Chapter II: Footnotes
1. See "Child Labour in the World," fact sheet from Abolishing Extreme Forms of Child Labour (Geneva: ILO, 1998) [hereinafter "Child Labour in the World" fact sheet]. The ILO considers this figure to be an underestimate since it does not include children working in non-economic activities such as household work in the homes of their parents or guardians. Fifteen to 20 percent of children in the five to 14 age group are estimated to be engaged in such activities. See World of Work: The Magazine of the ILO, no. 22 (December 1997) 24 [hereinafter World of Work].
2. World of Work at 24.
3. Child Labour: Targeting the Intolerable (Geneva: ILO, 1996) 8-9 [hereinafter Targeting the Intolerable].
4. "Statistics on Working Children and Hazardous Child Labour in Brief," (www.ilo.org/public/english/120stat/actrep/childhaz.htm). About 0.2 percent of child workers are found in Oceania (excluding Australia and New Zealand).
5. See "Child Labour in the World" fact sheet.
8. Targeting the Intolerable at 3.
9. Ibid. at 10-11.
10. A. Bequele and W.E. Myers, First Things First in Child Labour: Eliminating Work Detrimental to Children (Geneva: ILO/UNICEF, 1995) 9 [hereinafter First Things First]. See also Targeting the Intolerable at 10-11.
11. First Things First at 13.
12. Targeting the Intolerable at 15.
13. Valentina Forastieri, Children at Work: Health and Safety Risks (Geneva: ILO, 1997) 10 [hereinafter Children at Work].
14. Targeting the Intolerable at 3.
15. Ibid. at 12-13.
16. Children at Work at 21.
17. The State of the World's Children 1997 (New York: UNICEF, 1996) 20.
19. Targeting the Intolerable at 19-20.
20. To accomplish these goals, the ILO has established the Statistical Information and Monitoring Project on Child Labor (SIMPOC). SIMPOC is assisting many countries in collecting comprehensive and reliable data on child labor and establishing a database on institutions and organizations active in the field of child labor, child labor projects and programs, industry-level action, and national legislation and indicators.
21. Countries where national child labor surveys have been completed or are nearing completion are Bangladesh (1995-96), Cambodia (1995-96), Costa Rica (by the end of 1998), Kenya (early 1999), Nepal (1995-96), Pakistan (1996), Philippines (1995), Senegal (1992-93), Sri Lanka (early 1999), Turkey (1994), West Bank and Gaza (early 1999). Regional surveys have been completed in Ghana, India, Indonesia, and Thailand. Surveys are planned or have already begun in Cambodia (second round), Colombia, Ethiopia, Georgia, Indonesia (second round), Madagascar, Mozambique, Namibia, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan (second round), South Africa, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey (second round), Ukraine, Venezuela, Vietnam, and Zimbabwe. Electronic correspondence from Kebebew Ashagrie, Director, Bureau of Statistics, ILO, to U.S. Department of Labor official (December 14, 1998).
24. A 1993 ILO/UNICEF study of child labor in Central America estimated that in 1989 there were approximately 900,000 children from ten to 17 years of age employed in Guatemala. In 1995, the Secretary of Social Welfare of the Confederation of United Unions of Guatemala estimated that 1.5 to two million children were working. See María Eugenia Villareal and Carlos Paralta Chapetón, Trabajo infantil: concepción y realidad (Guatemala City: Program of Support for Maternal and Child Health-PAMI, 1997) 48-49.
25. Yearbook of Labour Statistics 1997 (Geneva: ILO, 1997) 19 [hereinafter Yearbook of Labour Statistics 1997].
26. Ingrid Mendonca, "Child Labour in India: Promises to Keep," FRCH Newsletter (Mumbai: Foundation for Research in Community Health, vol. VI, no. 5, September-October 1992) 2. See also S. Sinha, Collection and Dissemination of Data on Child Labour in Asia (Bangkok: ILO/IPEC, 1998) Table 1, 107 [draft on file][hereinafter Collection and Dissemination of Data on Child Labour in Asia].
