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FootNotes: Set 2

1 International Child Labor Hearing, U.S. Department of Labor (May 5, 1995) (Statement of the International Labor Organization) [hereinafter Testimony of the ILO].

2 See Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education and Related Agencies Appropriation Bill, 1995, S. Rpt. 103-553, 103d Cong., 2d Session (1994).

3 The term "family unit" does not mean that children are working on family farms. It describes situations of families working together on commercial agricultural enterprises.

4 International Labor Organization, Recent Developments in the Plantations Sector (Geneva: International Labor Organization, 1994) 8 [hereinafter Recent Developments in the Plantation Sector].

5 Convention No. 138, in International Labour Conventions and Recommendations, 1919-1991, vol. II (Geneva: International Labor Organization, 1992) 1032 [hereinafter ILO Convention No. 138].

6 Recommendation No. 146, in International Labour Conventions and Recommendations, 1919-1991, vol. II (Geneva: International Labor Organization, 1992) 1036.

7 ILO Convention No. 138 at 1033.

8 ILO Convention No. 138 at 1031.

9 ILO Convention No. 138 at 1031.

10 Other terms are often used synonymously for plantation. The term "estate" is technically the same as plantation, though the term plantation often is used informally to describe farms where the product is picked from trees, while the term estate is used to describe farms where the product is picked from the ground. In India, tea plantations are often referred to as "tea gardens." In this chapter the term plantation refers to all these establishments.

11 Recent Developments in the Plantation Sector at 2.

12 Recent Developments in the Plantation Sector at 8.

13 Recent Developments in the Plantation Sector at 8.

14 Indian Commission on Labour Standards and International Trade, Child Labour in India: A Perspective (New Delhi: June 10, 1995) 17-18 [hereinafter Indian Commission].

15 This chapter includes only children in conditions of forced and bonded labor in agricultural or fishing industries that export to the United States. Part IV of this study, Forced and Bonded Child Labor, discusses situations of forced or bonded labor on small-scale farms not producing for export to the United States.

16 Some studies that have examined the relationship in specific agricultural of fishing industries are: the fishing industry in Thailand, Kerry Richter and Orathai Ard-am, Child Labor in Thailand's Fishing Industry (Salaya, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand: Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University, 1995); the tea industry in India, Vasanthi Raman, "Child Labour in Tea Plantations of North-East India -- An Extract," in My Name is Today: Children in News, vol. 2, no. 1 (January-March 1994) 14-18; and rubber and palm oil plantations in Malaysia, Jomo K.S., Josie Aini, P. Ramasamy and Sumathy Suppiah, "Early Labour: Children at Work on Malaysian Plantations," in Jomo K.S., ed., Child Labour in Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur: Forum, 1992) 144-171.

17 Jomo K.S., Josie Aini, P. Ramasamy and Sumathy Suppiah, "Early Labour: Children at Work on Malaysian Plantations," in Jomo K.S., ed., Child Labour in Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur: Forum, 1992) 152.

18 Alec Fyfe, Child Labour, (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1989) 73 [hereinafter Fyfe].

19 Fyfe at 72-73.

20 Indonesian Documentation and Information Centre, Child Labour in U.S.-Exporting Industries in Indonesia (Leiden: Indonesian Documentation and Information Centre, 1994) 1.

21 Child Labour in Indonesia (Geneva: International Labor Organization, 1993) 6 [hereinafter Child Labour in Indonesia].

22 The Economist, January 6, 1990.

23 Testimony of the International Labor Organization.

24 Recent Developments in the Plantations Sector at 8.

25 Testimony of the International Labor Organization.

26 Recent Developments in the Plantations Sector at 50.

27 See, for example, D.C. Pitt, "Child Labour and Health," in P.M. Shah, ed., Child Labour: A Threat to Health and Development (Geneva: Defence for Children International, 1985) 23-36.

28 Testimony of the International Labor Organization.

29 World Labour Report 1994 (Geneva: International Labor Organization, 1994) 82 [hereinafter World Labour Report].

30 World Labour Report at 82-83.

31 World Labour Report at 82.

32 A. Bequele and W.E. Myers, First things first in child labour: Eliminating work detrimental to children (Geneva: UNICEF and the International Labor Organization, 1995) 9.

