's Children 1997 (New York: UNICEF, 1997) 44-45.

81.  Ibid. at 52.

82.  Action against Child Labour in Kenya at 101.

83.  State of the Rights Of The Child In Nepal 1998: Country Report Released by CWIN (Kathmandu: Child Workers in Nepal Concerned Center, January 1998) 14 [hereinafter Rights Of The Child In Nepal].

84.  Child Labor in Tanzania at 15. See also Country Reports 1997 at 352.

85.  In rural areas, the percentage of children in this age group not knowing how to read or write (almost 11 percent) was markedly higher than in urban areas (three percent). Infancia y adolescencia en México (Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografia e Informática, 1998) 38, 40 [hereinafter Infancia y adolescencia en México].

86.  Ibid. at 51.

87.  Rights of the Child in Nepal at 18.

88.  The Tamang belong to the Vaishya caste group, which is the business caste. Musahar are largely landless agricultural laborers, and the Dom are street-sweepers and scavengers--both are considered part of the Dalit caste group (also known as "untouchables"). See Invisible Children: Child Work in Asia and the Pacific (Bangkok: Save the Children and Child Workers in Asia, 1997) 39. See also telephone interview with D.B. Tamang, Legal Assistant, Embassy of Nepal, by U.S. Department of Labor official (August 25, 1998).

89.  Consideration of Reports submitted by States Parties under Article 44 of the Convention: United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child, CRC/C/3/Add. 34 (April 10, 1995) 53 [hereinafter Nepal CRC].

90.  Child Labour Surveys at 58.

91.  "O dereito a uma vida melhor para os pequenos Brasileiros" CIDADANIA (Brasília: Secretaria de Assistência Social, no. 1, January-March 1998) 16 [hereinafter "O dereito"].

92.  Child Labor in Brazil at 48.

93.  IPEC Implementation Report at 4.

94.  Child Labor in Brazil at 49.

95.  Basic Education in Brazil at 44. The amendment, enacted on September 12, 1996, aims to assure the universalization of primary education and the payment of appropriate salaries to teachers.

96.  Interview with Hussein Kamel Bahaa El-Din, Minister of Education, by U.S. Department of Labor official (May 12, 1998) [hereinafter Interview with Hussein Kamel Bahaa El-Din].

97. Comprehensive Study on Child Labor in the Philippines (Manila: Institute of Labor Studies, Monograph Series no. 1, 1994) 78-79.

98. Facts & Figures at 18.

99.  Interview with Marcial Salvatierra, Assistant Secretary, Department of Education, Culture, and Sports, Pasig City, by U.S. Department of Labor official (April 29, 1998).

100.  "Students in the Southeast Face Bleak Educational Prospects," Turkish Daily News, April 27, 1998, A8. See also U.S. Embassy-Ankara fax (August 26, 1998).

101.  Ibid.

102.  An estimated 1.8 million working children (or about 13 percent of all child laborers in India, based on the 1981 census) live in Andhra Pradesh; 92 percent of these working children work in rural areas, and of these, 86 percent of the male child workers and 94 percent of the female child workers are illiterate. See also Back to School Programme--1998 [document on file] (Hyderabad: Social Welfare Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh, 1998) 1. About 20 percent of children in Andhra Pradesh work full time, while 60 percent of the children ages five to 14 never attend school. See Back to School Programme: An Evaluation (Hyderabad: Centre for Public Policy Studies, undated) 1 [hereinafter Back to School Programme].

103.  Interview with S. Ray, Principal Secretary, Department of Social Welfare, Andhra Pradesh, by U.S. Department of Labor official (May 14, 1998). See also Important Government Orders and Guide Lines on Back to School Programme during April 1997 and 1998 (Hyderabad: Commissioner of Social Welfare, Andhra Pradesh, undated) 2 [hereinafter Important Government Orders and Guide Lines].

104.  Important Government Orders and Guide Lines at 3 and 36. Teachers are paid 1,000 rupees (US$ 25.00) for the two-month duration of the camp.

105.  Back to School Programme at 1.

106.  Ibid. at 26, 32, and 40. An evaluation of the program at the conclusion of the first year found that 98.8 percent of the children attending rated the camps as "very good" or "good," and 88 percent of the parents thought the program was "very good and useful" to their children; 71 percent of teachers rated the program as "very successful" while 28 percent considered it "moderately successful."

107.  Plan de acción para disminuir la deserción y repitencia escolar de niños en circunstancias especialmente difíciles en los primeros grados de educación primaria (Managua: Nicaraguan Ministry of Education, 1993) 3.

108.  See Facts & Figures at 19.

109.  Telephone interview with Maria Ester Ortega, Director of the National System for the Improvement of Human Resources and Educational Curriculum (SIMAC), Guatemalan Ministry of Education, by U.S. Department of Labor official (October 8, 1998).

110.  Ibid. Forty percent of public schools in eight provinces in Guatemala are participating in this pilot project.

111.  Ibid.

112.  PRONJAG is an interinstitutional program focused on providing basic services to migrant farm workers and their families in the areas of health, education, food and lodging, employment training, and civil, labor, and human rights. The educational module program is being implemented in cooperation with the Secretariat of Education and Council for Educational Development. This year, PRONJAG is conducting a census in Sonora, Sinaloa, Baja California, and Oaxaca to determine how many children are affected and where they go during the growing season. This information will be used to develop a tracking system. See Interview with Lourdes Sánchez Muñohierro, National Program for Migrant Farm workers, Secretariat of Social Development, by U.S. Department of Labor official (April 21, 1998).