27. U.S. Embassy-New Delhi, unclassified telegram no. 01401, February 20, 1998.
28. Summary Results of Child Labor Survey in Pakistan (Islamabad: Pakistan Federal Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Labor, Manpower and Overseas Pakistanis, ILO/IPEC, October 9, 1996) 10-12 [hereinafter Summary Results of Child Labour Survey in Pakistan]. See also telephone interview with Kebebew Ashagrie, Director, ILO Bureau of Statistics, by U.S. Department of Labor official (September 8, 1998).
29. Discover the Working Child, It's a Beginning--the Situation of Child Labor in Pakistan (Islamabad: UNICEF/Pakistan and the National Commission for Child Welfare and Development, Government of Pakistan, 1990) 7.
30. Moazam Mahmood, Muhammad Javaid Khan Tariq, and Ajmal Baig, Why Children Do Not Go to School in Pakistan--Some Estimates and a Theoretical Framework (Islamabad: Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, 1994) 8-9.
31. Estudio de niños y adolescentes trabajadores a nivel nacional 1998 (Lima: Ministerio de Trabajo y Promoción Social, 1998) A.
32. Yearbook of Labour Statistics 1997 at 9.
33. U.S. Embassy-Cairo, unclassified telegram no. 05996, June 6, 1996.
35. "Child Labour in the World" fact sheet.
36. Small farms that are purely family based are exempted from international standards on child labor. However, small holders employing wage laborers are prohibited by these international standards from using child labor.
37. Lourdes Sánchez Muñohierro, "La familia jornalera: Seno del niño en situación especialmente difícil," El trabajo infantil en Mexico (Veracruz: University of Veracruz, ILO, UNICEF, 1996) 28 [hereinafter "La familia jornalera"]. These surveys were conducted during the high season and are based on interviews with workers.
38. Federation of Kenya Employers, "Child Labor in Commercial Agriculture in Kenya," Working Paper No. 1, ILO/IPEC Subregional technical workshop on child labor in commercial agriculture, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (August 27-30, 1996) 4-6 [hereinafter "Child Labor in Commercial Agriculture in Kenya"].
39. Ibid. at 22-23.
40. Anthony Shadid, "Year After Tragic Deaths, Egypt's Young Return to Cotton Fields," Associated Press, September 24, 1998 [hereinafter "Egypt's Young Return to Cotton Fields"].
41. U.S. Embassy-Guatemala City, unclassified telegram no. 03370, April 26, 1995.
42. Children at Work at 12.
43. Interview with Noe Silvestre Carneiro, President, Union of Rural Workers of Retirolandia, by U.S. Department of Labor officials (May 22, 1998).
44. Phil Davison, Katherine Butler, and Steve Boggan, "Children as Young as Five Suffer in Picking Fruit for Our Orange Juice," The Independent Newspaper, September 28, 1998.
45. "La familia jornalera" at 31.
46. Presentación general (Mexico City: Secretaría de Desarrollo Social, Subsecretaría de Desarrollo Regional, Programa Nacional con Jornaleros Agrícolas, 1998) 6 [hereinafter Presentación general]. According to one study, children commonly carry 40 to 45 pound loads of harvested vegetables on their shoulders to deposit them in a central container. See M.T. Guerra Ochoa, Los trabajadores de la horticultura Sinaloense (Sinaloa: Universidad de Sinaloa, 1998) 111.
47. "La familia jornalera" at 32.
48. "Child Labor in Commercial Agriculture in Kenya" at 15-16.
49. Ibid. at 16.
50. Interview with William Stixrud, President, Guatemalan National Coffee Association, by U.S. Department of Labor official (June 8, 1998) [hereinafter Interview with William Stixrud].