33 Recent Developments in the Plantations Sector at 50.

34 American Embassy-Harare, unclassified telegram no. 4141, April 13, 1995.

35 Myron Weiner, The Child and the State in India (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991) 52 [hereinafter Weiner].

36 Maria Anna Mapa, Ramon Lachica, May Angeline Daanoy-Satake, and Violeta Lopez-Gonzaga, Tender Hands that Toil: A Study of the Phenomenon of Child Labor in Northern Negros (Bacolod City: University of St. La Salle, 1990) 11-12 [hereinafter Mapa, Lachica, Daanoy-Satake, and Lopez-Gonzaga].

37 Michel Bonnet, "Child Labour in Africa," International Labour Review, vol. 132, no. 3 (1993) 382.

38 Child Labour in Tanzania at 13; interview by Department of Labor Official with William Malya, National Program Coordinator, International Program for the Elimination of Child Labor, Dar Es Salaam, June 20, 1995.

39 Jackie Loffel, Child Labour: Economic Exploitation as a Form of Child Abuse in South Africa (Johannesburg: Network Against Child Labour/Johannesburg Child Welfare Society, 1993) at 3 [hereinafter Loffel], citing Network Against Child Labour, Minutes and Records, 1991-1993.

40 Interview by Department of Labor official with Jackie Loffell and Peter Mugabane of the Network Against Child Labour, Johannesburg, June 6, 1994.

41 Toward Action Against Child Labour in Zimbabwe (Geneva: International Labor Organization, 1992) 46-47 [hereinafter Toward Action Against Child Labour in Zimbabwe].

42 The Chronicle [Harare], June 11, 1995, p. 1.

43 Loffell at 2, citing Child Labour in South Africa (London, 1983); Interview by Department of Labor official with Jackie Loffell and Peter Mugabane of the Network Against Child Labour, June 6, 1994; with Professor Henry Chipeya, University of Capetown, Capetown, June 9, 1994; and with Professor Sarah Christie, Professor Evance Kalula, and Davey Bosch, Center for Rural Legal Studies, Capetown, June 9, 1994.

44 Loffell at 1, citing NCRC/UNICEF, Children and Women in South Africa: A Situation Analysis (Johannesburg, 1993).

45 Interview by Department of Labor official with Professor Henry Chipeya, University of Capetown, Capetown, June 9, 1994.

46 Federation of Kenya Employers, Report on a Survey on Child Labour in Commercial Agricultural Plantations in Kenya (Nairobi: Federation of Kenya Employers, 1994) 8 [hereinafter Federation of Kenya Employers].

47 Federation of Kenya Employers at 3.

48 International Labor Organization, "Des Plantations de Cafe aux rues de Nairobi," Travail, No. 9 (September-October, 1994) 19.

49 Federation of Kenya Employers at 6.

50 Federation of Kenya Employers at 5.

51 Philista P.M. Onyango, "Child Labour Policies and Programmes in Kenya," in Assefa Bequele and Jo Boyden, eds., Combatting Child Labour (Geneva: International Labor Organization, 1988) 162 [hereinafter Onyango].

52 American Embassy-Antananarivo, unclassified telegram no. 2383, April 19, 1995; American Embassy-Kampala, unclassified telegram no. 2463, April 13, 1995. Uganda's National Organization of Trade Unions (NOTU) claims that children were picking coffee during the 1994 coffee boom; the Federation of Uganda Employers claims that most of the children were 14-18 years of age. American Embassy-Kampala, unclassified telegram no. 2643, April 13, 1995.

53 American Embassy-Abidjan, unclassified telegram no. 4697, May 16, 1995.

54 Toward Action Against Child Labour in Zimbabwe at 46.

55 Interview by Department of Labor official with Professor Sarah Christie, Professor Evance Kalula, and Davey Bosch, Center for Rural Legal Studies, Capetown, June 9, 1994.

56 Interview by Department of Labor official with Professor Henry Chipeya, University of Capetown, Capetown, June 9, 1994.

57 Towards the Elimination of Child Labor (Johannesburg: Network Against Child Labor, n.d.) 1-2 [on file].

58 Marie Dorigny and Sorj Chalandon, Children in Shadow (Parma: International Labour Organization, 1993) [hereinafter Children in Shadow].