113.  El trabajo infantil en el Perú at 48-49.

114.  Interview with Blanca Encinas.

115.  Ibid.

116.  To Learn and to Earn at 48-51.

117.  Jo Boyden, Birgitta Ling, and William Myers, What Works for Working Children (Smedjebacken: Save the Children Sweden/UNICEF, 1998) 280 [hereinafter What Works for Working Children].

118.  Targeting the Intolerable at 106. To address possible dependency on such programs and the issue of their sustainability, it is also often recommended that employment-creation and income-generation schemes for adults be part of such programs. Ibid.

119.  What Works for Working Children at 281.

120.  "O dereito" at 16.

121.  Interview with Hussein Kamel Bahaa El-Din. See also U.S. Embassy-Cairo fax (September 3, 1998).

122.  Interview with Francisco Robles Berlanga and Juan Antonio Nevarez Espinosa, Sistema Nacional para el Desarrollo Integral de la Familia, by U.S. Department of Labor official (April 21, 1998) [hereinafter Interview with Berlanga and Espinoza].

123.  Address by Sipho Pityana, Director General, South African Department of Labor, to the International Conference on Child Labor, Oslo, Norway (October 1997).

124.  Child Labour in Bangladesh: Its Context and Response to It (Dhaka: ILO/IPEC, May 1998) 13.

125.  "O Futuro mais perto," CIDADANIA (Brasília: Secretaria de Assistência Social, no. 1, January-March 1998) 11. The families of more than 2,097 working children benefited from this program in 1997. They also receive employment retraining for which they must agree to register their children in school. This is a legally binding agreement, and parents may be punished with up to two years in prison if their children are found working.

126.  Child Labour in Egypt at 27. The average school grant falls far short of the estimated costs of sending children to school. Annual school fees at the primary level range from 11.35 to 15.85 pounds (US$ 3.33 to 4.66), and the Ministry of Education estimates that the average annual cost born by poor families for primary school amounts to 348 pounds (US$ 102.35) per child.

127.  Participating families' average monthly per capita income must be equal to or lower than one minimum monthly wage. Families must also have resided in the Federal District for at least five years prior to joining the program. "Scholarship" (pamphlet), Government of the Federal District of Brazil (September 12, 1997) [hereinafter "Scholarship" pamphlet]. See also Bolsa Escola: The End of Child Labor, 2nd ed. (Brasília: Government of the Federal District, 1997) 17-19 [hereinafter Bolsa Escola].

128.  School attendance is monitored by the Secretariat of Education. Benefits are suspended for families whose children have more than two unexcused absences from school. See "Scholarship" pamphlet.

129.  Ibid. The goal of the Federal District government is to assist the more than 35,000 families and 70,000 children living below the poverty level in the city. "GDF lança programa pioneiro," LIDA (Brasília: Ministry of Labor, no. 4, September-October 1997) 34 [hereinafter "Programa pioneiro"].

130.  See "Scholarship" pamphlet; "Programa pioneiro" at 34.

131.  Bolsa Escola at 21-22.

132.  According to the Federal District government, the School Savings Program accounts for approximately 10 percent of the average annual cost of maintaining a student in the public school system. See "Scholarship" pamphlet.

133.  The money is deposited in the Federal District's Solidarity Fund (FUNSOL) and is invested in social programs, such as income-generation and job-creation projects. See "Scholarship" pamphlet.

134.  See "Scholarship" pamphlet. As of July 1998, the average school dropout rate among Bolsa Escola children in Brasília was almost zero. Correspondence from Cristovam Buarque, Governor of the Federal District of Brazil, to Alexis M. Herman, U.S. Secretary of Labor (July 9, 1998). For an evaluation of the Bolsa Escola program see Executive Summary of the Report "Scholarship Program of the Federal District" (Brasília: UNESCO, UNICEF, and POLIS, March 1998).

135.  Ibid. In June 1998, President Cardoso announced a national complementary Family Income Program (Programa de Complementação de Renda Familiar), which is based on the Bolsa Escola model. The new program will be implemented in 1999 and aims to assist up to three million families. Families participating in the program will receive 30 reais (about US$ 25) monthly per child and will be required to enroll their children in public schools. See "Negociações na educação se arrastam," Jornal do Brasil, June 3, 1998, 4.

136. Embassy of Mexico Submission 22-23. See also "PROGRESA: Programa de Educación, Salud y Alimentación" (

137.  PROGRESA also has nutritional and health components. See Embassy of Mexico Submission at 22-23.

138.  Interview with Alejandro de la Canal.

139. Fax and telephone interview with Debora Schlam Epelstein, PROGRESA Program, Secretariat of Social Development, by U.S. Department of Labor official (September 29, 1998) [hereinafter Interview with Debora Schlam Epelstein].

140. Interview with Alejandro de la Canal. PROGRESA is gradually expanding its coverage but in its initial phases focuses on selected marginalized, rural microregions of the country with poor access to basic education and health services. Selection of participating families within each region is based on income and socioeconomic indicators such as literacy, economic activity, and composition and structure of the family. See José Gómez de León, "El Programa de Educación, Salud, y Alimentación: Progresa," Economista Mexicano, vol. 1, no. 4 (October-December 1997) 279.

141.  Interview with Debora Schlam Epelstein.

142.  Embassy of Mexico Submission at 22.

143.  Ibid.

144.  U.S. Embassy-Mexico City, unclassified telegram no. 11304 (November 25, 1998).

145. Embassy of Mexico Submission at 23.

146.  Interview with Berlanga and Espinosa.

147.  Embassy of Mexico Submission at 28.

This report was produced by the staff of the International Child Labor Program and is published by the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of International Labor Affairs.