51. Presentación general at 8-9.
52. Walter Alarcón Glasinovich, Mauricio García Moreno, Irene Rizzini, María Cristina Salazar, Catalina Turbay, and Carlos Antonio Rodríguez, Mejores escuelas: menos trabajo infantil - trabajo infanto-juvenil y educación en Brasil, Colombia, Guatemala, Ecuador y Peru (Florence: International Child Development Centre; Bogotá: UNICEF Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, 1996) 286 [hereinafter Mejores escuelas].
53. Interview with Hildebrando Cabellos Valiente, Sindicato Unico de Trabajadores de Petroleo del Peru, and José Pingo, Federación de Trabajadores de Petroleo del Peru (FETRAPEP), by U.S. Department of Labor official (May 6, 1998).
54. "Egypt's Young Return to Cotton Fields." In 1997, 23 Egyptian children--some as young as 12--being transported by a government-owned truck to work in local cotton fields were killed when the vehicle skidded off the road into a Nile River canal. Since then, the Government of Egypt has banned the transport of children in such trucks. Steps have not been taken, however, to ensure that children are in school rather than employed in the country's cotton fields.
55. "Canavias de Pernambuco Tiram as Crianças da Escola Durante Colheita," LIDA (Brasília: Ministry of Labor, vol. 1, no. 1, September/October 1997) 32.
56. Interview with William Stixrud.
57. Major Finding of the Study on Child Labour in Tea Estates of Nepal (Kathmandu: General Federation of Nepalese Trade Unions--GEFONT, 1995) 3, 8 [informational pamphlet on file].
58. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1997 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of State, 1998) 601.
59. By the Sweat and Toil of Children (Volume II): The Use of Child Labor in U.S. Agricultural Imports & Forced and Bonded Child Labor (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor, 1995) 125-132 [hereinafter By the Sweat and Toil of Children II].
60. The 1995 National Survey of Working Children was conducted by the National Statistics Office of the Philippines in collaboration with the ILO's Bureau of Statistics. See Collection and Dissemination of Data on Child Labour in Asia, Table 11, 147.
61. Targeting the Intolerable at 13, 14.
62. Invisible Children: Child Work in Asia and the Pacific (Bangkok: Save the Children and Child Workers in Asia, October 1997) 51 [hereinafter Invisible Children]. See also (By the Sweat and Toil of Children II at 60.
63. Invisible Children at 51.
64. Mohaddad G. Murtaza and Md. Hamid Uddin, Effects of Shrimp Fry Collection on the Primary Education, A Case Study of Batiaghata Thana, Khulma District (Dhaka: Programme for Research on Poverty Alleviation, Grameen Trust, 1995) 2, 32 [hereinafter Shrimp Fry Collection]. See also interview with Abdul Hamid Chowdhury, Chairman, C.A. Hamid Group, and Major (Ret.) Manzoor, Managing Director, Aqua Resources Limited (representing the Bangladesh Frozen Food Exporters Association), by U.S. Department of Labor official (May 13, 1998).
65. Shrimp Fry Collection at 13.
66. Interview with M. Amin Ullah, Managing Director, Meenhar Sea Foods Ltd., and Md. Anowarul Hoque, by U.S. Department of Labor official (May 16, 1998).
67. Interview with Isabel Yanez, National Commission on Child Labor, by U.S. Department of Labor official (May 15, 1998).
68. Kerry Richter and Orathai Ard-am, Child Labor in Thailand's Fishing Industry (Salaya: Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University, 1995) 18-19.
69. "Child Labor in the World" fact sheet.
70. A Sporting Chance--Tackling Child Labour in India's Sports Goods Industry (London: Christian Aid, 1997) 4.
71. Interview with Amar Nath, Director, Inter Gold (India) Limited, by U.S. Department of Labor official (May 12, 1998).
72. U.S. Department of Labor site visit to Jaipur (May 15, 1998). In one shop visited by a U.S. Department of Labor official, all of the workers sitting at a back table appeared to be 10 years old or younger. A 1998 study, funded by India's Gem and Jewelry Export Promotion Council (GJEPC), found a significant decrease in the incidence of child labor in India's diamond processing sector. See "Final Report--Follow-up Study on Prevalence of Child Labour in Diamond Cutting and Polishing Industry in India" (Mumbai: A.F. Ferguson & Co., June 1998).