59 See Children in Shadow.

60 American Embassy-Abidjan, unclassified telegram no. 4697, May 16, 1995.

61 Child Labour in Tanzania at 13.

62 Child Labour in Tanzania at 13.

63 Child Labour in Tanzania at 14.

64 Child Labour in Tanzania at 13.

65 Onyango at 162.

66 American Embassy-Abidjan, unclassified telegram no. 4697, May 16, 1995.

67 Toward Action Against Child Labour in Zimbabwe at 47.

68 Rene Loewenson, Child Labour in Commercial Agriculture in Zimbabwe: Report of a Case Study (Harare: ILO International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour, 1995) 8.

69 Toward Action Against Child Labour in Zimbabwe at 47-8.

70 Toward Action Against Child Labour in Zimbabwe at 48.

71 Interview by Department of Labor official with Professor Henry Chipeya, University of Capetown, Capetown, June 9, 1994.

72 Loffell at 3, citing New Nation, February 4, 1993.

73 City Press [South Africa], March 28, 1993 at 5.

74 American Embassy-Antananarivo, unclassified telegram no. 2383, April 19, 1995.

75 Indian Commission at 1.

76 Indian Commission at 1-2. The estimate of 44 million was made by the Operations Research Group in Baroda in 1984, and the estimate of 100 million child workers was made by the Center for Concern of Working Children in Bangalore in 1994.

77 Indian Commission at 6

78 American Embassy-New Delhi, unclassified telegram no. 5146, April 18 1995; Manjari Dingwaney, Sunil Dogra, R. Vidyasagar, and Renu Gupta, Children of Darkness: A Manual on Child Labour in India (New Delhi: Rural Labour Cell, 1988) 27-28; R.K. Goyal, "Child Labour in India," Indian Labour Journal (February, 1987) 181.

79 UNICEF and the Government of Pakistan, Situation Analysis of Children and Women in Pakistan (Islamabad: UNICEF, 1992) 83.

80 Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Report on Labour Force Survey 1989: Trend of Civilian Labour Force (Dhaka: Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, 1992) xiii, 38-39.

81 Omar Sattaur, Child Labour in Nepal (Kathmandu: Anti-Slavery International and Child Workers in Nepal Concerned Center, 1993) 11, 41.

82 American Embassy-Dhaka, unclassified telegram no. 1795, April 12, 1995; Peter Lee-Wright, Child Slaves (London: Earthscan, 1990) 75-80 hereinafter Lee-Wright].

83 Dhammika Moonemalla, "Country Paper: Sri Lanka," in International Programme for the Improvement of Working Conditions and Environment (PIACT), Asian Regional Tripartite Workshop on Practical Measures to Combat Child Labour: Proceeding and Working Papers (Geneva, International Labor Organization, 1987) 176 [hereinafter, Asian Regional Tripartite Workshop].

84 Child Labour in Indonesia at 7.

85 Child Labor in Indonesia at 9-10; Augustien Saksono, "Country Paper: Indonesia," in Asian Regional Tripartite Workshop at 196; American Embassy-Jakarta, unclassified telegram no. 3292, April 13, 1995. The embassy telegram states that non-governmental organizations have reported children working on cocoa plantations.

86 American Embassy-Kuala Lumpur, unclassified telegram no. 2181, April 28, 1995.

87 Mit Charoenwal, "Country Paper: Thailand," in Asian Regional Tripartite Workshop at 271.

88 Recent Developments in the Plantation Sector at 50.

89 Victoria Rialp, Children and Hazardous Work in the Philippines (Geneva: International Labour Organization, 1993) 1-2 [hereinafter Rialp].

90 Comprehensive Study on Child Labor in the Philippines, (Manila: Institute for Labor Studies, 1994) 56-57, 144 [hereinafter Comprehensive Study on Child Labor in the Philippines.

91 American Embassy-New Delhi, unclassified telegram no. 5146, April 18, 1995.

92 The ILO, in Recent Developments in the Plantation Sector, cites S.K. Bhowmit's figure of 59,000 children aged 12-16 work on tea plantations in Assam, 18,000 in West Bengal. Recent Developments in the Plantation Sector at 50, citing S.K. Bhowmit, "Plantation Labor Act and Child Labour," Economic and Political Weekly (Bombay) vol. XXVII, no. 42 (October 17, 1992). India's 1980 census recorded 80,499 children working on tea plantations throughout the country. Mahendra P. Lama, "Child Labour

in the Darjeeling Tea Industry," in Indira Hirway, Jacqui Cottyn, and Pushkar Pandya, eds., Towards Eradication of Child Labour (Ahmedabad: Ghandi Labour Institute, 1991) 174. Professor Myron Weiner places the number of children between 12 and 15 working on tea plantations in West Bengal and Assam at 21,000. Weiner at 51. Child welfare groups estimate as many as 64,000 children work on tea plantations in Assam. Molly Moore, "India's Battered Tea Industry Seeks New Leaves, Markets," Washington Post, October 23, 1994, A37.

93 American Embassy-New Delhi, unclassified telegram no. 5146, April 18, 1995; Weiner at 51.

94 Quoted in Myron Weiner at 51.

95 American Embassy-New Delhi, unclassified telegram no. 5146, April 18, 1995.

96 Weiner at 52.

97 American Embassy-New Delhi, unclassified telegram no. 5146, April 18, 1995.

98 R.R. Boquiren, Child Labor in the Cordillera: a Primer, a study by the University of the Philippines College Baguio, as part of the UNICEF-assisted Joint DOLE-DECS-UPS Project "Breaking Ground for Community Action on Child Labor" (June, 1990).

99 Amparo B. Pinlac, "Country Paper: Philippines," in Asian Regional Tripartite Workshop at 308 [hereinafter Pinlac].

100 Pinlac at 308; see also Comprehensive Study on Child Labor in the Philippines at 56-57.

101 Pinlac at 308.

102 Comprehensive Study on Child Labor in the Philippines at 56-57. The danger from poisonous agrochemicals has been acknowledged by former Philippines Labor Secretary Nieves Confesor, who noted that more than 2,000 child workers in Benguet, Ifugao, and Mountain Provinces have been exposed to cyanide, a highly poisonous chemical that can damage the lungs. International Child Labor Hearing, U.S. Department of Labor (May 5, 1994) (Statement of International Labor Rights Education and Research Fund) citing "Children Used to Spray Cyanide in Benguet," Manila Chronicle, July 27, 1992.

103 American Embassy-Kuala Lumpur, unclassified telegram no. 2181, April 28, 1995; Jomo K.S., Aini, Ramasamy and Suppiah at 149-151, 162-163.

104 Lee-Wright at 93.

105 Jomo K.S., Aini, Ramasamy and Suppiah at 157.

106 Jomo K.S., Aini, Ramasamy and Suppiah at 160; Suara Sam [Malaysia] (1987) 5; Lee-Wright at 103.

107 Jomo K.S., Aini, Ramasamy and Suppiah at 160.

108 Jomo K.S., Aini, Ramasamy and Suppiah at 148-150; "Plantation Children in Malaysia," Child Workers in Asia, vol. 9 no. 2 (April-June 1993) 18-19; Lee-Wright at 96 [hereinafter "Plantation Children in Malaysia"].

109 Jomo K.S., Aini, Ramasamy and Suppiah at 144.

110 Jomo K.S., Aini, Ramasamy and Suppiah at 150.

111 Suara Sam [Malaysia] (1987) 5.

112 "Plantation Children in Malaysia" at 19.

113 "Plantation Children in Malaysia" at 19.

114 "A Picture of Indochina," Child Workers in Asia, vol. 9 no. 2 (April-June 1993) 19.

115 Abdul Azil Bin Haji Ismail, "Country Paper: Malaysia," in Asian Regional Tripartite Workshop at 254.

116 Jomo K.S., Faculty of Economics and Administration, University of Malaya, letter to the International Child Labor Study, Department of Labor, July 19, 1995 [on file]; American Embassy-Kuala Lumpur, unclassified telegram no. 2181, April 28, 1995.

117 Comprehensive Study on Child Labor in the Philippines, at 57.

118 Maria Anna Mapa, Ramon Lachica, May Angeline Daanoy-Satake, and Violeta Lopez-Gonzaga, Tender Hands that Toil: A Study of the Phenomenon of Child Labor in Northern Negros (Bacolod City: University of St. La Salle, 1990) 11-12 [hereinafter Mapa, Lachica, Daanoy-Satake, and Lopez-Gonzaga].