73. An ILO/IPEC program, funded partially by the U.S. Department of Labor, is working to phase children out of Pakistan's soccer ball industry and provide educational opportunities to former child workers. This project is explained in further detail in Chapter V.
74. U.S. Embassy-Islamabad, unclassified telegram no. 01331, February 20, 1998.
75. "Child Labor in Surgical Goods Industry," SPARC (Islamabad: Society for the Protection of the Rights of the Child, no. 16, September 1998) 8-9. Workers suffer frequent injuries, including burns from hot metal and respiratory illnesses from inhaling poisonous metal dusts.
76. Interview with Claudia Franco Hijuelos, General Coordinator of International Affairs; Luis Farías, Special Advisor; Joaquín Blanes Casas, Director General of Federal Labor Inspectorate; and Alberto Piedra, Director of Information and Analysis, Secretariat of Labor and Social Welfare, by U.S. Department of Labor official (April 20, 1998). See also Mexico (Cartagena: Sistema Regional de Información sobre Trabajo Infantil - ILO/IPEC, 1997) 14-15 [hereinafter Mexico].
77. Mexico at 14-15. See also Interview with Jorge Valencia, Mexican Collective for the Support of Children, by U.S. Department of Labor official (April 21, 1998).
79. Analysis of Boys and Girls Employed in Fireworks Industry of San Juan Sacatepéquez and San Raymundo (Guatemala City: Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare/ILO, 1996) 39-56. See also Menores trabajadores en labores de alto riesgo (Guatemala City: USAID, June 1997) 35, 128.
80. By the Sweat and Toil of Children (Volume I): The Use of Child Labor in U.S. Manufactured and Mined Imports (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor, 1994) 85-86. See also By the Sweat and Toil of Children II at 102-104.
81. El trabajo infantil en América Latina: propuestas para la acción, VII Conferencia de Esposas de Jefes de Estado y de Gobierno de las Américas (Panama: ILO/IPEC, October 1997) 32.
82. Molly Moore, "Accident Reveals Explosive Secret," The Washington Post, October 15, 1998.
83. Comprehensive Study on Child Labor in the Philippines (Manila: Institute for Labor Studies, 1994) 49 [hereinafter Child Labor in the Philippines]. See also Assessing the Occupational Safety and Health Conditions of Child Labor in the Pyrotechnics Industry (Manila: Occupational Safety and Health Center, Department of Labor and Employment, 1996).
84. "Initiatives on Child Labour"Human Rights Newsletter (New Delhi: National Human Rights Commission, vol. 1, no. 3, December 1994) 1-2.
85. Environment Management in (the) Glass Industry (New Delhi: Indian Environmental Society, 1992) 48 [hereinafter Environment Management in (the) Glass Industry].
86. Ibid. at 97-98.
87. Ibid. at 99.
88. "Children in Hazardous Work," fact sheet from Abolishing Extreme Forms of Child Labour (Geneva: ILO, 1998) [hereinafter "Children in Hazardous Work" fact sheet]. See also By the Sweat and Toil of Children IV at 70-73.
89. Ahmed Abdalla, Sa'id Al-Masri, Berlanti Abdalla, Hani Wassef, Child Labor in Egypt: An Overview and an Exploratory Study of the Child Triangle of Masr Al-Qadeema (Old Cairo) (Cairo: Al-Jeel Center for Youth and Social Studies, 1996) 113.
90. Daily Lives of Working Children: Case Studies from Bangladesh (Dhaka: UNICEF, 1997) 55. Tasks performed by young boys include running errands, packing, arranging, drying, and coloring leather, and operating tanning drums. Ibid. at 57.