119 Mapa, Lachica, Daanoy-Satake, and Lopez-Gonzaga at 57.

120 Report of the Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations: General Report and Observations Concerning Particular Countries (Geneva: International Labor Organization, 81st session, 1994) 135.

121 Kerry Richter and Orathai Ard-am, Child Labor in Thailand's Fishing Industry (Salaya, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand: Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University, 1995) Table 1 [hereinafter Richter and Ard-am].

122 Richter and Ard-am, Table 1.

123 Richter and Ard-am at 20-21.

124 Richter and Ard-am at 16.

125 Richter and Ard-am at 21.

126 Richter and Ard-am at Table 4.

127 Richter and Ard-am at 18.

128 Richter and Ard-am at 18-19

129 Richter and Ard-am at 21 and Table 3.

130 Richter and Ard-am at 19.

131 Richter and Ard-am at 20.

132 Chantana Banpasirichote and Amara Pongsapich, Child Workers in Hazardous Work in Thailand (Chulalongkorn University Social Research Institute, 1992) 42-46.

133 American Embassy-Dhaka, unclassified telegram no. 1795, April 12, 1995.

134 American Embassy-Jakarta, unclassified telegram no. 3292, April 13, 1995 [hereinafter Jakarta 3292]. See also Jeff Ballinger, Goods Produced for Export to the United States Using Child Labor in Indonesia (May 1, 1994) 7 [on file]; interview by U.S. Department of Labor official with Dr. David Parker, Occupational Epidemiologist, (March 29, 1995) [on file] [hereinafter Parker interview].

135 The U.S. Embassy Jakarta notes the children are age 15 to 18. See Jakarta 3292. Other reports claim that the average age is 12 but that some boys are as young as 10. See Parker interview.

136 Parker interview.

137 Parker interview.

138 Jakarta 3292.

139 Although the present conflict in Sri Lanka makes it impossible to verify the exact situation in these areas, it has been suggested that the Tamil militants may have destroyed the fishing camps and eliminated child exploitation in this occupation. Goonesekere, writing in 1993, notes "(m)ore recent evidence indicates that children are perhaps no longer employed in the fishing camps." Goonesekere states "it has been suggested that the (Tamil) militants may have used their own method to destroy the fishing camps and eliminate child exploitation in this occupation," but notes that there is no verification of this. S.W.E. Goonesekere, Child Labor in Sri Lanka (Geneva: International Labor Organization, 1993) 9-10 [hereinafter Goonesekere]; See also 1994 Report of the Committee of Experts at 128; and telephone interview by U.S. Department of Labor official with Maureen Seniviratne, Protecting the Environment and Children Everywhere (PEACE), Colombo (June 13, 1995).

140 World Labor Report 1993 at 18.

141 Gooneskere at 9.

142 Centre of Concern for Child Labour, A Summary of Child Labour Report 1992 (New Delhi: Centre of Concern for Child Labour, 1992) 4.

143 Suhas Phadke, "Eleven-year-old girls gets deliverance from sea of bonded labor," Bombay Times, February 14, 1995 [hereinafter Phadke].

144 Phadke.

145 Phadke

146 Comprehensive Study on Child Labor in the Philippines at 56.

147 Rialp at 6-7.

148 Henk Van Oosterhout, "Child Labor in the Philippines: The Muro-ami deep-sea fishing operation," in Combatting Child Labor (Geneva: International Labor Organization, 1988) 111 [hereinafter Van Oosterhout].

149 Van Oosterhout at 114.

150 Van Oosterhout at 111-112.

151 Rialp at 8.

152 Van Oosterhout at 114.

153 Jo Boyden and William Myers, Exploring Alternative Approaches to Combating Child Labor: Case Studies from Developing Countries, Innocenti Essays No. 6 (UNICEF and International Child Development Center, February 1995) 14 [hereinafter Boyden and Myers].

154 State of Human Rights in Pakistan (Lahore: Human Rights Commission of Pakistan, 1994) 121-122 [hereinafter State of Human Rights in Pakistan].

155 State of Human Rights in Pakistan at 122.

156 Debt Bondage of a Philippines Dumagat Community, Anti-Slavery International submission to the U.N. Working Group on Contemporary Forms of Slavery, Sixteenth Session, 1991 [on file] [hereinafter 1991 Anti-Slavery International submission].

157 1991 Anti-Slavery International submission.