91. Interview with Abhinay Prasad, Secretary, AADHAR (Welfare Society), and R.K. Pandey, Regional Director, Council for Leather Exports, by U.S. Department of Labor official (May 17, 1998). It is unclear, however, whether shoes and shoe parts produced under subcontracting arrangements in the cottage industry are destined for the domestic or export market.
93. Untitled ILO/IPEC Draft Paper (Ankara: ILO/IPEC, April 1998) 2 [on file]. See also Interview with officials and inspectors of the Child Labor Unit in Istanbul, by U.S. Department of Labor official (May 1, 1998). These medical exams were part of an IPEC-sponsored program, carried out by the Child Labor Unit in Istanbul, to examine the effects of chemicals on children in the leather and footwear industries.
96. Interview with Fernando Velasco Cordova, Technical Advisor to the High Directorate, and Ivone Vicuña, Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare, by U.S. Department of Labor official (May 4, 1998).
99. "Major Steps towards the Elimination of Child Labor in Nepal" (Kathmandu: ILO/IPEC, January 1998).
100. Mexico at 15.
101. Environment Management in (the) Glass Industry at 98.
103. "Children in Mining and Quarries," fact sheet from Abolishing Extreme Forms of Child Labour (Geneva: ILO, 1998) [hereinafter "Children in Mining and Quarries" fact sheet].
104. María Eugenia Villareal and Carlos Peralta Chapetón, Menores trabajadores en labores de alto riesgo (Guatemala City: Program of Support for Maternal and Child Health and Health of Other High Risk Groups -PAMI, 1997) 19-24.
105. Combating Child Labor in Stone Quarries of Guatemala, sub-programme 3 (Guatemala City: ILO/IPEC, 1998) 2 [on file].
106. Child Labor in the Philippines at 49.
107. Ronald D. Subida and Ray U. Angluben, Defining Hazardous Undertakings for Young Workers Below 18 Years of Age, A Country Report (Manila: ILO/IPEC, 1997) 14.
108. "Children in Mining and Quarries" fact sheet. There has reportedly been a reduction in the number of children working in the tanzanite mines following an intensive campaign by NGOs, unions, and the government. Electronic correspondences from William Mallya, National Program Coordinator, ILO/IPEC Tanzania, to U.S. Department of Labor official (November 15 and December 16, 1998) [on file].
109. "Children in Mining and Quarries" fact sheet.
110. Electronic correspondence from William Mallya, National Program Coordinator, ILO/IPEC Tanzania, to U.S. Department of Labor official (November 15, 1998)
111. Interview with S.P. Gnanamoni, Secretary, Quarry Workers Development Society, Dindigal, by U.S. Department of Labor official (May 7, 1998).
112. Ibid.; see also interview with Isabel Austin, State Representative for UNICEF for Tamil Nadu and Kerala, by U.S. Department of Labor official (May 5, 1998) [hereinafter Interview with Isabel Austin].
113. "Children in Mining and Quarries" fact sheet.
114. "Especial--seguimiento a la convención de los derechos de la niña y el niño," Niñez y Adolescencia (Lima: Grupo de Iniciativa Nacional por los Derechos del Niño--GIN, no. 2, August-October, 1997) 14 [hereinafter "Especial--derechos de la niña y el niño"].
115. Ibid. at 13-16.
116. Children balance atop the quimbalete (a large stone with a log lashed on top of it) which sits in the middle of a large stone bowl. The mineral and mercury are placed in the bowl and the child grinds the mineral by planting his/her feet wide on the log and rocking the quimbalete back and forth over the mineral.
117. "Especial - derechos de la niña y el niño" at 15-16.
118. Program for the Progressive Eradication of Child Labor in the Informal Mining Community of Mollehuaca, Summary Outline para Acción del Programa IPEC (Lima: ILO/ IPEC, May 1998) 5.
119. Child Domestic Workers: A Handbook for Research and Action (London: Anti-Slavery International/IPEC, September 1997) 2.