158 The Enslavement of Indigenous Peoples, Anti-Slavery International submission to the U.N. Working Group on Contemporary Forms of Slavery, Nineteenth Session, April 1994 [on file].

159 Lee-Wright at 73.

160 Recent Developments in the Plantation Sector at 50.

161 American Embassy-Kuala Lumpur, unclassified telegram no. 2181, April 28, 1995.

162 Pharis J. Harvey and Lauren Riggin, Trading Away the Future (Washington, D.C.: International Labor Rights Education and Research Fund, 1994) 46-47.

163 Joseph Gathia, Centre of Concern for Child Labor, letter to the International Child Labor Study, Department of Labor, April 18, 1994 [on file].

164 American Embassy-New Delhi, unclassified telegram no. 5146, April 18, 1995.

165 The Rights of Children in Guatemala, Submission of the International Federation of Human Rights to the United Nations Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/199/NGO/15 at 3.

166 American Embassy-Tegucigalpa, unclassified telegram no. 2267, April 10, 1995.

167 American Embassy-San Salvador, unclassified telegram no. 2667, April 11, 1995.

168 American Embassy-San Jose, unclassified telegram no. 2385, April 17, 1995.

169 American Embassy-Brasilia, unclassified telegram no. 2904, May 16, 1995.

170 News From Brazil, Number 172, March 30, 1995.

171 Bóias-frias literally means "cold food," referring to temporary and underemployed workers in rural areas who carry their food to work and are forced to eat cold food. "Volantes" means "in movement," and refers to temporary workers who are hired for a single harvest season and must then continue to look for new jobs in other places.

172 José Cesar Gnaccarini, "O Trabalho Infantil Agrícola na Era da Alta Tecnologia," in Martins, José de Souza (ed.) Massacre dos Inocentes - A Criança sem Infância no Brasil (São Paulo: Hucitec, 1993) 81-116.

173 International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, Breaking Down the Walls of Silence (Brussels: International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, 1985) 16 [Breaking Down the Wall of Silence].

174 Jocelyn Boyden, "Working Children in Lima, Peru," in William Myers, ed., Protecting Working Children (London: Zed Press and UNICEF, 1991) 25.

175 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1994 (U.S. Department of State, February 1995) 390 [hereinafter Country Reports].

176 Country Reports at 496.

177 International Child Labor Hearing, U.S. Department of Labor (May 5, 1994) (Statement of International Labor Rights Education and Research Fund), citing "Peru: Child Workers to Receive Social Security, Right to Unions," InterPress Service, Lima, Peru, December 10, 1992.

178 "Peru," report by the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, n.d. [on file].

179 U.S. Department of Labor and the Mexican Secretariat of Labor and Social Welfare, A Report on Child Labor in Mexico and the United States (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor and the Mexican Secretariat of Labor and Social Welfare, 1992) 10, 12.

180 American Embassy-Mexico City, unclassified telegram no. 12769, June 16, 1995; Lee-Wright at 246-248.

181 American Embassy-Guatemala City, unclassified telegram no. 3370, April 26, 1995.

182 Children Without Childhood: Violations of Children's Right in Guatemala (Children's Rights International, 1990) 22 [hereinafter Children Without Childhood].

183 Children Without Childhood at 21.

184 American Embassy-Guatemala City, unclassified telegram no. 3370, April 26, 1995.

185 American Embassy-Tegucigalpa, unclassified telegram no. 2267, April 10, 1995.

186 Lee-Wright at 247.

187 Lee-Wright at 247-8.

188 American Embassy-Mexico City, unclassified telegram no. 12769, June 16, 1995; Lee-Wright at 246-248.

189 American Embassy-Brasilia, unclassified telegram no. 2904, May 16, 1995.

190 News From Brazil, Number 172, March 30, 1995.

191 Iolanda Huzak and Jô Azevedo, Crianças de Fibra, (Brasilia: International Labor Organization, 1994) 34 [hereinafter Huzak and Azevedo].

192 Unclassified letter from American Consulate-Sao Paulo to the International Child Labor Study (June 26, 1995) [hereinafter Sao Paulo letter][on file], citing a 1994 study by the Central Unico dos Trabalhadores ("CUT" - National Trade Union Congress).

193 American Embassy-Tegucigalpa, unclassified telegram no. 2267, April 10, 1995.

194 Huzak and Azevedo at 61.

195 Huzak and Azevedo at 59-61.

196 Resin is used to make products such as paper, ink, gum, and soap.

197 Huzak and Azevedo at 111.

198 Huzak and Azevedo at 139.

199 American Embassy-Brasilia, unclassified telegram no. 2904, May 16, 1995.

200 Huzak and Azevedo at 132, 135, 139, and 145.

201 Huzak and Azevedo at 12.

202 Irandi Pereira and Maria do Carmo Brant Carvalho, Trabalho do Adolescente: Mitos e Dilemas (São Paulo: Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo, 1993) 57 [hereinafter Pereira and Carvalho].

203 Tereza Cristina Wanderley Corrêa de Araujo, Nanci Lourenço, and Álvaro Antônio Vieira de Mello, Trabalhadores Invisíveis: Crianças e Adolescentes dos Canaviais de Pernambuco. (Recife, Pernambuco: Centro Josué de Castro, 1994) 38 [hereinafter Araujo, Lourenço, and Vieira de Mello].

204 Pereira and Carvalho at 57.

205 Araujo, Lourenço, and Vieira de Mello at 40 and Pesquisa Sobre as Atividades Laborativas de Crianças e Adolescentes no Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro: Centro de Articulação de Populaçoes Marginalizadas [CEAP], 1993) 75-76.

206 Araujo, Lourenço, and Vieira de Mello at 8.

207 Araujo, Lourenço, and Vieira de Mello at 10.

208 Araujo, Lourenço, and Vieira de Mello at 29.

209 Araujo, Lourenço, and Vieira de Mello at 31-32.

210 Cícero Belmar, "Menores São Explorados nos Canaviais," Jornal do Brasil, September 21, 1991.

211 Araujo, Lourenço, and Vieira de Mello at 37.

212 Cícero Belmar, "Menores São Explorados nos Canaviais," Jornal do Brasil, September 21, 1991.

213 Huzak and Azevedo at 18.

214 Araujo, Lourenço, and Vieira de Mello at 37.

215 Ari Cipola, "Crianças Trabalham Ilegalmente em Canaviais," Folha de São Paulo, October 21, 1991.

216 Iúri Totti, Jornal do Brasil, December 28, 1990.

217 Brazil's minimum wage in July 1995 was 100 Real (approximately $100) per month.

218 Huzak and Azevedo at 12.

219 Análise de Situaçoes e Recomendaçoes - Agroindústria Sucro Alcooleira de Campos - RJ (Brasilia, D.F.: Forum Nacional de Prevenção e Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil, 1995) 6.

220 Versão Preliminar da Análise de Situação do Trabalho Indígena nas Usinas de Álcool de Mato Grosso do Sul (Brasilia: Forum Nacional de Prevencaso e Erradicacas do Trabalho Infantil, 1995) 1-2 [hereinafter Forum Nacional]. Children also were found working at 8 distilleries in the region that process the sugar cane and turn it into alcohol.

221 Forum Nacional at 1-2.

222 Conflitos no Campo 1994 (Brazil: Brazilian Land Pastoral Commission, 1995) 31. See also American Consulate-Sao Paulo, unclassified telegram no. 1872, June 27, 1995.

223 American Embassy-Guatemala, unclassified telegram no. 3370, April 26, 1995.

224 Huzak and Azevedo at 38 and 43.

225 Huzak and Azevedo at 37, 45.

226 Huzak and Azevedo at 62.

227 Huzak and Azevedo at 65, 67-68.

228 Alison Sutton, Slavery in Brazil (London: Anti-Slavery International, 1994) 84 [hereinafter Sutton].

229 Sutton at 82. See also Eugênio José Guilherme de Aragão, Is the Brazilian Barracão-Regime Consistent with International Safeguards Against Slavery?, Research Essay in International Human Rights Law, University of Essex (1994) 6 [on file] [hereinafter Guilherme de Aragão].

230 Guilherme de Aragão at 6. In recent years rubber tappers have resisted such a system; but it persists in remote areas. See also Sutton at 77.

231 Guilherme de Aragão at 6-7; Sutton at 84-86.

232 Sutton at 83.

233 Sutton at 75.

234 American Embassy-Guatemala, unclassified telegram no. 3370, April 26, 1995.