120. Child Labor: Exploited and Abused Youth at Work (Washington, D.C.: Youth Advocate Program International, 1998) 13-14.
121. Targeting the Intolerable at 14.
122. U.S. Embassy-Manila, unclassified telegram no. 02110, February 20, 1998.
123. Indicadores sobre crianças e adolescentes: Brasil, 1991-1996 (Rio de Janeiro: IBGE/UNICEF, 1997) 142 [hereinafter Indicadores sobre crianças e adolescentes].
124. "Children in Domestic Work" fact sheet from Abolishing Extreme Forms of Child Labour (Geneva: ILO, 1998) [hereinafter "Children in Domestic Work" fact sheet].
125. "Domestic Child Workers in the Kathmandu Valley," in Child Workers in Asia (Bangkok: Child Workers in Asia, vol. 10, no. 1, January-March, 1994) 8-9 [hereinafter "Domestic Child Workers in the Kathmandu Valley"].
126. Targeting the Intolerable at 14.
127. "Children in Domestic Work" fact sheet.
128. Mejores Escuelas at 282-284.
129. Interview with Areli Araoz V., Executive Director, Coordinadora Derechos del Nino - Region Inka (CODENI), by U.S. Department of Labor official (May 11, 1998).
130. Mejores escuelas at 284.
131. "La situacíon de las niñas," Niñez y adolescencia (Lima: Grupo de Iniciativa Nacional por los Derechos del Niño - GIN, no. 1, March 1997) 4.
132. Sinaga Newsletter (Nairobi: Sinaga Women and Child Labor Resource Center, no. 5, January-March 1998) 4.
133. Domestic Child Workers: Selected Case Studies on the Situation of the Girl--Child Domestic Workers (Nairobi: Sinaga Women and Child Labour Resource Centre/OXFAM, July 1997) 12.
134. Ibid. at 13.
135. Ibid. at 14.
136. "Domestic Children Workers in the Kathmandu Valley" at 8-9.
138. U.S. Embassy-Manila, unclassified telegram no. 02110, February 20, 1998.
139. Challenging Child Labour (Ottawa: Canadian Labour Congress, undated) 13 [hereinafter Challenging Child Labor] [on file].
140. The Sex Sector: The Economic and Social Bases of Prostitution in Southeast Asia (Geneva: ILO, 1998) 170 [hereinafter The Sex Sector].
141. "Prostitution and Trafficking of Children," fact sheet from Abolishing Extreme Forms of Child Labour (Geneva: ILO, 1998).
142. Estimates of child prostitutes in Thailand vary widely, from 13,000 to 800,000. However, some experts believe that the true extent of the problem is probably closer to the lower number. See The Sex Sector at 172.
143. Strategy and Action Against the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children, prepared for the World Congress on Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Stockholm, Sweden (Geneva: ILO/IPEC, August 1996) 2.
144. Challenging Child Labour at 15.
145. Survey in the Area of Child and Women Trafficking (Dhaka: Bangladesh National Women Lawyers Association, 1997) at 65.
146. "Girl Trafficking: An Overview," MAITI Nepal (Kathmandu: Maiti Nepal, undated) 1 [fact sheet on file][hereinafter "Girl Trafficking" fact sheet].
147. State of the Rights Of The Child In Nepal 1998: Country Report Released by CWIN (Kathmandu: Child Workers in Nepal Concerned Center, January 1998) 60 [hereinafter Rights of the Child in Nepal 1998].
148. "Girl Trafficking" fact sheet at 1.
149. Ibid. at 1-2.
150. The Sex Sector at 172.
151. Initial Country Report of South Africa: Convention on the Rights of the Child (Pretoria: Government of South Africa, November 1997) 104-105. See also Child Prostitution in Southern Africa: A Search for Legal Protection, Workshop report (Pretoria: Network Against Child Labour, March 26-28, 1996) 24-25.
152. Anita Marshall and Vanessa Herman, Child Sexual Abuse in South Africa (Capetown: Resources Aimed at the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect--RAPCAN, March 1998) 104.
153. Interview with Adelle DuPlessis, Director, Ntombi Shelter for Girls, by U.S. Department of Labor official (May 12, 1998).
154. Rights of the Child: Report of Ms. Ofelia Calcetas-Santos, Special Rapporteur, on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution, and Child Pornography, Kenya Addendum, U.N. Document No. E/CN. 4/1998/101/Add. 1 (Geneva: U.N. Commission on Human Rights, January 28, 1998) 7 [hereinafter Report of Ms. Ofelia Calcetas-Santos]. Among the groups of Kenyan children victimized by commercial sexual exploitation are schoolgirls and boys, young girls who migrate to urban areas, unskilled domestic servants, school dropouts, "second-generation" prostitutes, and beach boys.
155. Hearing on Street Children in Kenya (Nairobi: African Network for the Prevention and Protection against Child Abuse and Neglect, 1995) 21.
156. Mary Mbeo, Child Labor in Africa--Targeting the Intolerable: Towards the New ILO International Standard (Nairobi: ILO/IPEC, April 1998) 9.
157. "O Brasil está de olho no turismo sexual infantil," CIDADANIA (Brasília: Secretaria de Assistência Social, no. 1 January-March 1998) 19.
158. Interview with Ana Vasconcelos, Coordinator of Casa de Passagem, by U.S. Department of Labor officials (May 15, 1998).
159. Report of Ms. Ofelia Calcetas-Santos at 5.
162. Challenging Child Labour at 15.
163. Voces de la infancia trabajadora en la Ciudad de México (Mexico City: UNICEF/Government of Mexico City, 1997) 106 [hereinafter Voces de la infancia].
164. U.S. Embassy-Mexico City, unclassified telegram no. 06948, July 17, 1998 [hereinafter U.S. Embassy-Mexico City telegram].
165. Voces de la infancia at 31.
166. U.S. Embassy-Mexico City telegram.
167. Interviews conducted at the Peace Trust School, Dindigal, by U.S. Department of Labor official (May 7, 1998).
168. Invisible Children: Child Work in Asia and the Pacific (Bangkok: Save the Children and Child Workers in Asia, October 1997) 40.
169. Burden on Childhood: Child Porters in the Kathmandu Valley (Nepal: Concern for Children & Environment, 1997) 12, 15.
171. Ibid. at 23.
172. Ibid. at 27-29.
173. "Especial - derechos de la niña y el niño" at 61-62.
174. Defining Hazardous Undertakings for Young Workers below 18 Years of Age: A Country Report (Manila: ILO/IPEC, 1997) 65.
175. Interview with Bokkie Botha, South African Representative, International Organization of Employers, 1998 ILO Conference Child Labor Committee, by U.S. Department of Labor official (May 7, 1998).
176. Diagnóstico preliminar dos focos do trabalho da crianças e do adolescente no Brasil (Brasília: Ministry of Labor, 1996) 85.
177. Menores Trabajadores en Labores de Alto Riesgo (Guatemala City: Programa de Apoyo Para la Salud Materno Infantíl y Para la Salud de Otros Grupos de Riesgo, 1997) 85.
178. Interview with Isabel Austin.
179. Informe Final del II Censo de Menores en Situación de Calle de la Ciudad de México (Mexico City: UNICEF/Departamento del Distrito Federal, 1995) 2.
180. Rights Of The Child In Nepal 1998 at 38. See also Different Fields of Child Labour in Nepal (Kathmandu: Concern for Children & Environment, Nepal, undated) [informational fact sheet on file].
181. Summary Results of Child Labor Survey in Pakistan at 17.
182. The Situation of Child Labour in Thailand: an Overview (Bangkok: ILO/IPEC, 1996) 7-8.
183. "Children in Hazardous Work" fact sheet.
184. Interview with Isabel Austin.
This report was produced by the staff of the International Child Labor Program and is published by the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of International Labor Affairs.